The Challenges Of Implementing Business Studies Curriculum In Junior Secondary Schools In Ogbia Local Government, Bayelsa State

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The Challenges Of Implementing Business Studies Curriculum In Junior Secondary Schools In Ogbia Local Government, Bayelsa State


Abstract


This study assessed the challenges of implementing business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. The study was guided by four research objectives Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 300 respondents representing 59% of the population. Questionnaire was used for data collection in the study. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to answer research questions while all the four hypotheses were tested using Chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that the budgetary allocation to educational institutions, fees/levies paid by students among others, forms the major source of funds to secondary schools for the implementation of Business Studies Curriculum in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made among others that; funds allocated to schools should be diversified and easily accessible to schools for the implementation of business studies curriculum in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. In view of the above recommendation, the study offer the following contribution to knowledge amongst that funds are generated through budgetary allocation and fess/levies paid by students and that it will interest the government, parents and spirited individuals to see implementation of school curriculum as a shared responsibility of all to raise the expected funds needed for the procurement of equipment and furniture such as computers and typewriters.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Curriculum Implementation (General)
  • 2.3 Concept of Business Studies
  • 2.4 Business Studies in Junior Secondary School
  • 2.5 General Structure of Business Studies Curriculum
  • 2.6 The Implementation of Business Studies Curriculum
  • 2.7 Challenges to Business Studies Curriculum Implementation
  • 2.8 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Curriculum implementation in reality at the public school level implies a situation where government provides basic infrastructural facilities such as funds, classrooms, instructional materials, human material, monitoring and evaluation of curricula activities. The school principals being the instructional leaders in the schools is charged with the responsibility of utilising both human and material resources available in the school and tailored them towards the provision of quality education. Teachers are the most instructional agents at the final stage of curriculum implementation that translates the reality of the developed curriculum guided by predetermined educational objectives while parents are to complements the government and schools in discharging its legitimate activities to enhance effective curriculum implementation. Initially, that was what exactly existed in the past, and it is very rare today in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state presently which attention needs to be given to that effect for the purpose of bringing back the glory of education. Effective and efficient implementation of Business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools is determined by clear statement of objectives, well defined sources of funds available to schools, use of appropriate teaching methods and availability of instructional materials.

The objectives of business studies incorporated in the National Policy on Education is tailored towards developing students‟ elementary business knowledge and operational skills for future use; develop basic skills in office education; prepare for further training in business related studies; develop orientation and basic skills for starting life for those who cannot go beyond junior secondary school level(Aliyu, 2001; NERDC, 2013). However, for these objectives to be fully realized at this level of education, appealed to government and its agencies to consider the procurement of recommended functional curriculum materials and equitable distribution to schools on the basis of students‟ ratios very paramount. From observation in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state, 65% of the youths attended public secondary schools under dilapidated classrooms without qualitative instructional materials for the implementation of business studies curriculum. The success or failure of senior secondary school independent commercial subjects and management courses at the tertiary institutions depends on the achievement of business studies objectives at the junior secondary school level. The problem of unemployment cannot be resolved in developing countries like Nigeria, unless the youths are properly trained in line with the skills in view nationally to develop positive thinking amongst the children for self-reliance.

To achieve this, calls for concerted efforts of government at all levels to put all hands on deck to fashion out a means of pumping money in the education sector for the development of business studies programmes and possibly other fields of endeavours. Funds accrued for the implementation of business studies and other subjects largely comes from the state government, parent’s teachers association (PTA) and other donations from spirited individuals and corporations. It is assumed Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state government are not up to date in remitting its share of counterpart’s funding accredited to them to access more funds designated for the development of business studies curriculum. A fund is a life wire and the indices of the achievement of any educational objectives which guarantees efficient procurement of basic equipment. As the case in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state prior to the period this study was conducted, no public secondary schools can boost of having one or more functional manual typewriter for teaching of business studies which is obviously caused by poor sources of income available to schools to procure practical equipment.

