Causes, Prevention And Treatment Of Damp On Building

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Causes, Prevention And Treatment Of Damp On Building


Abstract


It has been clearly identified that one of the agent that easily deteriorate building structure, weaken the strength of the component of building and shorten the life-span of building is “DAMP”, which may occur in different dimension therefore, this project is centred on causes of damp, prevention of damp and the necessary treatment needed for the structure that has been severely affected with damp in makoko, yaba area of Lagos state. This research connotes that the main causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp, condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage.

To achieve the objective of this study, four research questions were raised. The survey research design was adopted using observation technique. A checklist was used for data collection. Based on the findings it was concluded that there is need to prevent and treat damp in building in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state so as to have an healthy environment and also to prolong life of structures. Recommendations were made for prevention and treatment of damp in this area based on the reviewed literature.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • List of tables
  • List of pictures
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Damp
  • 2.2 Causes of damp
  • 2.3 Condensation
  • 2.4 Rain penetration
  • 2.5 Rising damp
  • 2.6 Humidity
  • 2.7 Roof leakage
  • 2.8 Lack of drainage
  • 2.9 Techniques and method of damp prevention in building
  • 2.10 Treatment of damp in building component
  • 2.11 Summary of the reviewed literature

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Validation of instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Presentation of Result and Data Analysis

  • 4.1 Research question 1
  • 4.2 Research question 2
  • 4.3 Research question 3
  • 4.4 Research question 4
  • 4.5 Summary of the findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary of the study
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for further studies
  • 5.5 Limitation of the study
  • References
  • Appendix 1

List of Tables


  1. The check list of observed building showing the causes of damp in building at makoko area of yaba local government Lagos.
  2. Checklist highlighting effects of damp in makoko area of yaba local government Lagos state.

List of Pictures


  • Picture 1: Growth of mold on wall
  • Picture 2: Bleaching and flaking of paints
  • Picture 3: Destruction of timber component
  • Picture 4: Roof leakage
  • Picture 5: Peeling of plaster

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Damp is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.

According to Don Prowler (2011) moisture in buildings is a major contributor to mold growth, unhealthy buildings, and poor indoor air quality. A high proportion of damp problems in buildings are caused by condensation, rain penetration and rising damp.

Dampness tends to caused secondary damage to a building. The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi in wood, causing rots or mold health issues and may eventually lead to a sick building syndrome. Plaster and wallpaper loosens: stains from the water, salts and from mold mar surfaces.

In makoko metropolis of Yaba local government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration of building. This project will help the people of makoko and its environs to know the causes of this damp, means of preventing the damp from occurring and the major problem or treatment needed for the buildings that has been affected with damp.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Damp problems in buildings causes poor indoor air qualities, respiratory illness in occupants, falling of mortar from the affected walls, failure of building components and at times serious health effects in humans. Hence there is need to find out the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The essence of this study is to:

  1. Identify the causes of damp in buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
  2. Identify the effects of damp on buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
  3. Measures for preventing the damp in order to improve the life span of the buildings in makoko.
  4. Proffer the proper treatment to the buildings that are affected by damp in makoko.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the causes of damp in buildings?
  2. What are the effects of damp on buildings?
  3. What are the means of preventing damp in building?
  4. What are the necessary treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?

1.5 Significance of the Study

At the end of this research project the following people will be the beneficiary of the proffer solution to the problem: the landlords and landladies, the building occupants, the maintenance technicians, the builder.

Specifically this study will help the landlord and landladies (building owners) to know that damp that can deteriorates their buildings and they will be able to know and make the right choice of materials to demand for when their house is under construction or renovation. They will also appreciate the needs to employ professionals when constructing.

This study will help occupants to be aware of damp which can damage their properties, and be injurious to their health. It will also guide them in the choice of accommodation.

This study will serve as a guideline to the maintenance technicians who are required to carry out renovation/repairs in a building, to prevent the effects of this damp on such building and the right treatment needed for the houses that are affected.

