Budgeting In Nigerian University Libraries (A Case Study Of Federal University Of Technology Owerri (FUTO))

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Budgeting In Nigerian University Libraries (A Case Study Of Federal University Of Technology Owerri (FUTO))


Abstract


This research work is based on budgeting in university/ libraries; a case study of FUTO library which is aimed at discarying the effectiveness, efficiency and problems encountered in budgeting the researcher invest for the effect of budgeting in a university libraries and also the important planed by proper budgeting in university / academic libraries and the ability of the library of the library to make use of the fund analysis in carrying out its activities.

The using of budgeting in university libraries background and the state of budgeting, as it affects FUTO Owerri library are received with the aim of identifying the problems and the researcher used a surely method to the opinion and attitudes of respondent and the instant for data collection was questions, which is said to be a list of questions designed by the researcher also the method of data analysis was simple frequency table and simple percentage, it is evident from the founding that proper budgeting in university/ academic libraries plays a vital role in making sure that the library activities and carried out effectively. It was recommended that the library should be allowed to have it’s operation in the unit of any academic institution and in any way.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Historical background of FUTO library
  • 1.3 Statement of the problem
  • 1.4 Scope and limitation
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Significant of the study
  • 1.7 Historical background of FUTO OWerri
  • 1.8 Operational definition of terms budgeting
  • References

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature review
  • 2.2 Concept of funding
  • 2.3 Sources of funds for university / academic libraries
  • 2.4 Gift and private contributions
  • 2.5 Concept, type and techniques for budgeting
  • 2.6 Method and procedures of budgeting
  • Reference

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Research methodology
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Sampling Techniques
  • 3.4 Data collection Instrument
  • 3.5 Procedure for data collection
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Data analysis funding and discussions

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

In the history and development of University Libraries or academic libraries in Nigeria, the problem of budgeting has removed on intractable phenomenon. This factor continues the basic and undeniable element in the accomplishment of the main aims and objective of establishing university / academic libraries.

It is a common practice all over the world among governments organization, institutions, establishing, and even individuals that at the end and beginning of every year of their existence policy statements, programmes and implementation is made on their fiancé. This is referred to as budgeting by conceptualization therefore budgeting is a continuous “present terse” that the process of budgeting is a continuous.

All libraries that are well fined will managed and administered that equally have relevant resources in their collections to aid scholarship and self development educationally and intellectually and provide relevant materials for researchers for research work could be referred to as university libraries (Academic libraries) because they promote academics and provide academic support to individuals and groups of individuals.

But for the purpose of distention, university/ academic libraries are those libraries that are located or situated in an institution of higher learning such as universities, polytechnics and colleges of education and other institution of higher learning.

According to Ifidon and Okoh (2002). Academic libraries are libraries that are attached to tertiary institutions such as universities polytechnics, and colleges of education, they both categorically stated that as the year 2002 there more over 211 academic Agriculture.

According to Oduagwu (2004). Academic or university libraries are “libraries in the institution of higher learning devoted to academic activities of their parent institution” they support teaching, learning and research, furthermore, he gives example of such libraries as libraries found:. Universities, polytechnics colleges of education.

According to Anyanwu, Zander. E and Amadi .E (2006) University or academic libraries are those libraries found in institution of higher learning like universities. Agriculture, research institutions etc. in the case of organization and establishments both governmental and non-governmental their budgeting occurs at the beginning of every fiscal year that is (year of budget).

According to Onwnbiko (2004). He explains that budgeting is a strategic process of planning and determine the expected of expenditure in an organization and the allocation made in order to actualized or execute various organizational programmes, projects and activities.

According to French and Saward (2005)n they explained budgeting as a plan expressed in financial terms. They went further to say that a budget can be viewed as a summary of planed financial expenditure and accepts over a period or related to an activity. They also opines that budgeting is a list of permitted or authorized expenditure.

In view of this for a library to operate and function optimally, it has a join in the practice of budgeting university or academic libraries are expected to present their formal statement of account based on their expected income and expenditure from which to determine the allocation to be made to each of the programmes activities and department of the library budgeting in university libraries is necessary because it assist in performance evaluation

Taster communication, cooperation and coordination it serves as a statutory requirement for government establishment; it is the basis for authorization and calling for management action; budgeting compels planning and also enhances cost benefit analysis through he qualification and cost awareness of various alternate.

