Biochemical Evaluation Of Avocado Pear Leaf (Persea Americana)

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Chemistry

Biochemical Evaluation Of Avocado Pear Leaf (Persea Americana)


Abstract


Chemical evaluation of Avocado Pear leaves. During the process of my research temperature for drying the sample was not high to avoid protein denature temperature between 50oc and 60oc was used. the proximate analysis which include the carbohydrate determination was 69. 65%, SD ± 0.01, the protein was 14.00%, SD ± 0.01, the crude fat was 7.3%, SD ± 0.02,the crude fibre was 3.7%, SD ± 0.04 the ash content was 5.26% ± 50 0.01, the moisture content was 59.84%, SD ± 0.02 and the caloric value was 401.11kcal. SD ± 00.1. the anti-nutrients determination includes; the hydrocyanide (HCN), which was 104.17mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, the phytate with 30.40mg/100g SD ± 0.01 the oxalate with 158.40mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, and the tannins with 1361.19mg/100g, SD ± 0.02. and also, the antioxidant vitamins determination which includes; the vitamin A and C. the Vitamin A determination was found to be 70.00mg/100g, SD ± 0.01, and vitamin C determination was reported as 832.72mg/100g, SD ± 0.01.

Keywords; Avocado leaves, Carbohydrate, Protein, Hydrocyanide, Phytate, Vitamins.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Dedication
  • Certification i
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background information
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the problem
  • 1.4 Justification of the study
  • 1.5 Aim and Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Botanical Description
  • 2.2 How to make avocado leaves tea for kidney cleansing
  • 2.3 Phytochemistry
  • 2.4 Pharmacological Activity
  • 2.4.1 Vascorelaxant Activity
  • 2.4.2 Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity
  • 2.4.3 Hypotensive activity
  • 2.4.4 Anti convulsant effect
  • 2.4.5 Anti-viral activity
  • 2.4.6 Wound healing activity
  • 2.4.7 Antiulcer effect
  • 2.4.8 Antihepatotoxic activity
  • 2.4.9 Antioxidant activity
  • 2.4.10 Hypoglycemic activity
  • 2.4.11 Effect on Body weight

Chapter Three

3.0 Collection of Sample

  • 3.1 Determination of moisture content
  • 3.2 Ash content
  • 3.3 Determination of crude protein content
  • 3.4 Estimation of crude fibre content
  • 3.5 Carbohydrate estimation
  • 3.6 Caloric Value estimation
  • 3.7 Determination of total vitamin
  • 3.8 Vitamin C
  • 3.9 Estimation of Vitamin A
  • 3.10 Determination of total Oxalate
  • 3.11 Estimation of Tannin
  • 3.12 Determination of hydrocyanic Acid
  • 3.12 Determination of Phytic acid

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Carbohydrate
  • 4.2 Protein
  • 4.3 Ash
  • 4.4 Fibre
  • 4.5 Calories content
  • 4.6 Lipid content
  • 4.7 Moisture content
  • 4.8 Total vitamin
  • 4.8.1 Vitamin A
  • 4.8.2 Vitamin C
  • 4.9 Anti-nutrient
  • 4.9.1 Oxalate
  • 4.9.2 Phytic acid
  • 4.9.3 Tannin
  • 4.9.4 Hydrocyanic acid
  • 4.10 Removal of anti-nutritional factor

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Avocados (Persea Americana) were first cultivated in South Americanwith later migration to Mexico (Slater et al, 1988).

They were seen in the United State in the early 1800’s.

There are more than 80 varieties, with the “Hass” variety dominating the crop share, Avocados are loaded with nutrients such as dietary fiber, vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Potassium, Magnesium and folate. The leaves Contains anti-nutrients such as, hydrocyanide, oxalate, phytate and tannins. They are also rich in other nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fibres, fat, moisture and ash and calories. They are cholesterol and sodium free (Smith et al, 2002). Avocados are large berry that contains a single large seed. They are Seasonal fruit and usually on a tall tree plant with green leaves and flowers during the pre-climatic period. They are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the world. The fruits are green-skinned, fleshly bodies that may be Pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical and may change colour when they are ripe depending on their varieties. For example; the Hass Avocado variety has a dark green-coloured, bumby skin, it is a large-sized fruit that becomes a dark purplish –black and yields to gentle pressure. When ready to serve, it becomes white-green in the middle part of the inner fruit.

