Budgeting And Budgetary Control In A Business Organization (A Case Study Of Afri Bankk Nigeria Plc. Ilorin)

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

Budgeting And Budgetary Control In A Business Organization (A Case Study Of Afri Bankk Nigeria Plc. Ilorin)


In carrying out on investigation into an Afri -Bank of Nigeria plc, the major objective of any business Organization is base on profit maximization and improved future which leads to use of budgeting and burglary control, business organization to enhance growth and survival of the organization.

  • Chapter one of this project work : Will explain what study of background is all about the statement of problems, the aims and objectives of the study , the significant and scope of the study , the limitation and research hypothesis and definition of terms and concept.
  • Chapter two: Will review the relative literature e.g the Historical development, meaning and usefulness of budgeting and budgetary control in business organization,
    Types and budgeting process, preparation and administration of budget, fundamental principles and budget implementation and control including Budgetary improvement techniques.
  • Chapter three: this chapter will expose the research methodology ie research design, characteristic of the study population, sampling method, research instrument and as well method of data process.
  • Chapter four of this project work will simply talk of presentation interpretation and analysis of it shows that the organization’s staff agreed that the organization prepare budget.
  • Chapter five: This will be the last chapter of the research work and it‘ll summary, conclusion and recommendation and questionnaire, the reliant and useful point of action that will solve the study problems.

Tables of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Aims and objective of the study
  • 1.4 Significant of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Research hypothesis
  • 1.8 Definition of terms and concepts

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Historical development of budgeting
  • 2.3 Meaning of budget, budgeting and budgetary control
  • 2.4 Usefulness of budgeting in business organization
  • 2.5 Types of budget
  • 2.6 Preparation and administration of budget
  • 2.7 Budgeting and administration of budget
  • 2.8 Fundamental principles of budget
  • 2.9 Budgetary improvement techniques
  • 2.10 Budget implementation and control

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Characteristics of the study population
  • 3.2 Sampling method
  • 3.3 Research instrument
  • 3.4 Method of data process
  • 3.5 Questionnaires

Chapter Four

Presentation Interpretation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Presentation of data
  • 4.2 Analysis of data

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The fundamental question which should be asked about any enterprises is “How well is it doing?” ad his can be rightly answered accessing the extent to which the objectives of the enterprises are achieved.

The major objectives of the enterprises are achieved, base on profit maximization and improved future profit tend to enhance growth and survival. The increasing complexity of the business and ever changing condition of the business environment, social environment technological and political changes have made companies investors and management to realize the need for new techniques to protect and improve performance.

To achieve the Afro- mentioned objects it becomes imperative for management of business organization to develop ways of attaining them.

The available instrument at Management’s disposal is the adoption of adequate planning and control. one of the basic device used in planning and controlling the activities of business enterprise is by means of financial standard and management of budgeting and budgetary control.

To many the terms can not retraining influence on action service the needs or opportunity which the enterprise would like to service budgeting remains the most tactical budget is essentially on agenda setting. It is carefully designed, packaged and aimed at achieving the goals and objective of business organization or individual with the limited resources at their disposal.

According to fubara( 1988) in his book “ business management principle and strategies.

He further and described budgeting is a means of utilizing collective knowledge of an enterprise to prepare a co-ordinate plan for future activities.

Budgeting control is a techniques that emphasizes control of plan by companing actual result against target to identify variance upon which corrective measure should be taken to improve the performance of the enterprises.

The primary function of business organization is production of goods and services and make it available for the consumers when ever is needed. All these functions are performed in order to achieve the organizations goals which is profit maximization. Performances are evaluated based on the actual result. To achieve the organizational objectives there is need for adequate planning and control, efficient budgeting and effective budgetary control system in business organization.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Budgeting and budgetary control is very important in business organizational due to its function in relation to planning , organize coordinating and controlling functions of management forwards.