The problem of inappropriate teaching method contributes significantly to poor exhibition of lifelong skills distorting basic rudiments for creative thinking and the development of vocational attitudes among its beneficiaries. Students‟ can be motivated to learn as much as possible many skills in business studies when appropriate teaching method is strictly adhered to and implemented in teaching learning process. The researcher realized from experience that the use of innovative teaching methods in the implementation of business studies in junior secondary schools has been given lesser attention while teacher’s centred method seems to be more teachers friendly. The engagement of learner’s centred method and its teaching strategies in the implementation of business studies curriculum is crucial in the attainment of set objectives. Teachers are always criticized for using inappropriate teaching methods which end up rendering business studies lesson uninteresting and boring to students‟.

Teaching facilities are spice to teaching/learning processes; teaching is as interesting as the resources that are used to facilitate it. Federal Government of Nigeria (2007) recommended instructional materials for implementing business studies curriculum to include; relevant textbooks, teacher’s guide book, students‟ personal experiences, examples drawn from local business environment, relevant resource persons, chalkboard, pictures, real business documents or specimens like cheque books, radio programmes, video programmes, films, newspaper cuttings and relevant magazines. From experience, teachers implement the curriculum singlehandedly without involving the students and other prominent resource persons within the community to be participated in sourcing for local instructional materials and at certain occasion invited to clarify some important issues that will be of benefits to the students. It is against this background that this study is conducted to assess the challenges of implementing business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Curriculum implementation in public secondary schools is done haphazardly by relevant authorities such as government, teachers and parents who are said to be the major custodians of school curriculum. Failure on the side of government in meeting with some of its statutory obligations posed serious challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in public secondary schools in Plateau and Nigeria at large. The situation of infrastructural facilities and instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state is very bad that teachers are left with the alternative of implementing business studies without the required equipment. No iota of change from 6-3-3-4 system of education to the present system of education is on ground to show the level of government preparedness in achieving the objectives of 9-year basic education in business studies.

In addition, problem of poor performance of students in junior secondary schools in business studies examination in Plateau often advertised on mass media could be linked to shortage of funds for the procurement of computers, typewriters and other relevant equipment for practical operation. Practical in junior secondary school certificate examination business studies is compulsory in typewriting and shorthand segments which carries 40% marks. Thus, from past experience, public secondary schools which offer business studies do not have basic practical equipment. The problem is, it is possible for schools which do not participated in business studies practical to benefit from 40% marks allocated for practical. If the answer is yes or no, indicated that students final scores in junior secondary school certificate examination could be weighted based on what is obtained in theory which is a matter of great concern here.

Similarly, there is widespread recognition that teachers are more accustomed to lecture method more than other teaching methods in the implementation of business studies primarily because they felt it consumes them less time to execute it. Lecture method has been criticized in teaching of business studies because it makes the teacher more active and rendered the learners passive and inactive during the entire teaching situation. The problem with the implementation of business studies is that teachers ignored the use of innovative teaching methods recommended in teaching of business studies such as demonstration, role play; play way, problem solving and discussion method. Skills in business studies cannot be acquired through the use of inappropriate teaching methods and hence meaning learning cannot be possible in the class.

Curriculum implementation relies heavily on the quality and the quantity of instructional materials ready for use. The researcher discovered in some of the public secondary schools visited before conducting this study offering business studies lacks instructional materials for teaching of business studies. The instructional materials available for used are out dated and it is not in any way relevant to the present system of education. Only few public secondary schools have libraries stocked with obsolete textbooks and materials that are out of use to the students and teachers any more. For the objective of business studies to be realized, all these lingered problems arising from one problem to the other needs to be logically addressed in respect to that areas to enable the students‟ to be properly trained that prompted the researcher to embarked on the assessment of the challenges of implementing business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.


1.3 Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to examine the challenges of implementing business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.

