Bribery And Corruption Implications And Challenges On National Development
This study was carried out on bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development. To achieve this, 6 significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of EFCC, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 114respondents while 110 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of bribery and corruption practices in Nigeria is high, and the extent for which bribery and corruption has affected the sustainability of Nigeria economy is high. The findings also revealed that bribery and corruption has to a high extent contributed to Nigeria’s perpetual underdevelopment. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that there is the need for enlightenment in discouraging excessive materialism and the culture of ‘get rich quick’, employment for the teeming youths and incorporation of human rights and development perspectives into anti-corruption work. In order for Nigeria to successfully combat corruption, there is the need for a mechanism that will transform dramatically the culture and legacy of corruption.
1.1 Background of the Study
The truism that bribery and corruption is a surest route that hinders development in any society does not need contention. Though, in some quarters, it is argued that bribery and corruption could trigger development (Otite, 2016). However, despite this assertion, there is a widespread held opinion condemning bribery and corruption in all ramifications and hence, worldwide outcry and call for eradicating the scourge. Evidence may abound that bribery and corruption could aid development; no such evidence could be claimed to any root most especially developing state (Nigeria inclusive). Compelling evidences across the globe demonstrate that bribery and corruption is an anathema to development (khan, 2012). Furthermore, evidences in Nigeria have shown that bribery and corruption does more harm than good. This is evident in the fact that despite Nigeria’s abundant natural resources the country is classified among poor countries in the world. Added to this is the fact that about 54% of the population earns less than $1 per day. It needs to be stated that the incidence of extreme paradoxes of widespread and endemic poverty and hunger in the midst of plenty is a manifestation of corruption enmeshed in deteriorating condition of living (Ali, 2008). Statistics had also shown that “Nigeria is among the four largest economies in Africa” with a real GDP of 58.4 billion dollar and a population of about 140m” (Ibid).
Similarly, the enormous revenue generation capacity from oil and non-oil sectors, woefully contrasts with the decaying public infrastructures and extent of institutional development recorded. As it was rightly asserted by Salawu (2007), the phenomenon of corruption in Nigeria, as well as bribery has made it impossible for Nigerians to enjoy the dividends of democracy and indeed the gifts of nature with which the country is greatly and abundantly endowed. This scenario is an acknowledgement that the state of affair in the country today is a reflection of pervasive corruption which has eaten deep into every facets of Nigeria life. Without gain saying, it is a wide held belief that bribery and corruption is a way of life in Nigeria and that it is responsible for broken promises and dashed hopes which has characterized the lives of most Nigerians. It is not surprising to hear people saying that Nigerians are corrupt. Making it a fait complain. More so, Nigeria is a country where bribery and corruption is rife and where greed for material acquisition and quest for political power had relegated to the background morals preached by various religions. This is because despite our claim to be religious, our quest for relevance had made nonsense of our self acclaimed religiousity and nothing can be left undone by our elites and non-elites for the realization their self desire.The end, it is believed, justifies the means. To this end, there is now the increasing realisation about the ill effects of corruption on the nation’s social, political and economic fabrics. Though, it is evident that there is no country that is totally free from bribery and corruption, the incidences of bribery and corruption is on the increase especially in poor and underdeveloped states. The Anti corruption efforts of the Nigerian government have proved ineffective, hence, large scale corrupt related cases, accusations and counter-accusations. There were cases of bribery, missing funds, police pensions scam, missing oil revenue or non-remittance into the federation account, contract scam, oil theft, administrative inefficiency or dereliction of duty, illegal sale or allotment of government land and property, bribery, extortion and other forms of corruption, economic and financial crimes. Therefore, from the aforementioned, this study tends to examine bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bribery and Corruption has already married Nigeria and the surviving strength is slim because it has eaten deep into the Nation’s fabric and national life. It is more rampant in the public sector. The political office holders both at the federal, State and local level engage in be wilding corruption.
Contextually, corruption is a form of dishonesty or unethical behaviour by a person(s) entrusted with position of authority (Wikipedia, 2017). it include but not limited to actions such as bribery, embezzlement, diversion of public funds, goods and services for personal or parochial interest. While corruption is multifaceted and can be on a small or large scale. One of the biggest challenges plaguing Nigeria since independence is the issue of bribery and corruption. In fact, bribery and corruption is said to be the bane of Nigeria’s development, causing the nation’s perpetual underdevelopment with the loss of funds that could have been used to fast-track the development of Nigeria (Onyemelukwe, 2004; Onosode, 1993). Bribery and corruption in Nigeria is so endemic that it has stifled economic growth and development affecting every sector negatively. Nigeria at the moment, is still ranked as one of the poorest nations in the world, in spite of the vast human and natural resources the nation is blessed with (Nwaze, 2012). Given the diverse nature of corruption in Nigeria, the focus of this study is on bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general focus of this study is on bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development. However, the specific objectives which falls inline with the overall aim of this research are outlined below;
- Ascertain the prevalence of bribery and corruption in Nigeria.
