Banditry Invasion Of Nigeria Societies And Its Effects On Infrastructural Development
Banditry invasion of Nigeria societies and its effects on infrastructural development was conducted among residents and victims of Banditry in Wuse and Nyanya districts of the Abuja Municipal Area Council. The objectives of the study are to investigate the forms of Banditry in Abuja; to identify the facilitators of Banditry in Abuja; to examine the banditry on infrastructure of Abuja, and to suggest ways of ameliorating the plight of victims of Banditry in Abuja. In pursuit of the above objectives, the researcher adopted the political economic theory. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, where the quantitative data were collected from the residents through a survey. The researcher in the bid to collect the quantitative data employed the multi stage cluster sampling technique. Qualitative data were collected from the victims through in-depth interviews and personal observation of the researcher. The researcher administered 251questionnaires to the residents, conducted14 in-depth interviews with the victims and personal observation with the view of ascertaining the forms, facilitators, and banditry on infrastructure. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The findings revealed that Banditry in Abuja involves the use of deadly explosives planted or thrown at targets, armed robbery, and kidnapping. It was also revealed that poverty, unemployment, corruption, the failing family system , bad governance, ignorance, and religious fundamentalism are the major causes of Banditry in Abuja. The data revealed that so many lives have been lost, properties destroyed, people live in fear, persons displaced and incapacitated by Banditry in Abuja. There is the need for adequate funding for the security agencies to be able to carry out their programs of security work effectively. This will help the agencies in their efforts toward mounting security checks around all major roads, worship centres, government facilities, markets, and other places the public perpetrates in the nation were some of the recommendations.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research Questions
- 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6: Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of The Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Location of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size.
- 3.4.1 Sampling of the Quantitative Data.
- 3.5 Variables of the Study
- 3.6 Types and Sources of Data
- 3.7 Methods of Data Collection
- 3.8 Methods of Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Result Presentation
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Data Analysis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Contributions to Knowledge
1.1 Background to the Study
The term Banditry had its first English usage in 1795. It could be defined as a process in which an organized group tries to achieve their aims through the use of systematic violence. Similarly, the concept could refer to the systematic or ferocious form of violence, a form of guerrilla alternative to conventional warfare. According to Bockstette (2008), Banditry refers to a political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminately) through the violent destruction and victimization of non-combatant targets, such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. The purpose of Banditry is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force in order to influence the target audience. The above definition also seems logically incorrect as bandits may be motivated by other factors like religious, social and psychological factors.
Section 2656 (F) of the United States Code provides a definition of Banditry. According to title 22, Banditry is defined as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub national or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience (United States Code, 2004)
The history of Banditry in Africa can be traced to the period of colonialism. According to Suberu and Osagie (2010), ethnic and violent clashes in Africa can be traced back to colonialism and its attendant policies. This assertion is debatable as prior to colonialism there existed ethnic rivalries on the basis of land ownership among the tribes. However,
Colonialism brought about socioeconomic inequality through the institutionalization of classes and thereby class struggle. Hubschle (2005) asserts that prior to colonialism; there had been evidence of violent clashes among various groups within African states fighting for one cause or the other especially on land related matters. However, Banditry was more evident during the colonial period.A past liberation agreement that fought for independence in their countries such as “African National Congress (A.N.C), The African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zanu-pf), who fought apartheid in South Africa, Francde Libertacaode Mocambilique (FRELIMO), who fourth against the Portuguese rulers in Mozambique is labeled as bandits organizations. Banditry in Africa was largely facilitated by globalization, pre-modern globalization ushered in the period of colonization in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Africa, this historical epoch was the beginning of modern Banditry. The Nigerian state has its story to tell about colonial terror and other bandits activities which were mobilized as a result of colonial policies. This came about as a result of revolutionary movements and violent inter-ethnic and religious crises (Osagie, 2010)
Therefore, a “public culture” was created in the Nigerian polity, in which the citizenry is now inclined to commit acts of violence at any sense of exploitations from colonial policies. Major notable violent protests in the colonial era were the Aba women riot of 1929 and the Ekumeku wars between1897-1914 in western Igbo and Anioma comprising warriors from areas stretching from Onitsha through Asaba in which the guerilla form of resistance was used against the British occupation of Nigeria. Furthermore, the austerity measures, a policy program adopted in the 1980s by the federal government to contain the economic crisis that characterized the era was also a contributing factor. For example, in May and June of 1989, several towns such as Lagos, Ibadan, Benin city and Port Harcourt revolted against the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan which resulted in the loss of hundreds of lives and properties worth millions of Naira.