According to Owubiko (2004). He is of opinion that important of budgeting and fiscal management in varies is quiet a strategic tool effective programmes planning, decision making programmes implementations and problem solving in library management. This is true because the budget act as a guide line to the library manager to that he will not take up project. (capital or recurrent) that may jeopardize the budget that has been allocated to the library.

Another reason that makes budgeting indispensable is the fact that without budgeting the library manger can not argue favourable before the budgeting of the library, committee and other bodies that will determine the budget of the library, in this case the budget states the needs of the library vividly for the library committee and other relevant bodies to see, this will reduce task of conuicing the bodies that will approve the budget for the library.

Budget is regarded as the process of organizing limited rescues that are short in supply and how they are to be spent in the up coming year by the management of the organization or establishment, it is also seen as a concrete financial statement of accounts based on the expected income and expenditure of an organization that is made at a given period of time usually a year.

Above all, affection budget planning are implementative helps libraries to achieve their overall goals and standard as to place and assuage the information thirst of their clients.

Ability to control the programmes and activities undertaken by the library is another reason why budgeting is necessary because the planned figries become the standard by which the performance of the library is measured. The budget of a library equally acts as a blue prient that enable the library to actualized its goals and objectives and budget is necessary because it is library fiscal programmes.

Library budget also help in the establishment of vivid and unambiguous standards and bench making of performance because the performance of the library is directly compared and measured with the budget base on the state goals and allocation the budget went achieve.

Budgeting represent a logical comprehensive and forward looking financial programmes for the coordination of the activities of the various divisions of library the aim of monitoring and evaluating the process of budget implementation is to determine in good time deviation in the process of implementation as a affects the necessary corrections where and when necessary to achieve the programmes, which the budget is, set out to accomplish.


1.2 Statement Of The Problems

University/ Academic library budgeting has been a major to concern for libraries to fulfill the purpose of existence and budgeting remain a citalel of knowledge it is also said that budgeting is one of major factors that enhance the growth of academic or university libraries.

In many occasions budgeting allocation to university are not recessed at when due which has perverted adequate provision of current materials needed by the staff and student in these institution as with attendant reduction in the quality of education provided.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main objectives of any academic library are to support the teaching, learning and research activities of the parents institution more ever, the objectives of the study encompasses the following:

  1. To identify the types of budget in an academic/ university library.
  2. To investigate the procedure for budgeting in academic libraries
  3. To identify the various constraints to budgeting in academic libraries
  4. To ascertain the adequacy of budgeting to academic libraries

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Who is responsible for preparing budget estimates for library?
  2. Does the adequate of the parent institution to release funds are at when due to the library minimized their ability to acquire materials for the library?
  3. Does inadequate budget in academic/ university libraries limit the scope of services to the clienteles?
  4. Does the inability of the libraries to carry out effective preparation of budget hinder academic libraries?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

Ordinarily the scope of this study covers the university/ Academic libraries in Nigeria as the research population but owning to the specific requirement for this research work the study particularly is paying attention on the budgeting in academic/ university libraries and also to identify the inability factors to effective budgeting the case study is based on the Federal University of Technology Owerri FUTO


1.6 Significance Of The Study

This study is meant to extend the frontiers of human knowledge in clearing with budgeting in academic/ university libraries the study would be of great significance to the libraries and its parents institution as it supports better planning for budgeting.

It will also provide them with ready reference documents with which they with know the procedures of budgeting in academic libraries and the problems attesting budgeting


1.7 Historical Background Of Federal University Of Technology Owerri (Futo)

The Federal University of Technology Owerri was established as one of the Technological universities established by the federal government of Nigeria in 1980 but did not admitted students until 1981-1982 academic year. Initially it was located in a temporary site known as take compos up to 1992 the university in mind 1993 was moned to its permanent site which is about (25) kilometers south west of the city center of Owerri, programmes of study in the university are structured under twenty degree awarding department of four school known as faculties in most traditional universities.

The four schools are the schools

  1. School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT)
  2. School of Engineering and Engineering Technology (SEET)
  3. School of Management and Technology (SMAT) Department of Agricultural Economics and extension crop science and Technology.

The library as at December 2000 had 964 forinall titles which in tura enabled it to maintain 3982 bound (excluding news papers and magazines annual reports, year books and pamphlets but including serious news letters and buttetion) its books stock as at the above stated year 2000 was 25, 545 volumes excluding maps, Audio-Visuals materials video tapes cassesttee, transparences etc.

