Capital Market In Nigeria, Its Evolution, Function And Impact On The Economy

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Capital Market In Nigeria, Its Evolution, Function And Impact On The Economy


The effectiveness and growth of capital market in Nigeria economy is a problem that has assumed of recent an intractable dimension. The concept market is one of the compartments of financial system that promotes harm and investment in an economy. The stock exchange market is one of the key institutions of the capital market, a network or individuals, institution and instrument involved in the effective channeling of funds from the surplus to deficit economic unit.

The question whether a market undergone growth and development or not cannot be adequately answered by simply ‘Yes or No’ there are some issues to be addressed.

The main purpose of this study is to show how investors can dissever when a market has attained growth and development for their top investors to know the correctiveness of a price, which depends on the use of the information at time of the price decision.

Finally the study is designed to cover the practical and theoretical area of the stock market. The study is about the market and how effective it is in setting prices, which reflect the worth of the securities, traded in the market.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.0 Background to the Study
  • 1.1 Statement of research Problem
  • 1.2 Objective of the Study
  • 1.3 Research Question
  • 1.4 Statement of the Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Limitation and Scope of the Study
  • 1.6 Justification of the Study
  • 1.7 Research Methodology
  • 1.8 Plan of Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms and Concept

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Concept of Capital Market
  • 2.2 Role of Capital Market
  • 2.3 Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
  • 2.4 Capital Market Development and Successful Operation

Chapter Three:

Theoretical Framework

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Evolution of the Nigeria Capital Market
  • 3.2 Structure of the Nigeria Capital Market
  • 3.3 Regulatory Body in the Capital Market
  • 3.4 Instrument of Capital Market in Nigeria
  • 3.5 The Benefit to Companies in the SSM
  • 3.6 Growth and Significant of the Capital Market
  • 3.7 Contribution of the Stock Exchange to Capital Formulation
  • 3.8 Problems of the Nigeria Capital Market
  • 3.9 The Impact of Liberalization policies in the Nigeria Capital Market
  • 3.10 Reform of the Nigeria Capital Market
  • 3.11 Depth of market

Chapter Four:

Methodology and Analysis

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Evaluation criteria
  • 4.2 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Data Analysis

Chapter Five:

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Background to the Study

The rate of economic development of any nation is inextricably liked to the sophistication of its financial markets.

Financial markets assist the nation of the world to give the needed financial resources and skills for growth and development.

Apart from promoting a sound and efficient payments mechanism, the financial intimidation.

The financial market is an institutional arrangement that facilities the intermediation of funds in an economy. By financial intermediation, it means mobilization of financial resources from surplus spending units and the channeling of such to deficit spending units and the channeling of such funds to deficit spending units for production investment and the generation of assets or securities in the process.

Thus the financial system generates a wide range of financial instruments (assets), which are means of transferring purchasing power and are tailored to suit the time preferences of both lenders and borrowers.

The financial market performs an economic function by facilitating the transfer of real economic resources from the lenders to the borrowers. By the inducement of interest income, the market facilitates the transference of purchasing power from the lender to the investor who wishes to exercise demand over resources.

When the financial market is efficient, funds flow freely and rapidly among its various sources and uses. As long as financial instrument remains substitutable for each other, changes in supply and demand in the money market have a rapid over effect into the capital market.

Financial markets are therefore constitutional whenever participants with aid of infrastructure technology and over devises facilitates the mobilization and channeling of funds into productive investments. The importance of the financial market lies in financial intermediation to link the deficit sector with the surplus of the economy. In the intermediation process, financial intermediaries engage principally in matching lenders and borrowers. They bring savers and borrowers together by selling debt instruments or securities and deposits to savers for money and lending that money to borrowers. As a result, the lenders of investors receive claims on investment, which have stable market value and high liquidity.

Financial intermediation does not ensure from direct lending and borrowing process but arises from the lending-borrowing proves, which involves the generation and exchange of debt instrument or securities. The point of emphasis therefore is the financial intermediaries use their own liabilities to create additional assets, help mobilize funds, gather together to reap economics of scale and minimize the investors.

The financial markets system features a wide array of banking and non-banking financial intermediaries. The banking sub-sector of the system comprises Commercial and Merchant Banks, Development Bank and Central Bank, as the Apex institution.

The non-bank financial institution sub-sector includes a wide range of organizations operating as regulators, facilitators and investors. The list includes the Securities and Exchange Commission Market in Nigeria, to assess its impacts on Nigeria economy. In order to achieve its major (SEC), the Stock Exchange, Stockbrokers, Regioners, Insurance companies, Pensions and Provident funds and Investment Companies.

The financial market is really segmented into two major markets, which are:

  1. Money Market
  2. Capital Market

The money market is the market for short-term funds an securities including treasury bills, treasury certificates negotiable certificates of deposits, commercial paper and other funds of less than one year duration on the other hand, the capital market is the market for long-term funds and securities whose tenure extends beyond one year. These include long-term loans, mortgage, bond, preference share, ordinary shares, federal government bonds and industrial loans.