- Determine the extent to which bribery and corruption has affected the development of Nigeria economy.
- Determine the extent to bribery and corruption contributes to Nigeria’s perpetual underdevelopment.
- Determine whether bribery and corruption in Nigeria has contributed to the rate of unemployment in the country.
- Determine whether bribery and corruption in Nigeria has resulted to disincentive of foreign direct investments.
- Determine whether bribery and corruption contribute to the rate of youths’ restiveness and other societal crimes.
1.4 Research Question
The study will be guided by the questions below;
- What is the prevalence of bribery and corruption in Nigeria?
- To what extent has bribery and corruption affected the sustainability of Nigeria economy?
- To what extent to bribery and corruption contributes to Nigeria’s perpetual underdevelopment.
- To what extent has bribery and corruption in Nigeria contributed to the rate of unemployment in the country?
- Does the act of bribery and corruption in Nigeria result to disincentiveness of foreign direct investments?
- To what extent has bribery and corruption contributed to the rate of youths’ restiveness and other societal crimes in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The totality of this study will provide the basis for developing appropriate ways of curbing corruption in order to enhance and sustain democracy in Nigeria. Because the issue of corruption is not only found within the African continent alone, it encompasses all other continent. Corruption is endemic everywhere, the costs of addressing corruption are prohibitively high, and the few resources that exist should be spent on enforcement measures, such as high- profile government watchdog agencies.
But, in fact, there is increasing evidence that the economic costs of corruption are enormous; levels of corruption vary widely among developing countries; controlling corruption is feasible, and strategies to address corruption need to pay more attention to its root causes and thus to the roles of incentives, prevention, and specific economic and institutional reforms. For instance, the role of economic and financial crime commission (EFCC) at the national level and other related offence agency.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to challenges and implications of bribery and corruption in Nigeria. The respondents for the study will be obtained from the office of EFCC in Imo State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definition of Terms
According to Khan’s definition, is an act which deviates from the rules of conduct governing the actions of someone in a position of public authority because of private motive such as wealth, power or status.” Also, Paulo Mauno (1997), has observed, bureaucratic corruption can be traced to government international in the economy, policies aimed liberalization, stabilization, deregulation, and privatization.
Is designed to eradicate or prevent dishonest or fraudulent conduct especially in a political context.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on bribery and corruption implications and challenges on National development. The study is was specifically carried out to; ascertain the prevalence of bribery and corruption in Nigeria, determine the extent to which bribery and corruption has affected the development of Nigeria economy, determine the extent to bribery and corruption contributes to Nigeria’s perpetual underdevelopment, determine whether bribery and corruption in Nigeria has contributed to the rate of unemployment in the country, determine whether bribery and corruption in Nigeria has resulted to disincentive of foreign direct investments, and determine whether bribery and corruption contribute to the rate of youths’ restiveness and other societal crimes.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of EFCC,Imo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The prevalence of bribery and corruption practices in Nigeria is high.
- The extent for which bribery and corruption has affected the sustainability of Nigeria economy is high
- Bribery and corruption has to a high extent contributed to Nigeria’s perpetual underdevelopment.
- The extent to which bribery and corruption in Nigeria has contributed to the rate of unemployment in the country is high.
- The act of bribery and corruption in Nigeria results to disincentiveness of foreign direct investments.
- The extent to which bribery and corruption has contributed to the rate of youths’ restiveness and other societal crimes in Nigeria is high.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
1. There is the need for enlightenment in discouraging excessive materialism and the culture of ‘get rich quick’, employment for the teeming youths and incorporation of human rights and development perspectives into anti-corruption work. In order for Nigeria to successfully combat corruption, there is the need for a mechanism that will transform dramatically the culture and legacy of corruption. Positive transformation of Nigeria can only occur through addressing the root causes of corruption and through effectively implementing the legal mechanisms already in place. Nigeria has introduced economic reforms through privatisation, deregulation, removal of market restrictions, and civil service reform with the aim at promoting the integrity of public service. These measures are all very important in the fight against corruption, but the key factor to galvanise and orchestrate these measures is having honest leaders with the political will to tackle corruption. Provision of appropriate punishment for corruption in and of itself is not sufficient to eliminate •Corruption. The phenomenon of corruption has multiple causes, and is determined by more than just seeing people go unpunished for engaging in corrupt behaviour.
2. The anti-corruption war in Nigeria and particularly EFCC as an institution responsible for fighting the war, have to be align with the current realities, because public morals may loosen, and the battle against corruption may well be lost if Nigeria’s anti-corruption war continue to be affected by controversies which are political in nature and EFCC continue to stick to its current style of prosecuting it mission.
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