Successful realization of the organizational objective. Performance evaluation in business organization is usually base on effective decision making and efficient resources allocation. These have been affected due to the incorporate of budget and budgetary control.

This improper budgetary control responsible for poor performance of some business organization most business organization do prepare budget. Yet there are deviation from such budgets and they fail to investigate the causes deviation and thus take appropriate corrective measures to prevent re-occurrence most business organization sues budgeting as just useful for planning purpose but refuse to take cognizance of its benefits whom to revise budgets to make it reflect prevailing situation or whom to hold responsible for budget vacancies.

1.3 Aims and Objective of the Study

The main aim of this research work is to examine budgeting and budgetary control in business organization in order to see the extent to which it’s to be applied in management planning and control.

These are some of the aims of the research work.

  1. To examine the procedure for drawing up budget in business organization and to know how budget are being approved implanted, improved and revised.
  2. To know who there budgeting and budgetary controls assist the managements of business organization effective decision making and efficient resources allocation.
  3. To know whether the use of budgeting and budgetary control is indispensable to achieve organizational goals and objective.
  4. To evaluate performance by comparing budgetary with actual result of the business stand
  5. To know whether budgeting and budgetary control serves as a communication tools between the top management and the low staff.
  6. To provide a useful l recommendation on the application of budgeting and budgetary control as means of improving business performance.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Several research work have been carried out on budget and budgetary control in various business organization like manufacturing , pharmaceutical and oil industries.

This research work can be said to be a fair work on the topic. This research will share more light on the efficient resources and effective decision making in business organization.

This research work can be said to be a fair work on the topic. This research will share more light on the efficient resources and effective decision – making in business organization.

It will also help the student to know how relevance budgeting and budgetary control is to an individual and business organization.

1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work will examine in details budgeting and budgetary control with emphasis on how its application aids in planning and controlling of activities of business organization to enhance or improve performance.

There are different types of banks as a business organization but commercial bank are the prominent types of business organization because of the n umber size therefore this research work is limited to commercial bank with Afri Bank Plc as a case study.

1.6 Limitation of the Study

Firstly, this research has the limitation of financial problems in the cause of carrying out the study.

Secondly, it was that due to time factor as the research was carried out along with academic work. Also, detailed budgeting statement and the corresponding actual result are not made available by the bank because of high confidentiality and very competition in the banking industries.

However, it is the researchers believe that the finding of the research will represent the pictorial of budgeting and budgetary control of the study.

1.7 Research Hypothesis

The research shall focus and test the following alternative hypothesis.

The hypothesis is denoted with Ho alternative is denoted with Hi

  • Ho: There is no proper budgeting and effective budgetary in business organization.
  • Hi: applications of budgetary control system do performance of business organization in terms of objectives realization.

1.8 Definition of Terms and Concepts

  • Budget is a document containing words and figures which proposes expenditure for certain items and purpose.
  • Budget is a document or a collection of document that refers to the financial condition of an organization.
  • Budget is also merlya plan expressed in quantitative terms.
Terms of Budget
1. Budget cycle:

Public budgeting system which are devise for selecting society ends and consist of numerous participants

2. Budget preparation and submission:

Phase of the budget is carried out by the executive aim of the government.

3. Budget authorization:

Having compiled the various department estimates, the draft budget is new to be sent to the legislatures for authorization

4. Executive of the budget:

Budget execution commences the moment the presidents signs the general warrant incur expenditure execution invest the transaction of financial outlays approved in the budget plants of action.

5. Line item budgeting:

Is the tradition budgeting it is oldest types of budget.

6. Performance budget:

Was aimed at enhancing effectiveness and improving efficiency in public budgeting.

7. Planning programming budgeting system:

Approach to budgetary decision making is a system approach that attempts to influence the choice.

Some Budget Concepts
i. Recurrent revenue:

This include the year to year revenue of government from sources like taxes fines free specific charges profit.

ii. Capital receipt:

These are in form of loan and graint

iii. Capital expenditure:

This involves expenditure on productive economic activities i.e on agricultural road , Hospital and university etc.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The research work focused of finding whether the uses of budgeting and budgetary control assist business organization to achieve their aims and objectives in terms of improved performance with AfriBank Nigeria Plc ilorin as a case study.