The capital market is a complex institution and mechanism through which intermediate and long run funds are made available to government, business (firm) and individuals. The capital market therefore is an instrumental arrangement that performs the function of mobilizing private and public savings from surplus spending units and channeling them to the deficit units for the production of goods and services. Unlike the many money market which primarily exist as a means of liquidity adjustment, the capital market provides a bridge of transforming saving into long term investment by using equity bonds, debentures, mortgages and investment stocks to facilitate intermediation.

The market makes it possible for private and public sectors of the economy to rise long-term capital to execute government development programmes and from the expansion and modernization of the private business to enhance outputs, employment and income. The capital market is often described as an important part of country’s economy, which is indispensable to economy growth and development. In short, it is a place where nation’s wealth is bough.

The capital market itself is composed of:

  1. Primary Market
  2. Secondary Market

Operators in the market include Merchant Banks, Stock broking Firms, Issuing Houses, Development Finance Companies, the Central Bank, Securities and Exchange Commission and the Stock Exchange. With this background; this project attempts to review broad outline the extinction of the Nigerian Capital market, its functions, growth and development with emphasis on the period and challenge for the future especially in the lights of the liberalized trade and exchange regimes adopted under the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).

1.1 Statement of Research Problem

The capital market is the long-terms and of the financial market that is made up of market and institution which facilitate the issuance of long term financial instruments.

Unlike the more market that provides basically short term funds, the capital market provides funds to industries and government to meet their long term capital requirements such as financial or tried investments building, plant and machinery bridges and so on.

The following are research problem.

  1. Why is there still low level of foreign investment in the market notwithstanding the reform?
  2. Is the capital market reform impacting positively on the economy?
  3. Is there any on the securities of the capital market attributed to the reform?

1.2 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to evaluate the growth and performance of the capital market in Nigerian to assess its impacts on the Nigerian economy.

The following are the objectives of the study.

  1. Examine the structures and the roles of the capital markets in Nigerians and the
  2. Evolution of the market including institutional development market.
  3. Examine the instruments used in the market and their used fullness.
  4. Examines the future prospect of the Nigerian Capital market.
  5. Find out the various problems facing the workings and the operations of the capital market.
  6. To evaluate the impact of such reforms on the Nigerian capital market.

1.3 Relevant Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of the capital market on the National Income?
  2. What is the effect of the capital market on the share holder investment or in-course?
  3. What is the impact of the capital market on the earning per shares (EPS) of the shareholders?
  4. What is the effect of the capital market on the effectiveness: Development of the institutional in the arrangement for long-term financial assets, such as shares, debentures stock and mortgage equity bond.

1.4 Statement of the Hypotheses

  1. H0: There is no relationship between Capital market transaction and long term sources of funds.
    H1: There is relationship between Capital market transaction and long term sources of funds.
  2. H0: There is no relationship between investment in capital market and the earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.
    H1: There is relationship between investment in capital market and the earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.

1.5 Limitation and Scope of the Study

The Nigerian capital market since its inceptions in 1946. These will include involution and impact of the sector on the growth of Nigeria economy.

Since early 70s and 80s then it because a significant factors in financial system of the economy.

The study will further examine its roles during the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) and the impact its plays in the dominance of the country financial base.

1.6 Justification of the Study

The importance of the capital market in economic development cannot be over emphasized. There is consensus of opinion that the nature and the content of the not benefit which the capital market offer country be judged by the effects on the mobilization of savings, capital inflow and out flow the mobility of investible surplus funds, resources allocation, distribution of income and wealth and the response of economic policies.

Therefore, the development of the capital market should encourage efficient mobilization of both domestic and foreign savings for productive investment in order to achieve economic development. Without productive investment, there will be no growth and saving and there will be no investment.

1.7 Research Methodology

This study will make use of secondary data. The date at sources from the various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) such as B. Williams, Economic and financial Review, Annual Report and Statistical Bulletin: Lagos Publication form the Nigerian Sick Exchange (NES), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other Financial Institution.

1.8 Plan of Study

This study tells us what the evolution functions and impacts of the capital market in Nigeria.

Chapter One is the introduction and explains what capital market is all about. Chapter Two is the literature review and it review the work of notable economists. Chapter Three will be scope of the study and examines evolution, operation and impact or the sectors on the economy. Chapter Four will be methodology and its analysis is based on secondary data from central bank of Nigeria, Nigerian stock exchange commission. Chapter Five will be the summary recommendation and conclusion giving suggestion and ways to improve the operation on the Nigeria capital markets.

1.9 Definition of Term and Concept

1. Capital market:

The market is concerned with the mobilization and intermediation of long term funds.

2. Data Analysis:

This refers to the use of data to analysis the project work. This data include in formulation got from official sources.

3. Methodology:

This can be described as the method by which this study will be carried out.

4. Equity:

This is the shareholder’s ownership interest in a company represented by their common and preferred stock.