The builder will benefit from this project due to the fact that this project will guide in the choice of materials to be used for construction which will serve as an antidote to the effects of damp in building, how to treat a swamping area (example foundation type) before building on it in order to prevent rising damp.


1.6 The Scope the Study

The scope of this study will be limited to the dampness effect in buildings at makoko. This project also enumerates the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in building in makoko area of yaba local government in Lagos state.


Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter of the study summarizes the study carried out, conclusion of the study and recommendation were given.

5.1 Summary of the Study

Damp is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.

In Makoko metropolis of Yaba local government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration of building.

The following research question was used to guide the study.

  1. What are the causes of damp in buildings?
  2. What are the effects of damp on buildings?
  3. What are the means of preventing damp in building?
  4. What are the necessary treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?

The study investigated causes, prevention and treatment of damp on building to achieve this objective of this study; the research method of data collection involved was observation method, with the aid of checklist.

The population of the study consist of twenty (20) buildings in makoko. The researcher adopted purposive sampling method procedure in selection of 5-building which represents those building that are affected with damp in makoko.

From the study it shows that the causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp, condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage. But in makoko rain penetration was identified to cause 100% of the damp problem, while rising damp and roof leakage causes 60% of damp problem. Condensation and humidity are not the causes of damp in makoko.

The effects of damp and its percentage to those building are: peeling of plaster and rendering from the wall 60%, growth of mold on wall, ceiling and roof 80%, destruction of timber component 40%, musty odour in the living area 20%, bleaching and flaking of paints 20%. The pictures of the affected building were shown (see list of picture).
More so, prevention of damp to those building was prescribed base on the causes of the damp according to the reviewed literature some which are:

Rain penetration as viewed in damp (structural) Wikipedia (2014) can be prevented by: cladding (a protective covering of a hard material), external rendering, timber boarding, weather proof paints and coatings, tide of slate hanging.

Roof leakage to the wall can be prevented by ensuring that all cornices and string courses should be provided. Window sills, coping of plinth and string course should be sloped on top and throated on the underside to throw the rain water away from the walls.

Finally, there were necessary treatment that were suggested to those building that were affected with damp as pointed out in the literature review some of which are:

Rain penetration from the wall can be treated by providing sufficient wall thickness or cavity walls, exposed wall faces should be of good quality having low absorption co-efficient and covered with cement plaster.

Condensation can be treated by increasing background heat, ventilation of cold surfaces, reducing moisture generation (e.g. by avoiding the drying of clothes indoors).

Rising damp as the replacement of physical damp-proof course, injection of a liquid or cream chemical damp-proof course, porous tube/other evaporative method, land drainage, electro-osmotic, system and plastering.


5.2 Conclusion

Having discussed to a great depth the causes, prevention and treatment of damp on building, an in-depth knowledge has been given on diverse causes of damp, necessary prevention on damp and prescribed treatment needed for those building that has been severely affected with damp in makoko area of yaba Lagos.

Problem associated with various forms of dampness and the corrective measures or needed treatment to pro-long the life span of a building were also disclosed.


5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendation has been made based on the finding made in this study.

  1. Building construction should be carried out by professionals.
  2. Building occupants/owners should imbibe good maintenance culture.
  3. The government and the local planning authority should ensure that there is a proper drainage around in the society.
  4. Building designer (architect) sufficient covering for homes to prevent rain penetration.
  5. Damp-proof course should be used appropriately in various component of the building.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies

For the purpose of further study the following suggestion are hereby made:

  1. Method and process of constructing pile foundation on a swampy area such as makoko.
  2. Causes, prevention and treatment of cracks on building.
  3. Eradication of building collapse in Lagos state.
  4. Identification and treatment of building defect.

5.5 Limitation of the Study

This research study is limited to the difficulty of explaining to the building owners/occupants of those buildings that are affected with damp and for them to understand in order to gather more facts. Finally, proper evaluation/analysis of the instrument (checklist) used in gathering data for concrete conclusion.


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Causes, Prevention And Treatment Of Damp On Building

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.