Acquisition of books in Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) has the following three main sources. Over seas subscriptions
Direct subscriptions to local publishers
Gift and donations


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms Budgeting

The word budgeting can be defined as the mechanism for the allocation of resource as an instrument for prisuing deficiency and translation of financial resources into human need.

University Libraries:

This can be defined as libraries established, ministered and administered in university or any other tertiary institution of higher learning to meet the educational needs of the institution aimed at providing materials mainly for reading and research.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation.

5.1 Summary Of Findings.

The study on budgeting in university /academic libraries was undertaken to identify the efficiency effectiveness and problems surrounding budgeting in university libraries.

The researcher discovered that budgeting in university /academic libraries is quite a strategic tools for effective programme planning decision making programme implementation and problem solving in library management. It is therefore, sine-quenm for the effective and efficient operation of a library more so, that is university librarian cannot afford to ignore in preparing his budget at the end of every fiscal year. Without budgeting, the university librarian can not argue favourably before the library committee or the state economic planning commission on the reasons why favourable government budgetary allocation should be made to the library. Above all, effective planning and implementation in university, libraries will make the libraries to achieve their overall goa is and standards to please the information thirst of their clients.

To this end, therefore, the imperative of the use of budgetary as a management tool can not be nelegated to the background in the university libraries.


5.2 Conclusion

The issue of budgeting in university libraries has been over emphasis by many authors in different perspectives. They all stressed the adverse effects of inadequate budgeting and funding inn university /academic libraries in the realization of it’s stated goals. This factor constitutes the basic and undeniable element in the successful establishment sustenance and accomplishment of the main objectives of the institution. Infect, university/ academic libraries is a vital, indispensable and sensitive unit many higher institution and so demands proper budgeting, planning and organization if it is to achieve it’s desired goals and objectives.

Considering the economic situation in the country it is imperative to now that inadequate budgeting and funding is one of the major problems affecting the administration of the university /academic libraries.

From the date collected, one would say that this has contributed to the main problem of the university/ academic library of Federal University of Technology Library Owerri (FUTO) which have paralyzed the entire system of the library and also deter library from actually and sincerely implementing it’s functions in the academic community where it is being located.

In the course of this research and from the researcher observation, the university library being undertaken are faced with the following problems as a result of inadequate budgeting, funding and meager annual allocation. They includes the following.

Accommodation:

There is lack of accommodation which hinders the effective actualization of objectives of the university libraries

Lack Of Qualified Staff:

The problem of inadequate staffing has bedeviled the library from rendering qualitative services to it’s clients, this has posed a lot of problems to the administrative of the library and as a result of this, problem, many library activities has remain paralyzed.

Inadequate Budgeting:

The inadequate budgeting in federal university of technology library Owerri (FUTO) hence affected the collection development of the library staffing, organization and administrative of the library for this reasons, it have shown the growth of the library.

Acyling carefully and painstaking carries out and reviewed budgeting situation in the library, the researcher deemed it right to proffer some suggestions that will help turnaround the collection of library of federal university of technology library Owerri and other facing the same problem.


5.3 Recommendation

From the data, the effect of budgeting were highlighted from the observation on these problems and their adverse effect in the entire library development, the researcher hereby proffers the following suggestion

Allocation:

The allocation of library should be increased to reflect with the current trend. There should be a clear-out budget for books and periodicals and the library, it self the library is a useful tool in the administration and an instrument of operational control which the librarian must effectively use.

Collection Development

In view of the fact that no mater the rule of proper budgeting, no library can be self sufficient co-coperative acquisition scheme should be introduced and encouraged whereby a libraries acquire materials and make it available to their users. Library should also negotiate with organizations, philanthropists and foreign aids for materials assistances

Functional Library Committee:

The existence of a functional library committee is suggested for all university/ academic libraries considering the advantages derived from such committee in development of the library and in the proper discussion of library matters.

Fund Generation:

In the face of inadequate budgeting as a result of economic crunch, university/ academic library’s should endeavor to engage in fund generating venture like reprographic services such as photocopying publishing, binding, consultancy, services etc. To augment the allocation from the institutions total budget.

The researcher recommends that the lump-sum budgeting should be used which allows the librarian to be fully in control of the allocation of the library and this system should be adopted by all institutions of higher in the country. This as a matter of fact, would help and enable the librarian with his professional knowledge to plan, organize and build the library and it’s collections for the easy realization of the it’s aims and objectives which is in line with that of the parent institution.


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