In Abuja a number of properties including police stations, schools that have been destroyed since the emergence of bandits in the country has called for great concern as these properties remain dilapidated long after the attacks have been carried out. Most disturbing is the fact that people are living in constant fear. Thus, this study aims at investigating the form and banditry on infrastructure.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
There is no gainsaying that economic development is predicated on peaceful coexistence and there can be no sustainable development in a chaotic atmosphere. This is true of Nigeria and Abuja Municipal Area Council given the bandits groups incessant deadly attacks on individuals, public and worship places, which have led to the destruction of lives and properties. Abuja residents who are supposed to be the most secured in the country giving the fact that it is the Capital of Nigeria however, have been subjected to a series of attacks for some time now including armed robbery, car snatching, kidnapping, and most of all bombing, which is the most devastating. People now live in constant fear, especially given the type of publicity the insurgents are enjoying from the media. Banditry and indeed victimization appears to pose a serious threat to many law abiding citizens in the country and the inhabitants of the federal capital territory are not an exception.
The attacks on mobile phone stations have paralyzed telecommunication in the North, causing a lot of economic damage since 2003.Moreover, bomb blast, armed robbery, abductions, and assassinations, seems to have become common occurrences in Abuja in particular and the country at large. Such pervades the social and cultural lives of the people and can massively affect their mental health. Similarly, the country‟s image in the global community is gradually being destroyed, security of lives and properties threatened and investment reduced. As a result, much of the nation‟s annual budgets, since 2012, have been allocated to security as opposed to other developments.
The chronicle of incidences of Banditry in Nigeria, mostly bomb blasts, has shown that many Nigerians have lost their lives to the mayhem. For instance, on 31st May, 1986, a bomb explosion occurred at a stadium during the launch of the family support program in Ilorin. Similarly a suicide bomber blew himself alongside with others in Kaduna State on January 18th, 1996 at Durbar Hotel; and two days later, 20th January, 1996, another bomb explosion occurred at the Aminu Kano International Airport, Kano were some casualties were recorded. Apart from attacks on persons, many government agencies and institutions like Schools, Police Stations, and Army Barracks have suffered from the same fate. Thus, the recent bombings and suicide missions embarked on by bandits groups have great effect on the nation (Adeyemi; 20013).
The activities of the bandits have affected production greatly, especially agriculture infrastructure, as the North produces foodstuffs such as Rice, Sorghum, Millet, Onions, Maize and others. Besides, many of the companies are closing shop by the day. Banditry has affected the operation of the various companies in the country. Many of them have not just closed down; some can’t take their products to the affected areas. For example, the distribution of cement and petroleum to Bornu state has been hampered in recent times. The manufacturing and extractive sectors, the capital market are all affected one way or the other as some workers threaten to desert their jobs and some companies shot down operations for fear of attacks. People have become economically handicapped as a result of the activities of bandits groups across the country. For instance, the Unilever, Nestle, Con oil, Mobil, and all the other Companies operating in the North East, especially in Bornu in particular have not only shut down operations but moved their staff out of the area (Timeline of Bandits attacks in Nigeria. Wikipedia, 2012
Government efforts like banning the use of motorcycles popularly called ‟Okada‟in city centers like Abuja, Kano, Port Harcourt etc., mounting of security checkpoints by military personnel and the restriction of the operations of commercial motorcyclists, which are geared toward countering Banditry have not yielded the desired results. The ban on commercial motorcycles has rather displaced so many and consolidated poverty as the majority of these motorcycle operators are not being provided alternatives. On another scene, the government has been holding a series of meetings on security related issues and a lot of resources have been committed towards curtailing the incidences of Banditry; yet its wave seems to be on the increase as reports of acts of terror is being recorded, regularly. It is a known fact that the budget allocation for security in most states in Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in particular is more than all other sectors of the Nigerian economy since the upsurge of Banditry. This to a large extent reduce development of the other critical sectors of the economy (Obassy, 2014)
Banditry seems to be growing as an industry involving all levels of the societies and motivated by so many reasons. Although, studies on it have been a relatively recent phenomenon, in Nigeria and much of the literature are foreign most of the literatures come from Asian, American and European continents. Scanning through the literature on Banditry, there is a very little empirical work done on Banditry and victimization especially as it relates to infrastructure. Although there are series of media reports of daily incidences of Banditry in most Nigerian societies and other parts of Africa, not much work has been done in terms of empirical work. In view of the above, there is a need to understand and document the social, political and economic implication of bandit activities on the infrastructure of Abuja. Consequently, little or no attention has been given to rebuilding of these facilities (Ngozi (2012) This research addresses the forms and effects of Banditry on Nigerian in general and on Abuja infrastructure in particular.
