Boko Haram Crisis And The Socio-Political Development Of Nigeria (A Case Study Of Niger State)

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Boko Haram Crisis And The Socio-Political Development Of Nigeria (A Case Study Of Niger State)


Abstract


This research work attempt to examine the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria and how it undermines socio-political development, with Niger State being our case study. The work has five chapters, each chapter structured in analyzing the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria and how it affects the socio-political development of Nigeria. To do this, the researcher developed two hundred (200) questions, these questions were administered in form of questionnaires to 400 people who were selected as a sample of the population primary and secondary data were used as a source of data while tables and percentages were used in organizing and presenting the data collected. The data analysis revealed that Boko Haram crisis has created so many backwardness, hatred, national disintegration and lack of unity in Nigeria.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over the years, Nigeria has experienced series of attacks and blast in most region of the country. The violent agitation by Militants in the Niger Delta region (MEND) has often led to loss of lives and properties otherwise known as “Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta. So many spirited groups hide under this body to carry out their nefarious acts of rebellion govern the Nigerian state to express their governances over the degradations of the operation of the multinational organization. Similarly, there are groups that exist in other parts of the country and they include; the “Odua People’s Congress (OPC) which is located in the South-West. They are often called the Afeinifere group. There exists also the “Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), in the South-East while the „Boko Haram‟ uses the Northern part of the country as their operational base. This research study will critically scrutinize and evaluate the activities of the latter amongst the above mentioned political and or religious sects, because that is the thrust of this research. It can be deduced that socio-political development are instrumental to the incessant crisis that has bedeviled our beloved country „Nigeria‟ today. People are said to be poor when they experience lack of sufficient income to purchase material needs which often excludes individuals from partaking in generally accepted activities of daily life in the society at large. According to ALI MAZRUI in his „Paradox of Retardation‟, Africa is not the poorest of the regions of the world but it is the most retarded. He argued that Africans are richly endowed; as such they have no reason to be poor. In spite the fact that June 10, 2006 marked 50 years of oil exploration and production, and over & 400 billion accrued to the Nigerian state in terms of revenue, Nigeria is still referred to as one of the poorest and developing countries in the world. Boko Haram as the name denotes, does not have one particular meaning. The name more or less connotes different meanings to different people. The group is a Nigerian Islamic group that seeks the imposition of Sharia Law throughout the whole of Nigeria. Figuratively members of this group believe that “Western education is a sin”.

Presently, the group has an undefined structure and chain of command. It is of a paramount importance to note that the official name of the group is „Jama‟ atu Ahlis Sunna, Lidda‟ await Wal-Jihad‟, which means or rather is tantamount to “People committed to the propagation of the prophets teaching and Jihad”. Since its formation in 2002 in Maiduguri by the leader of the group Mohammed Yusuf, the Boko Haram has been a thorn in the flesh of Nigeria’s security agencies, precisely the police force, over its opposition to western education that it believes is a sin. In the year 2004, the Islamic fundamentalist group relocated its base to Kanamma, Yobe State. The new location was named “Afghanistan”, and from there, the group set about attacking and leaving members of the Nigerian Police Lifeless. Almost the various crises due to bombings carried out by the Boko Haram are:

  • The Nigeria sectarian violence in the year 2009.
  • The Bauchi Prison Break on the 7th of September 2010
  • Abuja attack on the 31st of December, 2010
  • Northern Nigeria bombings on the 29th of May, 2011
  • Abuja Police headquarters bombing on the 16th of June, 2011
  • Bombing at the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State on the 10th of July, 2011.
  • Bombing of the Abuja United nations Building on the 26th of August, 2011.
  • Damaturu attacks on Friday, November 4th 2011.
  • St. Theresa Catholic Church attack in Madalla at Suleja, Niger State on the 25th of December 2011.
  • Kano ttacks on 20th of January, 2012 Suicide bombing at the Army Headquarters in Kaduna on the 8th of February, 2012.

Just to mention but a few.

