Challenges Of Waste Collection And Management In Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Challenges Of Waste Collection And Management In Port Harcourt, Rivers State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the challenges of waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of Rivers State Waste Management Agency located at Port-Harcout. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the societal challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt include; the unplanned nature of municipalities, increasing waste generation due to population increases, increase in informal settlements, lack of urban planning, congestion in cities, lack of residents’ environmental awareness, and poor attitude of residents towards waste management. The study also revealed that the operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt include; lack of access to waste collection, inadequate funding. inadequate provision of facilities and equipment, poor maintenance of available facilities, limited human capacity, lack of adequate technical know-how among personnel, lack adequate training, and low capacity to discharge duties. In the light of the findings, this study recommends that the Federal and state government should ensure ample budgetary allocation of funds for the purpose of waste management and put up an appropriate structure to guide the activities of each state in the management of solid wastes. And private sector participation in solid waste management should be encouraged by each state to improve the efficiency of the process. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa with over 160 million populations, has witnessed a rapid population growth over the past decades providing a large market for manufacturing industries and organizations. These industries provide goods and services to the citizenry and consequent wastes generated after the usage of these goods are enormous (Seo et al., 2004; Schwarz et al., 2005; Olukanni, 2013). However, the lack of proper and comprehensive waste collection system has hindered effective sanitation, thus the citizenry reeling under indiscipline and haphazard way of dumping refuse in an objectionable manner. The waste generated include refuse from households, nonhazardous solid waste from industries, commercial and institutional establishments (including hospitals), market waste, yard waste, and street sweepings. The general practice in most places has been indiscriminate disposal of solid waste thereby creating unsanitary environments in many part of the country. In addition, the waste disposal site is faced with poorly developed dumping ground that is potentially threatening to public and environmental health (Ayotamuno and Gobo, 2004; Olukanni et al., 2014; Olukanni and Mnenga, 2015).

The quantity and type of waste found in an area depend on a number of prevailing factors which are unique to each area (Birly and Lock, 1998; Olukanni, 2013). Pressure on the local environment is caused by the growing population and some of the influencing factors are witnessed in the form of economy, environment, infrastructure, and social, technical, and quality of the waste. However, basic aspects of sustainable waste management are protection of man and environment, economic compatibility, and social compatibility (Li, 2007). Tahir et al. (2015) identified urbanization, change in consumption patterns, industrialization, economic growth, and per capita income as the influencers of solid waste generation. The collection and transportation of these solid wastes usually accounts for the bulk of Municipal budget spending and these processes are known to have the greatest impact on urban living (UN Habitat, 2010).

Solid waste management as a whole has thus emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing State and Local Government Environmental Protection Agencies in Nigeria. More wastes are produced with fast increase in population and urbanization which consequently place great pressure on the waste managers. The World Bank, in its report in 2005, expressed that there is a need for consistent national policies on municipal solid waste legislation which should encourage cross-jurisdictions and inter-agency coordination, and facilitate implementation of economic instruments for improving waste management. However, Li (2007) objects that waste management strategies cannot be implemented without the support of legislative framework which should have a series of ordinances and regulations aimed at managing solid waste, including procedures and methodologies for monitoring and enforcing the regulations.

The importance of solid waste collection and management as a whole cannot be overemphasized. The collection of solid waste is an integral part of solid waste management (SWM). Its effectiveness is initiated by both public and private sectors which is largely controlled by location, ability, and willingness of the owner of the waste (waste generator) to pay the amount charged. SWC involves the initial collection on house-to-house basis, collection from industrial and business outlets, roadside sweeping, removal of garbage from open drainages, including collection from other waste generating points. This initial collection is effectively carried out when the necessary equipment are provided and utilized. The applicable equipment may include: bins, brooms, shovel, carts, etc.

