The Use Of Charts In Teaching Of Biology In Secondary Schools

Biology Education Project Material

The Use Of Charts In Teaching Of Biology In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study was carried out to determine the extent charts are used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools; examine the impact of the use of charts on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools; and determine the effect of using charts to teach on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers and students of six selected secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 107 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that Biology teachers does not utilize charts as frequent as possible to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between the use of charts and students’ performance in Biology. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should adopt CHARTS instruction in Biology classroom since learning by observation, which charts instruction entails, could offer itself an effective instructive strategy whereby students build models through guided activities. This offers even the low-ability students the opportunity to have more impressive conceptual gains. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Instructional resources are incredibly crucial in teaching especially for new teachers. Instructional materials according to Faurant (1975) are resources employed by an instructors which let students understand the teacher or that enable students internalize what is being put across to them.

Teachers rely on instructional materials in every element of teaching. They need materials for background information on the subject they are teaching young instructors normally have not built up their experience when ever they enter to the profession. Teachers often use instructional resources for lesson planning these products are also needed by teachers to test the understanding of their pupils (Sotayo 2010). (Sotayo 2010).

People learn in different ways. Some people are extra ordinary good at recalling knowledge delivered to them orally (i.e. via a lecture) whereas others absorb and retain a large deal of information through visual stimulants or signals.
Repetition works for a lot of folks as well. Most people however required a combination of the aforesaid method which can comprise audio visual materials books and even actual application. These are a fantastic tool for insuring that students have the best possible opportunity to recall the information being provided to them.

With the advancement in knowledge and proliferation of a wide variety of chart there have been improvement imports on our scope of knowledge attitude and ways of perception the impact according to (Emma, 2001) is evident in the manner the school and scientists respond to local and international issue communication to them through the various media.

In teaching and learning of science, we regularly employ diagrams. There are countless photos, photographs, schematic diagrams and realistic drawings on each page of biology textbooks and they are a large element of teachers’ classroom education (Pozzer and Roth 2003 ; Roth et al. 1999 ). (Pozzer and Roth 2003 ; Roth et al. 1999). Such frequent usage of diagrams is not simply because they are a great visual addition to textual explanation of science concepts, but because they are a vital role in producing and communicating scientific facts and processes (Lynch 1990). (Lynch 1990). Scientific diagrams are often the results of a thorough process of selecting, enhancing, and connecting key parts of a scientific phenomenon, and they can explain the concepts in their own sophisticated ways (Lynch 1990). (Lynch 1990). However, comprehending scientific ideas using diagrams is not as simple as we frequently imagine. Using diagrams to learn science efficiently can be tough for pupils. For example, Novick (2006) has found that in order to understand what diagrams depict, students need sufficient understanding in both scientific content and diagrammatic standards. As cognitive science continues to explore the complicated mechanisms by which people learn with visual representations, we as educational researchers investigated how visual representations are actually employed in school settings for teaching and learning (Gilbert 2008 ; Kozma 2003).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The world as a whole and emerging countries in particular are continuously faced with huge educational issues which the standard classroom environment and learning methods cannot cope with. Most students understand better with the use of diagrams, charts etc in the teaching of science disciplines especially biology (Emma, 2001). (Emma, 2001). Hence this study seeks to determine the use of charts in the teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools.

Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent charts are used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
  2. To examine the impact of the use of charts on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools.
  3. To determine the effect of using charts to teach on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

  1. To what extent are charts used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools?
  2. What are the impact of the use of charts on students learning and understanding of Biology in Secondary schools?
  3. Does the use of charts to teach have effect on the academic performance of students in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of charts has no significant influence on students’ learning and understanding of Biology in Secondary schools.
  • Ha: The use of charts has a significant influence on students’ learning and understanding of Biology in Secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be greatly significant to the government through the ministry of education as the need for provision of necessary instructional materials to schools will be seen. It will motivate parents to provide basic requirements of practical lesson(s) for their children in secondary schools and also this convince the science teachers that charts and diagrams are mostly essential for effective teaching and learning of other science subjects like biology, chemistry, physics, agriculture and to say mathematics. Finally, this study would contribute empirically to the body of existing literature and it would serve as a reference source to students or other researchers who might want to carry out their research on the similar topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools. Specifically, it will focus on determining the extent charts are used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools, examining the impact of the use of charts on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools and determining the effects of using charts to teach on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

Selected secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State will serve as participants for the survey.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools. Specifically, it will also be limited to determining the extent charts are used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools, examining the impact of the use of charts on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools and determining the effects of using charts to teach on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

Selected secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State will serve as participants for the survey. This serves as a delimitation to this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Charts:

A sheet of information in the form of a table, graph, or diagram. The term chart will be used interchangeably with diagram and models in the course of this study

Teaching:

The occupation, profession, or work of a teacher.

Biology:

The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the use of charts in teaching of biology in secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent charts are used in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools; examine the impact of the use of charts on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools; and determine the effect of using charts to teach on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were biology teachers and students of six selected secondary schools in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Biology teachers does not utilize charts as frequent as possible to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school in Dunuokofia Local Government Area of Anambra State.
  2. The use of charts has a significant impact on the learning of Biology in Secondary schools.
  3. There is a significant relationship between the use of charts and students’ performance in Biology.
  4. The use of charts during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and academic performance.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. It is the educators’ primary responsibility to design engaging and nurturing learning environment that will help the students attain their maximum potential.
  2. The students especially, young learners would need their teacher to provide guidance and to facilitate the learning journey. This teacher should know when to relinquish the control and little by little allow the learners to gain more autonomy to express their learning among their peers and to the teacher. This is possible when the teacher will always consider the needs of the students at all times.
  3. The school principal should monitor the teachers’ learning media, especially Biology teachers, as an effort to improve students’ academic engagement.
  4. Training activities on learning models/approach should be carried out more frequently, especially related to biological materials.

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