Bad Governance And Political Participation In Benue State, A Study Of Ukum Local Government (2015-2021)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Bad Governance And Political Participation In Benue State, A Study Of Ukum Local Government (2015-2021)


Abstract


This study was carried out on bad governance and political participation in Benue State, a study of Ukum Local Government (2015-2021). The study was carried out to investigate the causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021, find out if bad governance affect political knowledge of the citizens, ascertain whether bad governance affect political interestedness and establish if bad governance affect political engagement of the citizen. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Ukum Local Government in Benue State.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021: lack of voice and weak accountability, political instability, corruption, disregard of the rule of law, afailed democracy and marginalization. Furthermore, the study revealed that bad governance significantly affect the political engagement of the citizens.Therefore, it is recommended that governance in Nigeria is elitist rather than populist. It reflects the interest of those who make policies for their own practical and personal interest. Hence, there is a need for active consultation and participation of the people in governance for the achievement of collective goals. Therefore, good governance necessitates mass participation, engagement, and empowerment of the people in the democratic governance process. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In democratizing societies, the conceptual vehicle that connects the elements of social change described above is democratic practices which the political leadership must spread across the institutional landscape of governance. Thus, democratized governance institutions would mean building institutions and rules that are not just efficient but also fair, and that are developed through a democratic process in which all people have a real political voice. Foremost among these institutions are an independent but dependable electoral system to superintend democratic transition, and the institutionalization of an enduring legislative system to provide the legal framework for democratic governance.

The issue of governance is a multilayered and comprehensive notion that functions at all levels of society, including the home, village, city, country, territory, and worldwide. However, creating a governance system that encourages, supports, and nurtures social development, particularly for the impoverished and most marginalized, is a problem for all nations today (Okere, & Okoroafor2019). Moreover, it is sufficient to state that the topic of governance is a repeating element in the African economic predicament (Akinola,2019).)Despite the ongoing substantial evolutions in human progress, the search for appropriate administration and governance that is focused on advancement, general welfare, and the wellbeing of Africans has become disreputable and ironic (Anyanwu, 1998) and this has been explained to mean that governance in Africa is clouded with scandals, failures, mismanagement of funds, insecurity, etc. and does not reflect what the expectations of the people are. Due to the pervasiveness of the governance trend in modern times, most Africans like Mo Ibrahim (“Mo Ibrahim’s Sobering Report,” 2013) and some global intergovernmental institutions, such as the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), are working towards establishing good governance in various countries of the world. Their goals include but are not limited to seeing Africa attain a governance system that will have the needs of citizens as a priority. Furthermore, they prescribe and assert that leadership restructuring is the key to Africa’s economic and social progress (Essien, 2012). The results of good or bad governance are ultimately felt by those within the scope of which the authority is been exercised (Towah, 2019). However, bad governance impacts negatively on the citizens but felt more by the marginalized and less privileged in the society, making it a bane of peace and threat to livelihood and wellbeing of many individuals and these are evident in several studies (Coker and George-Genyi, 2014; Essien, 2012).

It is however imperative to this study to trace the political landscape of Nigeria in the historical context, this is aimed at illustrating how governance has been under the different administrations after independence and to help readers understand more about governance in Nigeria with reference to Benue State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nigeria scores poorly in areas of governance accountability, rule of law, stability in terms of social and political, corruption, and the existence of terrorism (World Governance Index). Odeh (2015) further argues that given the considerable resources invested in the execution of policies aimed at improving governance in Nigeria, there have been no discernible changes in citizens’ living standards. For every nation and for an individual craving for meaningful development, two basic things are required: vision and knowledge without which hopes are bound to get dashed. It would not be wrong to say very few people in today’s politics possess these traits and it is sad to note that in the nearest future, Nigeria might just continue down the same path or even worse if what has transpired politically in the society today is allowed to perpetuate. Corruption, blackmailing, ‘godfatherism’ thuggery and other vices have found their ways into politics and subsequently led to rustication of some members of the society in politics.

