Challenges In Teaching Visually Impaired Students (A Case Study Of Special Education Centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State)

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Challenges In Teaching Visually Impaired Students (A Case Study Of Special Education Centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the challenges in teaching visually impaired students using special education centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to examine learn more about the difficulties that teachers experience when teaching visually impaired children, determine the extent to which teachers are familiar with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments, and learn about the teaching methods used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers in special education centre, Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the difficulties teachers do experience when teaching visually impaired children include; lack of appropriate braille skills to support pupils with visual impairment in inclusive classroom, lack of adequate teaching and learning materials, difficulty in getting parents to discuss vital information about pupils with visual impairment, lack of access to brailled text books for pupils with visual impairment, and poor physical environment.The study also revealed that the teaching methods are used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students are the cooperative learning, interactive read aloud, and guided reading.Therefore, it is recommended that thegovernment of Nigeria should improve supply of teaching and learning materials Brailled textbooks as well as assistive devices. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education has a significant impact on both individuals and society. It is all about knowledge in education. Teachers are the keepers of knowledge. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) stated that no educational standard can surpass the caliber of its professors. Teachers are defined by Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary (WCD, 2013) as “one who teaches, especially one whose occupation is teaching.” Teaching (W.C.D.) is the act of imparting knowledge, instructing, directing, and demonstrating by precept or example. It is a profession to teach. According to the National Teachers Institute (NTI, 2000), a profession is any occupation that requires all employees to have extensive and specialized knowledge, abilities, and attitudes in order to provide a specific community contribution. A teacher’s service is required in every community. Individuals that choose education make up a community. Primary school is the first stage of education for most students. Primary education objectives, according to FRN (2013), include (a) permanent literacy, numeracy, and the ability to communicate effectively; (b) laying a solid foundation for scientific, critical, and reflective thinking; and (c) providing opportunities for the child to develop life’s manipulative skills that will enable the child to function effectively in society within the limits of the child’s ability. The following topics must be introduced to students.Among the students are all children with special needs.Special education, according to FRN (2013; 65), is “a personalized educational curriculum designed to satisfy the unique needs of people with special needs that general education can not meet.” FRN went on to say that people with special needs should be able to receive inclusive education services at schools where regular students go, in age-appropriate special education classes supervised by special teachers. Pupils with vision impairment are among those with special needs. Blind and partially sighted people were identified as people with visual impairment by FRN (2013). As a result, an inclusive education is said to benefit them.

In Chukuka (2013), Ozoji defined inclusive education as a program that allows children with impairments to attend regular school with other children. Inclusion education is the process of normalizing learning conditions for students with disabilities so that they can learn and thrive alongside their able-bodied peers in school and in the community. Today, there appears to be skepticism about the viability of inclusive education. It should come as no surprise that FRN (2013; 66) stated that special needs students who are unable to benefit from inclusive education, special classes, or units should continue to attend special schools…The preceding threw the popular push for inclusive education into disarray. Not only that, but there’s more. In the face of today’s technological growth, it is critical to address teachers’ professional preparedness for inclusivity, according to WCD (2013). Technology is the application of science to the arts.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is a popular campaign for universal education. The idea of segregating people with visual impairments has been lobbied against, and inclusive education is now the in-thing. Visually impaired students should be in the same classroom as sighted students. In an inclusive setting, teaching and learning are supposed to be result-oriented, with trained teachers using resources and educational technological facilities to teach them. There appears to be some skepticism about how the above works. In the state in question, the inclusion of visually impaired students in elementary schools appears to be failing. Teachers appear to be unprepared for a much-valued inclusive education, as evidenced by their lack of professional and technical development readiness. Teachers’ preparedness in terms of having a solid background in the principles and practices of inclusive education, as well as developed abilities for using modern educational technologies to teach students with visual impairment, should be explored. The researchers found no literature that addressed the above to evaluate inclusive settings for kids with vision impairment at school in Cross River State, Nigeria. Because the aforementioned is regarded as a significant development, inclusive education will remain a pipe dream for students with visual impairment, who will be disappointed, helpless, and despondent. Because the teachers from whom they should learn are unprepared, they may not be able to receive a quality and equal education, and they may not be able to adapt to the 21st century technology era.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine challenges in teaching visually impaired students (a case study of special education centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State). The other specific objectives includes:

