Challenges And Prospects Of Economics Education In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic)

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

Challenges And Prospects Of Economics Education In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic)


Abstract


This study was conducted to find out the challenges and prospects of economics education in Nigeria tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic). The purpose of the study is to identify the challenges and prospects of economics education in Nigeria tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic). The research design of the study was descriptive survey design. The population of the study was the students and lecturers in the tertiary institutions. One hundred and fifty (150) lecturers and students were sampled in five selected departments. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the instrument were tested. Data collected were presented in a table, mean and frequency distributions were used to analyse the data. The findings show that teaching and learning of economics in our tertiary institutions are affected by unqualified economics education lecturers, poor method of teaching, inadequate instructional materials and attitudes and interest of the lecturers and students. Based on the findings some recommendations were made thus Employment of economics education lecturers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Economics is one of an important subject taught in the tertiary institutions. It is important to both students and the society at large because it cuts across all spheres of human endeavour as it can be seen in its simpler definition by professor lord Robbins (1975), thus economics as a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. By this definition Robbins emphasized economics as a science and that economic analysis should be based on scientific and logical process rather than vague judgments.

Economics according to Hornby, (1973) is the study of production and distribution of money and goods of a country. It is the study of how people of the society choose to use their limited resources like land, capital, labour, goods and technical knowledge to provide various goods and services for the consumption of man. Pigou (1972), believed that economics makes it easier to institute practical measures to promote welfare, so that the society may build upon the work of economics. He concluded by saying that the study is not worthwhile for its own sake but only for the healing that the knowledge may help to bring. Economics is relevant to the field of science and art. It enables the individuals to think in the sense that he/she is able to apply its principles to solve practical problems and avoid unnecessary costly mistake.

It also enables individuals to understand better the relationship between himself and his fellow human beings in his effort to make a living.
All over the world, the importance of economics as an instrument of nation building and national development cannot be over-emphasized. It is based on this axiom that Nigeria as a sovereign nation requires excellent qualified teacher and teaching aids in the students understanding of the need to effect a change in National Development through the teaching and learning of economics in the tertiary institutions.

There has also been a traumantic growth in commerce and industry since independence which invariably calls for specialized and qualified manpower to make the various aspects of the economy become imperative. This lead to the introduction of economics as a separate subject of study in the new National policy of education. Economics subject was also included in the curriculum that is geared towards producing a group of people who can study and improve the structure of Nigerian Economy. Economics as a field of study provides individuals with sound knowledge on how to be self-employed and better the lots of people in his or her own society.

In economics activities, the individual does job to earn a living and study his many wants or needs which include food, clothing, housing and so on. For example, there are individual farmers, business people and other workers who produce goods and services to satisfy the needs of consumers. The government strives to provide services for the welfare of the citizens in the state. Nations trade among themselves, and many international organizations exist to promote the economic wellbeing of mankind.

In recent times also there have been complains by examiners lecturers and even parents about poor student’s performance in economic more especially at the secondary level. There are also cries of students’ lack of interest in social sciences. This study intends to examine whether these trends are due to shaky foundations laid right from the tertiary institution. In other words are the secondary students given the adequate orientation to develop interest in economics? The emphasis being laid on economics by successive Nigerian governments. Studies such as this could help in revealing the fundamental faults if any, associated with the teaching of economics, and the prospects for improvement..

Consequent upon this foregoing therefore, we can briefly look at the word “teach and teaching”. The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary 6th edition (2001:1220), defined the word teach to mean a given lesson to students in a schools, colleges, universities, etc to make somebody learn something by giving information about it to show somebody how to do something so that they will be able to do it by themselves. Lark (1995), also sees teaching as the interaction between a teacher and student under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about the expected change in the students’ behaviour. Alaezi (1990:1), describes teaching as the business of all those involved in the act of changing human behaviour and transformation of society for better, particularly when their actions render them perceptibly significant respectable and recognizable to others because of the consequences they accomplish and the unique manner they do them. He emphasized that a teacher must possess knowledge and method of imparting it that could bring about positive change in learners attitude or behavior.
According to Mukherjee, (2002), learning is seen as an inference from some performance of the organization resulting in an enduring change of behaviour. Hengenhan, (1982), defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. Also, Omebe, (2001:5) defined learning as a change in behaviour that is as a result of experience and which cause people to understand situation differently.

It is therefore, a great concern in this regard to give absolute attention to the quality and the numbers of the lecturers we have in the tertiary institutions to enable us achieve and attain the goals for which these tertiary institutions were established without any impediment or hampering this purpose. Hence, being properly trained as a professional teacher and having a sound knowledge of what to teach is the most vital prerequisite for a good qualified teacher. Unqualified lecturers in our tertiary institutions today in teaching of economics have acted persistently as canker-worm devouring the efforts of achieving the educational objectives for this subject. It is observed that a person can never give out what he does not have. Nwanna (1968) said that the personality of lecturers has significant influence on student’s performance.

