The Challenges Of Solid Waste Management In Nigeria And It’s Public Health Implications

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

The Challenges Of Solid Waste Management In Nigeria And It’s Public Health Implications


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications using Ibadan City, Oyo State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria, find out if there is a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health, ascertain whether poor solid waste management contributes to the outbreak of communicable diseases and find out if poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Ibadan City, Oyo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria includes: Poor Funding, Low level of awareness, Limited infrastructures and professionals, Lack of collaboration with international solid waste management organization/agencies and Poor centralized waste collection container. Furthermore, the study revealed that poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria.Therefore, it is recommended that continuous community sensitization should be offered about proper solid waste management through a multi-disciplinary approach and conducting awareness campaigns. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Solid waste management is among the essential services which the government is expected to provide for its citizens in Nigeria. By statute, it is the Local government that has the responsibility of managing waste in the country. It involves the collection, transport, processing as well as proper disposal of wastes that are generated from homes, commercial entities and even industrial establishments. The aim of solid waste management is to prevent or reduce the impact of waste on human health or local amenities.

According to Singh, Gupta, Chaudhary (2014, p. 347), “solid waste, also referred to as Municipal solid waste (MSW), includes wastes such as durable goods, non-durable goods, containers and packaging, food wastes yard wastes, and miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources.” Solid wastes are residues or leftovers that are not unusable from raw materials, and scraps from industrial processing operations. Used or scraps of packaging materials and products that have been discarded after useage (Bhatia, 2013).

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 1976 (cited in Singh, Gupta, & Chaudhary, 2014, p. 347) writes that “a successful solid waste management system utilizes many functional elements associated with generation, on-site storage, collection, transfer, transport, characterization and processing, resource recovery and final disposal.” Incidentally, some of those elements have not been applied in a functional manner in the management of solid waste generated in urban areas in Nigeria, including Ibadan city.

In Nigeria, of all the different categories of wastes generated in the country, solid wastes appear to pose thegreatest challenge beyond the reach of various waste management agencies (Ogbonna, Amangabara, & Ekere, 2007). Among the major setbacks in the efforts to manage solid waste in Nigeria include the unwholesome waste disposal habits of residents of various local governments as well as weak sanitation laws enforcement by the appropriate government officials (Babayemi & Dauda, 2009).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Several scholars have published research work on various aspects of environmental governance in Nigeria, with most of them focusing on environmental problems resulting from increasing urbanization and high population density in Nigeria’s major cities (Agboje, Adetola, & Odafe, 2014; Ojo, Ogbole, & Ojo, 2014; Muhammad & Manu, 2013; Agwu, 2012; Mbalasi & Ogoegbulam, 2012). While acknowledging that the Nigerian constitution entrusts local governments with the responsibility of managing the solid wastes in their areas of jurisdiction, none of these studies interrogated the capacity of the local governments to carry out this mandate (in terms of adequate funding and political autonomy) and the public health implications of ineffective management of solid waste by the local governments as a result of lack of capacity to fulfil the expected responsibilities. Ibadan city, the largest city in West Africa, and the capital of Oyo State, one of Nigeria’s 36 states is regarded as one of the dirtiest cities in Africa. This is in-spite of the fact that the State government has established the Oyo Solid Waste Management Agency which is supposed to enhance the capacity of the local governments to effectively manage waste. The state government had also adopted the Public–Private Partnership (PPP) system in which private solid waste management companies are engaged to manage solid wastes in different local governments. However, there has been complaints from residents of the state that the private waste management companies are contracted on the basis of the political affiliation of their proprietors and that these companies lack the competence to effectively manage solid waste in the local governments, within the local government areas in the state, which exposes the residents therein to various public health challenges. It is in the light of the foregoing that this study evaluated the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications using Ibadan city,Oyo State as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications. Specifically, this study will;

  1. Determine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria.
  2. Find out if there is a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health.
  3. Ascertain whether poor solid waste management contributes to the outbreak of communicable diseases.
  4. Find out if poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health?
  3. Does poor solid waste management contributes to the outbreak of communicable diseases?
  4. Does poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between solid waste management and public health.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Adequate solid waste management in Nigeria is a much more than a technological issue; it involved institutional, social, legal, financial aspects and coordinating. Managing a large work force and collaborating with many stakeholders as well as the general public. The preparation and management of a better solid waste management system needed inputs from a range of disciplines and careful consideration of local condition aspects therefore, decisions regarding solid waste management needed to be well informed. The research results would be a milestone for different stakeholders, policy makers and decision makers at ward, division, district and regional levels who were interested in developing feasibility assessment of different sold wastemanagement options with respect to the environmental impact and economy. It would also determine what was possible to be implemented in the presence of different conflicting interests.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study which examines the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications. This study will be delimited to Ibadan City, Oyo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Solid Wastes:

Are all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted.

Waste Management:

Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials”


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications using Ibadan City, Oyo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria and it’s public health implications using Ibadan City, Oyo State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to determine the challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria, find out if there is a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health, ascertain whether poor solid waste management contributes to the outbreak of communicable diseases and find out if poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Ibadan City, Oyo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The challenges of solid waste management in Nigeria includes: Poor Funding, Low level of awareness, Limited infrastructures and professionals, Lack of collaboration with international solid waste management organization/agencies and Poor centralized waste collection container.
  2. There is a significant relationship between solid waste management and public health.
  3. Poor solid waste management contributes to the outbreak of communicable diseases.
  4. Poor solid waste management contributes to the prevalence of infections among resident in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Continuous community sensitization should be offered about proper solid waste management through a multi-disciplinary approach and conducting awareness campaigns.
  2. The authority could formulate byelaws requiring all community members at household, institution and business places to sort refuse by type before storage to reduce large volumes by segregating biodegradable and non-biodegradable and re- enforcement and compliance of law to regulate refuse disposal which is stipulated in the Environmental Act number 20 of year 2004.
  3. The government must establish community health education centers where members of the community can access information regarding proper solid waste disposal and diseases outbreak.
  4. Families must be assisted in determining what is going on in their household which can be led to disease outbreak and tremendous restructuring, rethinking, shift the culture in the community and the culture we have at approaching the problem.

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