Based on section B of the questionnaire from table vii it shows that 17 out of the 22 respondents representing 77.2% agreed that the organization prepare budget as 5 out of the respondent representing 22.73% disagreed that the organization prepared budget . since 17 out of the respondent a agreed that the organization prepared budget it shows that the organization prepared budget.

From table viii, 10 out of the 22 respondents representing 45.45% agreed that the organization prepared budget, as 5 out of the 22 respondent representing 22.37% ticked that it is flexible budget this shows that fixed budgets prepared in the organization. From table ix, 16 out of the 22 respondent representing 72.73% agreed that budget is prepared by the senior staff , which 6 out of the 22 respondent representing 27.77% ticked that budget is prepared by the junior staff. This shows that senior staff are responsible for the preparation of budget.

From x,2 out of the 22 respondents representing 81.82% supported that budget is approved by te budget committee. This shows that budget is approve by the budget committee.

From table xi, ii out of the 22 respondent representing 50% supported that budget is reviewed quarterly as 3 out of the 22 respondent representing 1.64% supported that budget is reviewed every month. It shows that budget is reviewed quarterly.

From table xii, 18 out of the 22 respondent representing 81.82% agreed that there are no problem face while operation with budget in the organization , while 4 out of the 22 respondent representing 18.18% disagreed that there are no problem face while operating with budget in the organization they implies that there are no problem faced while operating with budget.

5.2 Conclusion

The uses of budget is a planning and control tools to assist business organization in the attainment of their objectives . However it is not a cure for all organization problem, because if budget is not properly implemented it may create more problems for the organization.

The result of this research work has been shown that for effective budgeting system certain principles and condition have to adhere to which includes.

Budgeting education among the staff. All staff must be educated on the importance and implication of dissuading budget for effective and budgetary control system.

Management commitment for the success of budgetary control levels of management in the organization must be committee.

The interpretation of the result where given offer the computation and decision were taken from the result where given offer that computation and decision were taken from the result of the questionnaire these include.

Business organization does prepare budgets and problem do occur where these budgets are compared with actual result.

Business organization does not always attain their budget a through they record a very high degree of attainable and only very large problem investigated.

Budgetary control is rational tool for efficient resources allocation and effective decision making.

Budgetary control is an effective instrument in the minimization of variances in the budget of the bank .

That all levels of management i.e top , senior and junior staff participate in the preparation of and implementation of budget.

That that approval and review of the budget is the work of committee, junior and senior staff.

Effective budgetary control enhances improved performance in terms of objective realization.

5.3 Recommendations

In order to make Budgeting and budgetary control system effective in terms of planning , cost reduction , profit maximization and consequently improved performance for business organization the following recommendation are provided there need for training and education of all levels. Of staff on the importance at lower level so that the budget will who and express a great view of the organizing seminar and training budgeting and budgetary control .

The adoption of a flexible budgetary system to cater for the changes in the environment under which the organization operate is strongly advocated.

Linking annual financial plan ( budget) with strategic plan of the organization retranses the usefulness of a budgetary control . it is important that budgetary information provided for decision making is understandable promptly available and where possible presented in a manner , which the manger prefers. It is therefore recommended that organization should be made to design its information technology in a manner that would meet the requirement of its manager for prompt and timely decision.

A good general appreciation and conceptual knowledge of budgetary control among manager is highly recommended.

There is need to improve an information system, efficient date is necessary for an efficient budgeting system. The account department must be fully involved in budgeting setting by assisting with all information at appropriate timing and directed all the right level of management.

Management by exception will of great use for organization in the investigation of variances, finally organization should try and introduce co-orporate planning unit in order to enhance adequate budget planning and control and consequently improve performances.

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