Specifically, the objectives include:

  1. To identify the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area;
  2. To determine the appropriateness of teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area;
  3. To investigate the effectiveness of teaching materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area;
  4. To determine challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area.

1.4 Research Questions

This project is designed to tackle the following reach questions;

  1. What are the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area?
  2. How appropriate is the teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area?
  3. How effectiveness are the teaching materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area?
  4. What are the challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the hypothesis is to be tested at 0.5 alpha levels.

H01: There is no significant difference in the response mean on the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area.

H02: There is no significant difference in the response mean on the appropriateness of teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area.

H03: There is no significant difference in the response mean on the effectiveness of instructional materials used by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area.

H04: There is no significant difference between the response mean on challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following; State Ministry of education/Universal Basic Education Board, Curriculum planners, researchers, members of the Society and teacher/students.

Officials of the Bayelsa State Ministry of Education and the Universal Basic Education Board will benefit from the findings of this study as it would provide information that would serve as a basis for developing appropriate policy formulation that would provide possible solutions to some of the problems hindering the realization of business studies objectives.

The result of this research will be of immense importance to curriculum planners as it will identify key lingering curriculum inadequacies that has over the years stood as a barrier in the achievement of business studies objectives in junior secondary school level which will guide curriculum designers find a means of making the problem known to the Ministry of Education for slight adjustment to be reflected in the curriculum to overcome the challenges.
The result of this study will serve as a source document to researchers in business education programme and other related fields of endeavours with useful information concerning the study which can be obtained from the internet and libraries without any stress.

Finally, the findings of this study will be useful information to classroom teacher as it would pinpoint the use of innovative teaching methods as the best in teaching of business studies which compactable instructional materials to suit a particular component area of business studies. The study will also buttress other teaching techniques that teachers can integrate with teaching methods to deliver their lesson appropriately. The study will create awareness for teachers to be resourceful in their work through actively engaging the students and members of the society in the improvisation of instructional materials to make their work more easily and participatory.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Challenges:

Refers to the problems and issues affecting the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools.

Curriculum:

In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals.

Business Studies:

Is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries. Its study combines elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies, human resource management, and operations.

Implementation:

Is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the research methodology. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study sought to assess the challenges of implementing business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.

Findings from the study revealed that:

  1. The budgetary allocation to educational institutions, fees/levies paid by students among others, forms major source of funds to secondary schools for the implementation of Business Studies Curriculumin Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  2. Business studies teachers used appropriate teaching method for the implementation of business studies curriculumin junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  3. The instructional materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools are not qualitative enough in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  4. The challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state include corruption in the rank and file of executive officers, teachers incessant strike action, lack of qualified/competent Business studies teachers, inadequate functional facilities/equipment for effective performance in practical instruction and so forth.

5.2 Conclusion

In view of the findings from this study, conclusion was made that budgetary allocation to educational institutions and fees/levies paid by students in public secondary schools form major source of funds to secondary schools for the implementation of Business Studies Curriculum in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. In like manner, business studies teachers are using appropriate teaching techniques for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. Likewise, instructional materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state are not effective. In the opinions of the respondents, teachers‟ textbook is the only accessible copy available for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state. It was also concluded that the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state is faced with some challenges. In the opinions of the respondents, some of these challenges are corruption in the rank and file of executive officers, teachers incessant strike action, qualified/competent Business studies teachers, inadequate functional facilities/equipment for effective performance in practical instruction and so forth.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings from this study, the following recommendations were put forward:

  1. Funds allocated to schools should be diversified and easily accessible to schools for the implementation of business studies curriculum in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  2. Steps should be taken by business studies teachers to adopt and apply appropriate teaching methods for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  3. Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state government and Non-Governmental Organisations should assist in the provision of modern instructional materials like computer, internet facilities, typewriters, and textbooks for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.
  4. Teachers should be given in-service training to update their skills; their welfare should be paid regularly and practical equipment should be supplied to schools for effective implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Ogbia local government area, Bayelsa state.

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