In conclusive, having said all these at this juncture, this research work will critically analyze the two concepts i.e. Socio-political development and Boko Haram in order to create a better understanding in the minds of the readers and more so, to contribute to existing knowledge of literature.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is no longer new that the activities of the Boko Haram and other similar political and or religious sects have often led to loss of properties, lives, and even the breakdown of laws and order, peace and security in the Nigerian society at large. It has been observed that a lot of attacks have been made onto many states, which include even the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. What puzzles most observers is the fact that most of these attacks are not carried out by suicide bombers yet the culprits often get away unharmed. This leaves a big question mark in our security agencies as regards to their duty in the protection of lives and properties, and the procurement of weapons of mass destruction to combat this menace which is eating deep into the Nigerian society today. Without being said, Boko Haram crisis do not have any advantage instead it is a vicious and nefarious act carried out by individuals for their selfish desires, the motivating factor being to control the religious and political power. However, it is the above stated problems that instigated the researcher into investigating on the topic “Security challenges and its implication on national development in Nigeria using boko haram sects as case study”


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
  2. To ascertain the national implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
  3. To make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis.
  4. To ascertain the socio-political and religious implication of Boko haram crisis in Nigeria

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
    H1: there are causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
  2. H02: the socio-political and religious is not implication of Boko haram crisis in Nigeria
    H2: the socio-political and religious is implication of Boko haram crisis in Nigeria

1.5 Significance of the Study

There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this research study is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria from the year 2002 till date. This is because of its sudden nature.The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


1.7 Definition of Terms

Boko Haram:

The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa word “Boko” meaning “Animist” western or otherwise non-Islamic education‖, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means “sin” but literally, “forbidden”. In order words, Boko Harm means “western education is forbidden or is a sin”.

Violence:

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or deprivation.

National Security:

National security is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and well being.

Development:

The act or process of bringing to a more advanced state, growth, progress etc. it is also the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and stronger etc


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain Boko haram crisis and socio political development of Nigeria

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of Boko haram crisis and socio political development of Nigeria


5.2 Summary

This study was on Boko haram crisis and socio political development of Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included:To ascertain the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, to ascertain the national implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, to make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis, to ascertain the socio-political and religious implication of Boko haram crisis in Nigeria.In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents in selected local government of Borno State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up village heads,youth leaders,elderly men and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

Boko Haram sect is not just any militia group in Nigeria pursuing its legitimate interest in the society. This is a fringe terrorist group that has virtually declared war on Nigerian state on the account demanding for cancellation of secular constitution of the state. It has killed and destroyed hundreds of innocents Nigerians through suicide bombings in several states of the federation. Boko Haram sect has sacked police stations and other security formations, catering away arms and ammunition from them. The group have assaulted prisons and freed criminals.

Consequently, insecurity becomes the order of the day, where bandits had grown wings, trying to overpower the custodian of the nation‘s socio-economic development. This resulted to poverty and underdevelopment, weak public institutions, poor governance, and unethical leadership. Boko Haram insurgency is catastrophic and needs quick response, due to its significant effects on the health, welfare of the people and political stability on Nigerian state. Federal government should be bold enough to deal decisively with those found in connection with the BokoHaram irrespective of their highly placed in the society. The government of Nigeria should partner with the international community in addressing the Boko Haram insurgency.

Insurgency is a global phenomenon; therefore, it is advisable that it should also be addressed through global collaboration. In promoting foreign investment and sustainable development in the region, federal and state governments should show more concern and interest in using their skilful and professional competence to bring about security and safety of the environment for the Nigerian and foreign investors.


5.4 Recommendation

The real panacea for solving insecurity challenge in Nigeria is for government to accelerate the pace of development. Development in this context consists of creating an economy with relevant social, economic and physical infrastructure for business operations and industrial growth, to provide gainful employment, high level of educational facilities, and medical care for the people. Governments at all levels should ensure that rising poverty indices are reversed and a realistic social security programme is pursued and systematically implemented to ensure that the populace meets their basic needs.


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