Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells

Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Project and Seminar Material for Physics


Abstract


This study was carried out on the characterization of microwave activated carbon derived from the mixture of palm kernel and coconut shells. Activated carbons were prepared from coconut and Palm kernel shells. The samples were carbonized and chemically activated using 0.1M H3PO4, 0.1M NaOH and 0.1M ZnCl2 as the activating agents. The adsorption capacities of activated carbons prepared were determined using different standard solutions of the Bromophenol Blue and Congo red solutions. Values of solute adsorb ranging from 1.9mg – 0.2mg and 1.98-1.30g were obtained for Bromophenol blue and Congo red respectively. Activated carbon prepared from coconut shell compare favourably well with commercial activated carbon (CAC) than the one prepared from palm kernel shell. The ash content and the fixed carbon were 94 and 60% respectively. Coconut shell has a higher fixed carbon content. In terms of adsorptivity and percentage fixed carbon, H3PO4 activated coconut shell carbon (PCA) was found to be superior to other activated carbon where NaOH and ZnCl2 had been used as activating agents and it is also superior to the one prepared from palm kernel shell. The nature of the raw material from which the carbon is prepared, the activating reagent used and the nature of the solute material being adsorbed are considered as the factors favouring the performance of PCA.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Justification Of Research Work
  • 1.5 Scope Of The Research
  • 1.6 Limitation

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Characterization Of Activated Carbon
  • 2.2 Characterization Techniques
  • 2.3 Processing Of Activated Carbon
  • 2.4 Factors Affecting Microwave Assisted Activated Carbon Production

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Collection Samples
  • 3.2 Preparation Of Activated Carbon
  • 3.3 Analysis Of The Activated Carbon Samples

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Activated carbon has been known as the most effective and useful adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from polluted gas and liquid streams. This is due to the properties of activated carbons which have a large active surface area which can provide high adsorption capacity, well developed porous structures and good mechanical properties [1, 2]. In addition, activated carbon is most widely used since most of its chemical (e.g. surface groups) and physical properties (e.g. surface area and pore size distribution) can be designed and adjusted according to the required application [3]. Besides, the adsorption on activated carbon appears to be most common techniques because of its simplicity of operation since the sorbents material can be made highly efficient, easy to handle and in some cases they can be regenerated [4].

The most common precursors used for the preparation of activated carbons are organic materials that are rich in carbon. Therefore, the development of methods to reuse waste materials as activated carbons is greatly desired and offers a promising future. Agricultural wastes, such as jatropha, corn cob, coconut shell, oil palm fiber, wood sawdust and date stone are of interest to be converted into activated carbons because of their hardness and high strength in which these desired properties are due to its high lignin, high carbon content and low ash content of the materials [2, 5]. Therefore, in this study, palm kernel shell and coconut shell were chosen as a precursor for the production of activated carbon since both of them are abundantly available and has very low market value.

Activated carbons are an extremely versatile, carbonaceous material with high surface area and can be develop into various porosity and used for applications such as for industrial wastewater and gas treatment. The precursor for production of activated carbon, from utilization of agricultural and forestry product has increase in recent years because of their abundance, availability and low price [1]. Due to their excellent adsorption capability, it is widely used for commercial and in industries. The high adsorptive capacity of activated carbon is associated with its internal porosity and others properties such as surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution. The process of activated carbon production begins with the selection of a raw carbon source, which normally comes from agriculture and industrial waste. The most common raw sources are wood, sawdust, lignite, peat, coal, coconut shells, and petroleum residues [2]. They can be treated and developed to be a new product and in turn can reduce environmental pollution.

The most frequent method used for the preparation of activated carbon is the carbonization of the precursors at high temperature in an inert atmosphere followed by the activation process. The activation process is subdivided into physical and chemical. Physical activation process comprises treatment of char obtained from carbonization with oxidizing gases, generally steam or carbon dioxide at high temperature (400-1000oC) [6]. In the chemical activation process, the starting material is mixed with an activation reagent and the mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere [7, 8]. This process is usually done at lower temperature and activation time, higher producing surface area and better porosity as compared to physical activation.