The effectiveness of collection is enhanced through strategic allocation of bins within the managed region. The bins could be available either for general or initial-on-site sorted collection. The advanced stage of collection involves heavier and costlier equipment and man-power. Equipment such as waste vehicles are chosen in a way that maximizes operational demands. According to Coad (2011), collection equipment which is purchased in large numbers, in many cases, is either been under-utilized or never lived out their entire life spans. Areas experiencing greater waste generation with lack of appropriate technology to manage them or haphazard method of disposing solid wastes are more likely to encounter degradation in the quality of air in such locations which have harmful effects on human health and several other problems. These problems include disease transmission, odor, nuisance, pollution (atmosphere, land and water), fire hazards, aesthetical nuisance, and economic losses as identified (Aliu et al., 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Globalization and urbanization are being experienced in various parts of the Nigeria today. These have led to an increase in population in urban areas and its consequence is witnessed in an increase in waste generation (Ukpong and Udofia, 2011; Olukanni and Akinyinka, 2012; Tahir et al., 2015). Nigeria as a developing countries have solid waste management problems, different from those found in developed countries, in areas of composition, density, waste amount, access to waste collection, awareness and attitudes, and political and economic framework. However, in developing countries such as Nigeria, the major existing challenge is in coping with the volume of waste generated. Available facilities and equipment to cater for the wastes generated are insufficient, coupled with inadequate awareness and technical knowhow, uncoordinated institutional functions, poor data information for planning, poor regulatory framework that is manifested in lack of interest of private sector investment in service delivery (infrastructure), low political will, low capacity to discharge duties, and wrong attitude of waste generator amongst others (Abila and Kantola, 2013; Olukanni et al., 2014; Olukanni and Mnenga, 2015). As a result of the lack of proper and comprehensive waste collection system has hindered effective sanitation, thus the citizenry reeling under indiscipline and haphazard way of dumping refuse in an objectionable manner. In the of the above, this study seek to unveil the challenges affecting waste collection and management in Nigeria with specific focus on Port-Harcourt metropolis.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the challenges of waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the societal challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt.
  2. Identify the operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt.
  3. Ascertain whether increase in waste generation affects the health and psychological well-being of residents.
  4. Make recommendations that will help to manage the situation in Port Harcourt.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions derived from the objectives of the study;

  1. What are the societal challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt?
  2. What are the operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt?
  3. Does the increase in waste generation affects the health and psychological well-being of residents?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be overstated. Fore-mostly the study will communicate the existing waste technologies in use in Nigeria and provide information on the current local factors that inhibit the successful collection of wastes generated by citizens, and give recommendation on how effective waste collection could be achieved. The outcome of this study will provide policymakers with necessary information to help make quality and cost effective decisions.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the challenges of waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the challenges of waste collection and management, with specific focus on the societal and operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt.
The participants for this study will be obtained from Rivers State Waste Management Agency located at Port-Harcout.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Solid Waste:

Any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the challenges of waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the challenges of waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

The study is was specifically set to identify the societal challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, identify the operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt, ascertain whether increase in waste generation affects the health and psychological well-being of residents, and make recommendations that will help to manage the situation in Port Harcourt.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Rivers State Waste Management Agency located at Port-Harcout.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The societal challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt include; the unplanned nature of municipalities, increasing waste generation due to population increases, increase in informal settlements, lack of urban planning, congestion in cities, lack of residents’ environmental awareness, and poor attitude of residents towards waste management.
  2. The operational challenges affecting waste collection and management in Port Harcourt include; lack of access to waste collection, inadequate funding. inadequate provision of facilities and equipment, poor maintenance of available facilities, limited human capacity, lack of adequate technical know-how among personnel, lack adequate training, and low capacity to discharge duties
  3. The increase in waste generation affects the health and psychological well-being of residents.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. The Federal and state government should ensure ample budgetary allocation of funds for the purpose of waste management and put up an appropriate structure to guide the activities of each state in the management of solid wastes.
  2. Private sector participation in solid waste management should be encouraged by each state to improve the efficiency of the process.
  3. Stricter policies should be put in place and punitive measures should be enforced in order to instill discipline.
  4. Orientations and reorientations should be held regularly to adequately inform the public on the need for proper solid waste practices
  5. Waste generators should be involved in the solid waste management process by enforcing at-source sorting of wastes before collection and methods of reducing waste generation should also be encouraged.
  6. A structure for re-use and recycle should be put in place, and measures for turning wastes into wealth should be introduced with attractive benefits which would encourage the public to participate in the solid waste management process as a whole.
  7. Attempts should be made to improve operational conditions of the State Service Providers (SSP) including provision of adequate funds to cover costs of operation and maintenance of the vehicles and other facilities and equipment.
  8. Government should procure smaller trucks to access areas of poor infrastructure and introduction of more community Waste Depot in poor communities.
  9. Sustainability of public enlightenment on proper waste management, and application of sanction where necessary.
  10. There should be continuous support of the State Governments for waste collection in poor communities, social institutions, and Markets.

Challenges Of Waste Collection And Management In Port Harcourt, Rivers State


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