Flowering

Three Climatic factors are considered to influence flowering and fruit set in avocados: 1) the occurrence of frost during the winter; 2) lowmean temperatures during flowering and fruit set; and 3) the occurrence of extreme high temperature during fruit set (Hodgson, 1947). Studies by Inuoe and Takahasi (1989) demonstrated that floral bud initiation occurs predominantly in November for the cultivars Zutano, Jalna and Fuerte which would partially explain why low winter temperatures would impact avocado flowering and fruit set. Sedgely (1977) demonstrated that low temperatures (<10c) during bloom can negatively affect flowering and fruit set. Temperatures exceeding 35c has also been shown to negatively influence flowering, fruit set and retention for Hass variety (Sedgely and Annells, 1981).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In our society, people although do not consume Perseaamericana leaves and completely ignored herbal medicinal significance of this leaf.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of this study is to investigate the medicinal effect of Perseaamericana leaves. For instance, it role as antioxidants, nutritional effect, as well as the anti-nutriment compositions. The avocado leaves can be use as extra for management and complete remedy for medical diseases such as; cancer, stroke, heart diseases etc.


1.4 Justification of the Study

This study is worth carrying out, as it plays a role in herbal medicine. Through this research, we can find different chemical evaluation on the Perseaamaricana leaves from a particular area.

For instance, the proximate composition of avocado leaves, the anti-nutrient and antioxidants composition of avocado pear from a particular geographical area.


1.5 Aim and Scope of the Study

The study covers chemical evaluation of Persea americana (avocado) leaves. The leaves where brought to the laboratory and chemical parameters where determined, which includes the moisture, ash content, crude fibre, crude fat, carbohydrate, protein, caloric, value, tannins determination, oxlates, phylate, hydrocyanide, vitamin A and Vitamin C determination.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

After the chemical evaluations of my leaves from URUANL.G.A., I compared results with my colleague who also carried out the same evaluations but on a different leaves and location (IKOTEKPENEL.G.A). It was observed that there were some differences in the values, for example; carbohydrate content of my sample was 72.23% while his own was 69.65%, protein content was 14.00% while his own was 12.25%, moisture content was 65.70% while his own was 59.84%. On the vitamins evaluation, it was observed that my vitamin A was very low with the value 70mg/100g while his own was 267.70, and my vitamin C was higher than his with 832.72mg/100g while his own was 138.10mg/100g. On the antinutrients determination, his sample where reached in antinutrients than mine with the HCN = 374.18mg/100g, phytate = 60.18mg/100g, oxalate = 178.93mg/100g, except tannins with the value of 1116.07mg/100g while mine was 104.17mg/100g, 30.40mg/100g, 158.40mg/100g and 136/19 respectively.

Avocados are rich source of nutrientand phytochemicals. Although some of individual phytochemicals found in avocado have beenwell characterized, many new uncharacterized phytochemicals are being dissolved with potential activity important progress has been made in recent years toward the recovery of avocado material from tissue culture, by the use of biotechnology.

In this work, it is observed that there are remarkable nutrient, anti-nutrient ad antioxidants deposited in the terms of avocado Pear which are essential for health.


5.2 Recommendation

Herbal medicine could be a very good source of disease management and cure to human when administered either as concoction or decoction with the help of a professional personnel.

And there are also adverse effect(s) which could be as a result of over dose.

I therefore recommend further studies to be undertaken with this plant to established a standard procedure in terms of extraction and proper prescription so as to explore its abundance but unexplored preventive and curative potentials.

Also, I recommend for further research on the avocado Pear fruits to have a good comparison between the health benefits of the leaves and that of the fruits.


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