Challenges Of Academic Libraries In The 21st Century: Experience Of Nigeria Libraries

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Challenges Of Academic Libraries In The 21st Century: Experience Of Nigeria Libraries


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine challenges of academic libraries in the 21st century: experience of Nigeria libraries using selected libraries in Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study aimed to examine if there are changing roles of academic libraries in the new millennium, investigate emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery, determine possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium and offer strategies to enhance effective service delivery in the millennium. A total of 30 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that there are changing role of academic libraries in the new millennium. The study also revealed that the emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery is electronic Resource Management, cloud Computing, big data and data visualization and intelligent library search & federated search. The study further revealed that the possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium is unreliable equipment, coping with the fast evolving nature of business requirements, mismanagement of organization facilities and Paucity of fund. Lastly, the study revealed that the strategies for enhancing effective service delivery in the millennium is to automate When Possible, identify business and commodity services required by business units, socialize across enterprise and measure service delivery. The study thereby recommend that training of academic librarians should be a priority. This is because the success or failure of the library service depends on the staff. Also, resources for staff training and development should not be manipulated at universities and should be disclosed as needed. Experience has shown that training staff are sometimes absent due to insufficient funds.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In recent years, libraries have witnessed significant changes in recent years. This change, which is brought about by information and communication technologies, has impacted on the mode of providing information services. The traditional methods of information dissemination have given way to electronic means of communication. While the developments and application of ICT in library operations have improved and facilitated the dissemination of information and access, it has equally provided new roles in information provision, dissemination and transfer. The librarian no longer plays a passive role, rather he assumes an active role. He is no longer a custodian of books but the gate way to a myriad of information sources. While providing books was a standalone function for libraries throughout the last few centuries, their offerings have evolved with the digital age to meet the changing needs of their patrons.

The 21st century is the millennium of information. It is also seen as the era of the explosion of information output and information sources. It is known as the beginning of the knowledge age. Academic libraries in Nigeria are not divorced from this technology revolution. As information providers, they are constantly under pressure to provide relevant sources of information to their immediate communities. Technology enables change and technology enforces change. Thus, librarians, staff and patrons must make a number of adjustments as a result of any library automation project, whether it is an original implementation or a migration.This means that academic libraries are compelled to incorporate digital sources in order to remain at the fore of information provision and dissemination. Nowadays, students and faculty have developed a greater preference for electronic information than manually driven systems. The increased availability of digital information has caused students to find alternative means of study and research with the aid of laptops and cell phones. Digital technology has reduced the importance and usage of libraries in developing countries.

The acquisition of information online using PC‘s such as laptops and palmtops and even phones is proving to be detrimental to academic libraries in terms of patronage. Patrons no longer depend on the academic library as an essential part of their learning and research, rather they are beginning to see the library as one of those facilities a university or college should have. Thus, libraries must, of a necessity, strive to retain their patrons and be at the peak of providing information sources that suit the demands of present day information seekers. There is a need therefore to ensure that the academic library continues to soar high in information generation, provision and dissemination. Thus, it is against this background that the research aims to examine the challenges of academic libraries in the 21st century using Nigeria Libraries and suggest to 21st century library professionals useful tips that could improve library services.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the 21st century academic library, the emergence of ICT has redefined the library‘s role. Print materials are no longer sufficient to store information. CDROM databases, electronic document delivery, automated cataloguing, circulation systems and online information retrieval (OPAC) have become the order of the day. Most researchers admit that the advent of the internet, digitization and the ability to access library and research materials from remote locations have also created dramatic changes by the end of the 20th century.

Nigerian academic libraries in the 21st century are gradually changing to fit into their clients‘ information seeking patterns. The situation has brought about the establishment of digital libraries to compliment traditional ones. This is evidenced in the attempt to digitize library resources to cater for the information needs of new generation users, that is, the 21st century library users who exhibit much dexterity in using new sources and new technologies.

However, in the bid to meet up with this fast changing track, librarians have faced a lot of challenges, such as lack of time to use social media, a lack of privacy and identity theft, too many social media tools to learn, a lack of technology literacy, poor internet speed, insufficient funding for Therefore, it is upon this premise that this study seeks to examine the challenges of academic libraries in the 21st century: the experience of Nigeria Libraries.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main focus of this study is the challenges of academic libraries in the 21st century. experience of Nigeria Libraries.

Specifically, the study seeks:

  1. To examine if there are changing roles of academic libraries in the new millennium.
  2. To investigate emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery
  3. To determine possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium.
  4. To offer strategies to enhance effective service delivery in the millennium.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is guided by the following research question:

  1. Are there changing role of academic libraries in the new millennium?
  2. What are emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery?
  3. What are the possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium?
  4. What are the strategies for enhancing effective service delivery in the millennium?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are not significant challenges facing academic libraries in the new millennium.
  • Ha: There are significant challenges facing academic libraries in the new millennium.

1.6. Significance of the Study

The study will be relevant to academic institutions, administrators, library committees, librarians, users and researchers. In specific terms, the findings will be significant to academic institutions’ administration in the area of policy formulation by providing a road map for curbing the challenges that hinder the effective delivery of library services.

Findings from the study will also assist them in identifying their lapses and hence improving their services by attracting, satisfying, and retaining users in the library. The findings will also be useful to users by creating awareness of the various services available in the library. Users will get an improvement in the services offered as a result of the recommendations of this study. The research will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge about library services and build on the knowledge of the changing role of academic libraries and their challenges in the new millennium. Finally, it will serve as a reference material for other researchers who wish to undergo research in a related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the the challenges of academic libraries in the 21st century: experience of Nigeria Libraries. The study is however limited to selected libraries in AkwaIbom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following poses to be constraint to the study:

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Library:

A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user’s needs on a daily basis.

21st Century:

The 21st century is the millennium of information. It is also seen as the era of explosion of information output and information sources. It is known as the beginning of knowledge age.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was onchallenges of academic libraries in the 21st century: experience of nigeria libraries using selected libraries in AkwaIbom State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting if there are changing roles of academic libraries in the new millennium, investigate emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery, determine possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium and offer strategies to enhance effective service delivery in the millennium. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from librarians in the selected libraries.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There are changing role of academic libraries in the new millennium.
  2. The emerging trends in information provision which can be employed by 21st century librarians to reposition the academic library for effective service delivery is electronic Resource Management, cloud Computing, big data and data visualization and intelligent library search & federated search.
  3. The possible challenges that hinder effective service delivery in the millennium is unreliable equipment, coping with the fast evolving nature of business requirements, mismanagement of organization facilities and Paucity of fund.
  4. The strategies for enhancing effective service delivery in the millennium is to automate When Possible, identify business and commodity services required by business units, socialize across enterprise and measure service delivery.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Training of academic librarians should be a priority. This is because the success or failure of the library service depends on the staff.
  2. Resources for staff training and development should not be manipulated at universities and should be disclosed as needed. Experience has shown that training staff are sometimes absent due to insufficient funds.

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