5. Operators in the Market:

They are the players in the stock exchange, this players include the financial intermediaries for statement long term fund form investors and allocating some to institution that required them.

6. Securities:

This can be defined as documentary evidence of ownership or entitlement to part of the asset of the issuing organization which may be a business, firm, government in government institution.

7. Secondary Market:

This exists for the sale and purchase of old securities.

8. Primary Market:

This market is for new securities. It is platform where a company or government raises funds for investment purposes.

Chapter Five

Summary Conclusions and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this work, we have endeavored to appraise the impact of capital market on Nigerian economy.
It has been shown that effective capital market is crucial for the efficiency and solvency of the financial system. This will enhance competition reduce intermediation cost and provide borrowers with alternative source fund’s for the period most convenient for them.

The effectiveness of the financial market is enhancing by sound fiscal and monetary policies appropriate legal and regulatory policies appropriate legal and regulatory framework and by professionalism in the part of market operators. Although the Nigeria capital market has expanded over the years the pace growth of the market operators, institution and investors have intended to deal at the short and end of the market in order to ledge against inflation and other distortions in the system. Suffice is to say that the economic strength of any nation is measured by the value of its accumulated wealth by the rate at which it grows through saving and investment. In this regard the contribution of the Nigerian capital market in mobilizing public and private savings for productive investment can hardly be over emphasized. However here is still room for improvement.

For instance, we have seen in this work we have during the course of this research project that there exist a structural issue which has to with imbalance in market transaction as government securities maintain dominant over private securities. Also the market notwithstanding infrastructural, inadequacy and ignorance in the public are problems to contend with these trends need to be revised for better performance of our capital (in terms of facilitating the achievement of sustainable economic growth).

5.2 Conclusion

It can be observed from our review of the Nigeria Capital market, a critical example of the developing nations has a tremendous influence on the growth rate of the economy.

We can evaluate its performance, in terms of capital mobilization accessibility to saves and users of funds, development of the investment culture looking at this the basic aim of its optimal mobilization and allocation of its production resources to aid national economic development. However the part that capital formulation play in an economic cannot be over emphasized.

Therefore, the role of a capital as an engine for capital formation is intertwined with finding a positive and constructive role for the integrated into countries overall development programme . In essence, a stock market can only be effective if there is a vigorous and healthy private sector with the economy. Hence, it is essential for an economy to develop its entire sector, capital market inclusive in order to contribute meaningful institutional framework of the capital market is offer for the enhancement of securities training as for stimulating sustain growth of the capital market

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are proffered for improvement in the working of the capital market in Nigeria:-

  1. The level of professionalism in the capital market must extend beyond the current arm share approach security analysis and investment advisers should be able to compare current market prices with the economic value of the security in order to make reasonable buy and sell decision.
  2. Effective pricing involves the efficient dissemination of relevant information. Security Dealers should therefore build up an effective information network top facilitate market making.
  3. In the areas of patronage of the capital market by the status and local government is poor thus making it difficulty for them to access the market. Hence to provide added flexibility to their operations, states and local Government have to engage the securities of experts who would be techniques of financial engineering to restrictive their balance sheet and procure funds for specific marketable public projects.
  4. Another area is that of evolving. A prompt and efficient settlement and delivery system. The practice whereby the settlement of claim stretches into weeks and sometimes months is disincentives to financial depending. Prompt settlement claims is a “since qua non” of an efficient market, hence here should be no further delay in this regard.
  5. The effective regulation of the market is also very crucial because regulation is major source of investor’s protections. Self- Regulation Organization such as the stock Exchange and Association of Security dealers should Monitor and discipline their members for conduct not consistent with the principles of just equitable trade to its growth and development. In this regard, some recommendations for improving.
  6. The Securities and Exchange Commission should concentrate on sensitive issues, map out in long time programmer for the market and conduct independent investigation into illegal activities such as insider trading and manipulation.
  7. In area of boosting capital market activities, there is still room for improvement.
  8. Government policy should be formulated appropriately to encourage creation of new institutions for mobilizing funds, savings and loans and also for closer integration of such institutions. Such policy should aim at curbing the integration problem present in the capital market.
  9. CBN should strengthened its supervisory and regulatory capacity and embark on programmees that will redress the distress in the system including restructuring and liquidation.
  10. In view of its long-standing shortages of skill and professional man power the Nigeria Stock exchange should intensify its staff training.
  11. The Nigeria stock Exchange should also establish a computerize center securities cleaning, settlement and shortened the delay in the delivering of stock transfer certificate.
  12. Above all the security and exchange commission and Nigeria stock Exchange should redouble effort at widening the scope of the nation’s capital market in order to induce a greater number of international investment decision leading to increasing foreign capital placement in the domestic economy.

Progression in this direction must commerce with an urgent and through review of the exchange control Act which has been in operation since 1961 and the provision of which tend to play a major restriction on free movement of capital.

Lastly, it must be stressed that the demand of an increasingly competitive financial world would now make it imperative for the Nigeria capital market to strive toward increased productivity and efficiently in the year ahead.

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