Banking Failure In Nigeria And CBN Reform Programme (A Case Study Of UBA)
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty for his infinite mercy and love towards me and my family to my lovely and caring brothers and sister and to all my well wishers.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to God Almighty for making this a reality.
I express my loarmest gratitude to those who contributed in one way or the other to make my project a success.
I will start by expressing my gratitude to my supervisor Mr N.D Uzoka for his complementary guidance advice my special thank also to my head of department Mr N.D Uzoka for giving me the actual information needed to make this project research a success.
I here by express my gratitude to my parent Mr & Mrs Livinus Osuji for their financial support encouragement my gratitude also goes to Chigozie Ohakwu for their support throughout my study period.
I won’t fall to remember my lovely sister Nkechi, Ogechi, Onyii, Chioma my Special thank go to Ifeanyi, Chinonso, for their care and support also to all my friends and well wishers, may God bless you all.
In this work, the researcher looked into various banking failure in Nigeria and C.B.N reform programme. The bank Considered here is UBA bank of Nigeria PLC. The work is divided into five chapter, chapter one treated the equipment leasing the general overview of the study, the statement of the problem objective of the study and scope of the study.
Chapter two deals with the literature review of related studies by different scholars in the same field while chapter three handled the research design and methodology utilized in writing his project which include the primary and secondary sources of data collection.
Chapter four is concerned with the presentation and analysis of findings while in chapter five, the researcher summarized her findings, made recommended that equipment leasing is very important in the counting as a while. The important cannot be over emphasized. Companies who engage in equipment leasing should educate and train their staff workers in various departments.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the problem 3
- 1.3 Object of the study 3
- 1.4 Research questions 4
- 1.5 Signification of the study 4
- 1.6 Scope of the study 5
- 1.7 Limitation of the study 5
- 1.8 Definition of terms 5
- 2.0 Literature review 9
- 2.1 Introduction 9
- 2.2 various forms of equipment leasing agreement 13
- 2.3 the importance of equipment leasing in capital investment 16
- 2.4 Factors that causes failure of banks 20
- 2.5 Tacking bank failure in Nigeria 22
- 2.6 Establishment of central bank in Nigeria (CBN) 23
- 2.7 Impact of CBN reforms on financial system and the economy 32
- 3.0 Research design and methodology 35
- 3.1 Introduction 35
- 3.2 Research design 37
- 3.3 Sources/ methods of data collection 38
- 3.4 Population and sample size 38
- 3.5 Sample technique 39
- 3.6 Method of data collection 40
- 3.7 Method of data analysis 41
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 42
- 4.1 Introduction 42
- 4.2 Presentation of data 42
- 4.3 Analysis of data 45
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations 48
- 5.1 Introduction 48
- 5.2 Summary of finding- 49
- 5.3 Conclusion 50
- 5.4 Recommendation 50
1.1 Background Of The Study
This is an arrangement between the owner and the user of asset called lesser, and the user of asset called lessee by which rent is paid periodically to the lesser while lessee is molding use of the asset to generate income lesseble asset include
- Factory equipment
- Plants and machineries
- Motor vehicle.
And like contract vary considerable but in case, there will be two rented period an initiated period are terminable when the leasing desires in which rental charging are very low , some leasing agreement include
- Insurance cover.
- Maintain of equipment
- Breakdown replacement
An option to purchase, the asset at the end of rental period. This last option may not be of interest to the lessee if his object is to have the use of up to date equipment for a short period of time until it become absolute or if the equipment is only needed for part of its potential working life.