The proper application of teaching materials is very important in the effective studying of economics. The quality of the teaching materials used in teaching and learning appear to affect greatly the teaching and learning of economics. According to Okorita (2004), there is urgent need to provide the schools with facilities and materials so as to boost the teaching and learning which will call for education for all the year 2010. Writing further, he attributed the largely factors affecting the teaching and learning of economics in tertiary institutions to lack of adequate facilities and teaching materials in the school surrounding which could have facilitated the teaching of the subject.

In teaching economics, methodology is a veritable tool for the conveyance of the principles or theories of economics as well as materials to the students for the achievement of the goals of that institution. According to Ali (2001), says “methodology uses materials in an instructional setting to send the principles (knowledge) which could be the cognitive, the affective and the psychomotor aspect of the school’s curriculum.” Ugwu (2001), emphasized the essentiality for a teacher to select most effective method amongst other for a given purpose, if he must satisfy the learners need to know and his desire to participate actively in the instructional process.

The interest and attitudes of lecturers and students over teaching and learning of economics in tertiary institutions are of great effects. Onyeji (2000), of his view that the teacher’s attitude discourages and scares away students from studying the subject. This is so, if the students are not properly guided, they become scared of the lecturers and the subject resulting in lack of interest and the student’s performance tend to be poor since effective teaching do not take place.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study will focus its attention on the challenges being encountered by both students and lecturers in the teaching and learning of economics education at the tertiary institution. Specifically, the study will look into the issue of economics teaching materials to find out whenever or not there are enough materials for the effective teaching of economics in our tertiary institutions?.

It is stipulated in the new national policy on education that economics teaching should make use of local materials. The study will look into the suitability of local materials for the teaching of economics. The emphasis on the educational system is that curricula should be community oriented.

The interest and attitudes of lecturers and students over teaching and learning of economics in tertiary institutions are of great effects. Onyeji (2000), of his view that the teacher’s attitude discourages and scares away students from studying the subject.

The study will examine how the student’s local background and immediate environment is employed in the teaching of tertiary institution Students.

The study will consider the issue of medium of instruction for the teaching of economics in tertiary institutions. This study is interested in examining if there are any challenges of communication between the lecturers and students in the teaching of economics among others.

These problems make glaring that there is a need to carry out a study on the Problems and prospects of teaching economics in tertiary institutions..


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to identify the challenges and prospects of economics education in Nigeria tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic). The study is specifically designed to:

  1. Determine the educational qualification of economics education lecturers in the tertiary institutions and how it affects the study of economics
  2. Find out the extent instructional materials available and how they affect the study of economics
  3. Identify the method economics education lecturers used in teaching economics in the tertiary institutions
  4. Identify the extent interest and attitudes of students and lecturers affect the teaching and learning in the tertiary institutions

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions guided this research work:

  1. How do qualifications of the economics education lecturers influence the teaching and learning of economics in the tertiary institutions
  2. To what extent are instructional materials available and how they affect the study of economics?
  3. To what extent does poor method of teaching affect teaching and learning of economics in tertiary institutions?
  4. To what extent does an interest and attitude of students, lecturers and school administrators influence effective teaching and learning of economics?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified economics education lecturers if not available to handle the subject and effectively for the benefits of the students and society at large.

It will also helps to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, examples chalkboard, graph, audio-visual materials, etc that will enhance effective learning of economics if they are not available.

This study will if need be direct the economics education lecturers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significant to economists for formulation and evaluation of their plans.

It will be useful to learners to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of economics. It will help to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of economics. It will help to produce sound economics students that will function well in the economy.

This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and lecturers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issues.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study deals with the challenges and prospects of economics education in Nigeria tertiary institutions (a case study of ibadan polytechnic). It geographically covers the selected departments in ibadan polytechnic.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Curriculum:

Is often defined as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools.

Economics:

Is a social science concerned with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

The National Policy on Education (NPE) in Nigeria:

Is the followed national guideline for the effective management, administration and implementation of education at all tiers of government.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study. The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

This researcher is centered on the challenges and prospects of economics education in Nigeria tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Ibadan Polytechnic). It has identified that employment of qualified economics education lecturers, improvement in the available instructional materials and method of teaching will enhance the teaching and learning of economics in the tertiary institutions as well as improve the students’ performance in the subject. Based on this, recommendations are made on how to facilitate teaching and learning of economics in Ibadan Polytechnic.


5.2 conclusion

This study revealed that the school requires specialist in the area of economics in order to achieve the various objectives which include acquiring knowledge of the operating system of the economy and the maximization of scarce resources for optimum result.

The study also revealed that more economics concepts should be incorporated in the curriculum of the relevant knowledge which is an essential requirement to personal contribution to the betterment of mankind.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Employment of economics education lecturers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.
  2. The government should try as much as possible to organize from time to time, seminars, workshops and symposium for economics education lecturers on contemporary issues in the field.
  3. The government should provide instructional materials to schools and lecturers should also improve where necessary for economics.
  4. More emphasis should be laid on economics as a core subject in junior tertiary institutions.

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