In the last few decades, development on microwave equipments and usage has grown rapidly. Microwave-induced nowadays is a new technique which finds other application in the areas of material sciences, food processing, telecommunication, analytical science, wood drying, plastic and rubber treatment [3]. To date, microwave energy has been widely used in several fields of applications on both research and industrial processes. In particular, microwave heating or induce can arise from direct interaction of matter with electromagnetic energy. Vast interest in materials science and processing have offers a number of potential advantages over conventional heating. The main advantage of using microwave is that the treatment time can be considerably reduced and economical. In many cases, it represents a reduction in the energy consumption and green chemistry.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Activated carbon is an amorphous form of carbon, microcrystalline, non-graphitic in nature, a product of carbonization and activation of carbonaceous material which has been specially treated so that it possesses a very high internal porosity due to large surface area (Bansal et al, 1988; Debussy, 1992). A vast number of materials can be used to produce activated carbon; almost any organic matter with a large percentage of carbon could theoretically be activated to enhance its sorptive characteristics. Two distinct types of activated carbon recognized commercially are: (i) Liquid-phase carbon and (ii) Gas-phase carbon (Doyin, 1988). The three major processes of producing activated carbon are: Carbonization, purification and activation (Bansal et al, 1988). According to Bansal, the effectiveness of activated carbon as an adsorbent is attributed to its unique properties, including large surface area, a high degree of surface reactivity, universal adsorption effect, and a favourable pore size (Ogbonaya, 1992). Activated carbons are used for the following: Sugar decolourization, Solvent and solution reclamation, refining of oil and fat, removal of impurities, water purification, metal ions removal, decolourizing, drying and degumming of petroleum fractions, removal of industrial odour, removal of small quantities of radioactive contaminant (Fadil et al, 1994; Kardiravela and Namsasivayan, 2003; Francisco et al, 2010). Owing to this universal usefulness and large applications, research on the use of activated carbon has attracted the interest of different scientists. Activated carbon prepared from cocos and elaeis family has been found suitable for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants (Rahman et al, 2006; Olayinka et al, 2009; Francisco et al, 2010).


1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

This paper discusses the characterization of microwave activated carbon from coconut shell and palm kernel shell as low cost absorbent using orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) as activating agents. Their adsorption capacities were carried out by the removal of Bromophenol blue and Congo red dyes. The following objectives will guide in achieving the aforementioned aim:

  1. To evaluate the activation power and time for the production of activated carbon from the mixture of the coconut shells and palm kernel shells.
  2. To evaluate the preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell and palm kernel shell using orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) as activating agents
  3. To characterize the activated carbon produced in terms of elemental composition, adsorption capacity, surface functionality, pore size and phase composition

1.4 Justification Of Research Work

This study focuses on the characterization of microwave activated carbon from the mixture of coconut shell and palm kernel shell and is aimed at addressing effective ways of removing impurities from drinking water. This study will seek to improve the process water purification using local agricultural waste byproducts of coconut shell and palm kernel shell to produce a low-tech, chemically activated carbon that could be used in conjunction with existing purification technologies or as a stand-alone treatment option.


1.5 Scope Of The Research

In this research, the samples will be carbonized and chemically activated using 0.1M H3PO4, 0.1M NaOH and 0.1M ZnCl2 as the activating agents. The adsorption capacities of activated carbons prepared will also be determined using different standard solutions of the Bromophenol Blue and Congo red solutions. The parameters of the microwave activated carbon produced will include adsorptivity and percentage fixed carbon.


1.6 Limitation

This study focuses on overcoming the apparent limitations of conventional heating methods by developing alternative heating methods; however, it is limited to the use of microwave activated carbon from coconut shell and palm kernel shell as absorbents. Further studies would be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of other heating methods.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The activated carbon derived from coconut shell activated with orthophosphoric acid (PCA) showed the greatest adsorption capacity and its adsorption capacity is comparable with that of commercial activated charcoal. However, in bromophenol blue solution, ZCA showed the lowest adsorption capacity while in Congo red solution KKA showed the lowest adsorption capacity. The results of this study show that the magnitude of adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be influenced by various factors such as raw material from which the carbon is prepared, activating reagents used and nature of the solute material being adsorbed (i.e. the adsorbate like bromophenol blue solution).The percentage ash and the percentage fixed carbon were estimated and activated carbon produced form coconut shell, PCA was observed to have the highest percentage fixed carbon. In this research, it can be concluded that PCA was the best of all the samples, this report agreed with report of (Odebunmi and Okeola, 2001).


5.2 Recommendation

Based on the result, the following are recommended.

  1. Investigation on effect of varying impregnation time and activation temperature on adsorption performance should be carried out
  2. Other chemical activating agents should be tested in order to diversify the activating agent that can be use for chemical activation
  3. The prepared samples should be employed for removal of impurities in water
  4. Surface area and pore volumes should be determined for the prepared samples

Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells


Disclaimer

This research material “Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Characterization Of Microwave Activated Carbon Derived From The Mixture Of Palm Kernel And Coconut Shells” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.