The whole cost of leasing is allowed for taxation purpose as a business expense the lessee. As a general rule, leasing will be more expensive than financing and out right purpose by means of a fixed term loan, compared with hire purchase by means of a fix term loan,
Leasing agreement has advantage that no asset or liability appears and that high borrowing power, is not affected by this transaction .as s simple example of this suppose company fixed assets appears on the balance sheet at n4 million and it is considered prudent to borrow up to 40% of that value that is N800,000 , if an additional asset costing n4000.000 is obtained on liability under the agreement N320,000 than the new borrowing limited will be reduced to 40% x[N4,00,000,000 N800,000]N1920,000 les the 320,000 outstanding leaving N1,6000,000. Under a leasing contract there would have been no entry on the balancing sheet other than a current liability for arrears of payment under the contact.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Equipment leasing or the procedure of equipment leasing is encountered by numerous problems to the lesson and lessen such as
- The individual lessee may abscond with the equipment
- Bad dept may by default of payment by the lessor
- This procures ties down the capital of the lessor.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The primary objective of the study is to be academically worthy of the study national diploma certificate. the objective of the can also be extended to knowing the benefit and demerit of equipment at large.
1.4 Research Question
- Is equipment leasing not a good source of short –term fund to the organization?
- Is equipment leasing detrimental to the lessor?
- What are the challenges facing equipment leasing as a source of bank fund for capital investment?
- What are the statistical data of the organization from 2005-2011?
1.5 Significant Of The Study
The primary objective of the study is to know the benefits and demerit of equipment leasing as a source of short-term find available to the organization.
However, the beneficiaries of the study are the people in the economy. Also the lecture lecturing course relating to finance can also benefits from the study above all, I shall benefit from the study, because my future inspirations aim at the financial sector of the economy.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study is a wild range one that in attempt to cover it, a lot of different will be encountered in the process. Therefore, the scope of the study is limited to river state in Nigeria.
1.7 Limitation Of Study
Time is the major limiting factor associated with the study, finance can also be seen as also a limiting factor associated with the study.
1.8 Definition Of The Terms
1. Equipment leasing:
This is a phenomena whereby the lesser gives the possession of the equipment of some fund, the ownership of the equipment with the lesser,
This is the owner of the equipment that is an individual, company and finance house etc.
This is the person in possession of the of the equipment.
4. Short Term Funds:
These are fund with maturity period of 1-5 years.
5. Current Liability:
This is the present person or current amount or company owes.
An amount of money paid regularly to the amount of house , land or machine , in order to make use of such things,
7. Bank Fund:
This is the amount of money that has been saved or has been made available for a particular purpose.
8. Capital Investment:
This is a large amount of money that is invested or used to start a business. It is the act of investing money into something or business, to earn income in future.
This is the money used to run a business. It is a project or an activity of managing money especially a government owned or commercial organization.
10. Growth And Profitability:
This is increase in the size amount or degree of something. It is an increase in profitability.
The ability to influence what people do.
A thing that is valuable or useful. It is especially properly that a person or company owns, which can be used or sold to pay depts.
13. Fixed Term Loan:
This is money that an organization such a bank lends and somebody borrows:for a given period of time
This is a piece of business that is done between people especially an act of buying and selling.
15. Balance Sheet:
A written statement showing the amount of money and property that a company has and also listing what has been paid out or received.
This is the state of being legally responsible for something. The amount of money that a person or company owns which must be paid.
17. Bad Debt:
This is a debt that is not likely to be paid or recovered from the debtor. It is under probability
This is money that somebody owns that they have not paid till the time passes. It is to be late in paying money that you owe.
The act of escaping especially with money that does not belong to you
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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence
You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.
Structure of a Seminar Paper
I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.
I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.
Section #1 — Introduction
Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.
Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.
- Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
- Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do
Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.
- Define issue and any key terms
- Limit scope as necessary
- Establish significance of issue
- State problem by defining the gap
- Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
- Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
- End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper
Section #2 — Literature Review
Give some credit where credit is due.
- Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
- Define or qualify terms
- Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)
Section #3 — Argument / Discussion
As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!
- Examine issue
- Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
- Provide evidence and support
- Make some lively commentary along the way
Section #4 — Conclusion
We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.
- Summarize research question
- Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
- Explain where we go now
- End well
Section #5 — Works Cited
Is everything listed on the works cited?
Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.
Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project
Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.
With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.
As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.
Selecting the right topic or title:
The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.
The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:
This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.
The realistic plan for the project:
A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.
Quality of research materials available:
Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.
The funding channels:
Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.