  1. To learn more about the difficulties that teachers experience when teaching visually impaired children,
  2. Determine the extent to which teachers are familiar with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments.
  3. To learn about the teaching methods used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What difficulties do teachers experience when teaching visually impaired children?
  2. What level of familiarity do teachers have with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments?
  3. What teaching methods are used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students?

1.5 Research hypotheses

HO1: The extent to which teachers are familiar with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments is low.

HO2: The extent to which teachers are familiar with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments is high.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of research, Several other unique issues, as they are discussed in this study, may provide guidance in evaluating the gap between policy and practical uses of special education in Enugu’s educational system. In this light, the new study has the potential to not only expand special education research in terms of teaching and learning, but also to offer researchers detailed information about the specific obstacles that visually impaired students have when learning high school mathematics. The study’s findings may have larger implications for teachers, parents, policymakers, and large-scale project managers. Teachers, parents, policymakers, and large-scale project managers can benefit from this study by learning about the distinctive learning styles of visually impaired kids.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on challenges in teaching visually impaired students (a case study of special education centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State).


1.7 Limitation of Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.8 Definition of Terms

Challenges:

A call for someone to participate in a competitive situation or fight to decide who is superior in terms of ability or strength.

Teaching:

The occupation, profession, or work of a teacher.

Visually Impaired:

Partially or completely blind.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the challenges in teaching visually impaired students using special education centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the challenges in teaching visually impaired students using special education centre Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to examine learn more about the difficulties that teachers experience when teaching visually impaired children, determine the extent to which teachers are familiar with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments, and learn about the teaching methods used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 70 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers in special education centre, Oji River, Enugu, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The difficulties teachers do experience when teaching visually impaired children include; lack of appropriate braille skills to support pupils with visual impairment in inclusive classroom, lack of adequate teaching and learning materials, difficulty in getting parents to discuss vital information about pupils with visual impairment, lack of access to brailled text books for pupils with visual impairment, and poor physical environment.
  2. The level of teachers familiarity with the principles and practices of inclusive education for students with visual impairments is low.
  3. Teaching methods are used by teachers while engaging with visually impaired students are the cooperative learning, interactive read aloud, and guided reading.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The government of Nigeria should improve supply of teaching and learning materials Brailled textbooks as well as assistive devices.
  2. Donations from Non-Governmental Organisations and philanthropists should be welcomed.
  3. Teachers’ should involve parents in planning the Individualised Educational Plan (IEP) of their wards to aid in decision making.
  4. Regular classroom teachers should also be given some basic Braille skills to enable them assist pupils with visual impairment in their classrooms in the absence of the resource teachers.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the challenges of inclusive teaching for visually impaired students?

They themselves experience challenges of inclusive teaching. The inadequacy of teacher education gives rise to challenges within the course of acquisition of education by the visually impaired students (Mwakyeja, 2013). education. Visually impaired students do experience problems in listening, speaking, reading,

What is visual impairment in education?

Visual impairment is categorised into blind and low vision. The loss of vision imposes limitations upon students. Learners with visual order to perform well academically. The academic performance of the visually impaired academic concepts, but also in the performance of assignments and in taking exams. The (Agesa, 2014). impaired students.

What are the challenges faced by people who are visually impaired?

For all the individuals to develop and advance in the knowledge driven world. Most of the who are visually impaired experience challenges when acquiring education. The challenges devices and equipment. 

How can we improve learning for students with visual impairments?

Learning in an appropriate manner. They are able to share ideas and suggestions with each other, so that one can augment learning and understanding. W orking in groups also arouse pleasure and satisfaction within the mind-sets of the students. engagement is important for students with visual impairments. 

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