1.3 Research Questions
In view of the above, this study will seek answers to the following questions:
- What is the form of Banditry that is prevalent in Abuja Municipal Area Council?
- What are the effect of banditry on infrastructure of the Abuja Municipal Area Council?
- How can the effects of Banditry be curbed in Abuja Municipal Area Council?
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to analyze the form, and effects of Banditry on infrastructure. The specific objectives of the study are:
- To investigate the form of Banditry that is prevalent in Abuja Municipal Area Council.
- To examine the effects of Banditry on residents of the Abuja Municipal Area Council.
- To suggest ways of curbing Banditry among residents of the Abuja Municipal Area Council.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study has theoretical and practical significance. In terms of theory, this study provides a basis for theory formulation to scholars on Banditry. It will help students and scholars who want to advance knowledge on Banditry. Concerning the practical aspect, the study will provide a body of information to the government and also serves as an aid to policy makers in policy formulation. The study will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge, particularly in the area of Banditry as well as serves as a source of literature for future studies.
1.6 Scope of the Study
It is not possible to study a particular phenomenon in all its ramifications; this study is no exception. Thus, this study is limited to the forms, effects, and ways of ameliorating the banditry on infrastructure of the Abuja Municipal Area Council. The forms of Banditry this study concentrated on are bombing, armed robbery, and kidnapping. These bandit activities are prevalent and also have devastating effects on the resident and infrastructure of Abuja. It is also limited to Nyanya and Wuse neighbourhoods in Abuja
1.7 Definition of Terms
Is an act of taking money or goods in the possession of another, from his or her person or immediate presence in which the robber is armed with a dangerous weapon.
Is the use of improvised explosive to kill. Similarly, it is the act of using bombs or explosives to cause harm, destruction and death.
The consequences of an event over a phenomenon which include death, body deformity, displacement of businesses, jobs etc.
Is the act of abducting someone and holding him/her captive typically to obtain a ransom.
The use of violence or threatened use of violence in order to achieve a set objective or goals such as armed robbery, kidnappings, bombings etc.
Person, usually a member of a group, who uses or advocated Banditry and instils fear.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study concludes that:
- Bandits activities in Abuja are in the form of bombings, kidnappings, sporadic shootings to intimidate residents, and armed robbery. These activities are motivated by unemployment, poverty, denial of political mandates, and illiteracy.
- Many Abuja residents are living in fear of the bandits, while some have suffered damage such as psychological, physical, economic, and social due to the insurgency of the bandits.
- Many properties and public infrastructure has been destroyed due to bandit activities including schools, hospitals and police stations.
- Good governance and human rights situation in Nigeria must be improved upon.
- There is a need for creation of employment opportunities for the teeming youths since they are the ones who mostly engage in Banditry.
- There is the need to educate citizen periodically on the dangers of Banditry to the nation, as ignorance is identified as one of the causes of Banditry.
- The Government needs to provide adequate security to the nation by recruiting and training of personnel and by the provision of modern surveillance facilities such as Close Circuit Television (CCTV) to assist in monitoring the activities of the bandits.
- There is the need for adequate funding for the security agencies to be able to carry out their programs of security work effectively. This will help the agencies in their efforts toward mounting security checks around all major roads, worship centers, government facilities, markets, and other places the public perpetrates in the nation.
- Victims of all forms of Banditry should be provided palliatives‟ throughout their lifetime to act as compensation with the view to cushion the effects of Banditry on victims in Abuja.
5.3 Contributions to Knowledge
- This study adds to the volume of literature on Banditry
- Poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and denial of rights can lure people into any form of Banditry.
- Failure to listen to people complains can make the people to resort to an alternative way of achieving their goals, which will be derogatory to the existence of the cherished values of a society. Banditry is one of such alternative.
- Giving palliatives to victims of all forms of Banditry will ameliorate their plights in their life time.
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