In Benue State unfortunately, the people are actually sidelined in the affairs of the state in particular, and therefore the lack of political participation among the people. Uko (2021) observed that in other cases, middle aged persons in the community do not show interest in the politics of the state, do not even have knowledge of the electoral process which affects their engagement and increases political apathy which is one among the problems in Nigerian politics today. Contrarily which was not always like in the past during the pre and post-independence Nigeria, when the Nigerian people were at the center and also the heartbeat of the nation politics. Against the backdrop, the researcher seeks to examine bad governance and political participation in Benue state,.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine bad governance and political participation in Benue state. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To investigate the causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021.
  2. To find out if bad governance affect political knowledge of the citizens.
  3. To ascertain whether bad governance affect political interestedness.
  4. To establish if bad governance affect political engagement of the citizen.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021?
  2. Does bad governance affect political knowledge of the citizens?
  3. Does bad governance affect political interestedness of the citizens?
  4. Does bad governance significantly affect the political engagement of the citizens?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Bad governance does not significantly affect political participation of the citizens.
  • Ha: Bad governance significantly affects the political participation of the citizens.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study will be relevant to government and stakeholders in the state. It will enlighten them on the need to adopt an inclusive democratization process in order to foster good governance and sustainable development. It will highlight the need for the incumbent to engage in continued dialogue between government and this critical mass of the population is the needed driver to push for a regime of good governance. This dialogue will create the unity of purpose to confront manifest and potential obstacles to good governance (obstacles such as official corruption, widespread insecurity, people restiveness, social inequality, gender discrimination. The study will empirically add to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material for other academia in related field of study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study border on ad governance and political participation in Benue state. The study further discussed causes of bad governance and establish it impact in the area of political apathy, disintrestedness and disengament of residents. The study is however delimited to Ukum Local Government in Benue State with scope covering (2015-2021). The respondents to this study will be obtained from residents of Ukum Local Government in Benue State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Every study is conducted under some constraints and limitations. Similarly, this study cannot be exception and free from limitations. The accuracy of the study will largely depend upon the data provided by the sample companies. Some limitations of this research study are outlined as follows: 1. The research is going to conduct by taking few resident of Ukum Local Government as sample. 2. The accuracy of the result will totally base on the data provided to the researcher by the responses of residents. 3. The findings of this study may not represent to others settings.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Democracy:

Democracy is a form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation, or to choose governing officials to do so.

Governance:

Governance is the process of interactions through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society over a social system. It is done by the government of a state, by a market, or by a network.

Political Participation:

Political participation includes a broad range of activities through which people develop and express their opinions on the world and how it is governed, and try to take part in and shape the decisions that affect their lives.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on bad governance and political participation in Benue State, a study of Ukum Local Government (2015-2021).The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine bad governance and political participation in Benue State, a study of Ukum Local Government (2015-2021).The study specifically was aimed at to investigate the causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021, find out if bad governance affect political knowledge of the citizens, ascertain whether bad governance affect political interestedness and establish if bad governance affect political engagement of the citizen.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Ukum Local Government in Benue State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The causes of bad governance in Ukum Local Government from 2015-2021: lack of voice and weak accountability, political instability, corruption, disregard of the rule of law, afailed democracy and marginalization.
  2. Bad governance affect political knowledge of the citizens.
  3. Bad governance affect political interestedness of the citizens.
  4. Bad governance significantly affect the political engagement of the citizens.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Governance in Nigeria is elitist rather than populist. It reflects the interest of those who make policies for their own practical and personal interest. Hence, there is a need for active consultation and participation of the people in governance for the achievement of collective goals. Therefore, good governance necessitates mass participation, engagement, and empowerment of the people in the democratic governance process.
  2. The fundamental truth is that the country has always been ruled on emotions and sentiments. It has always been governed by the rule of men rather than the rule of law, where legal domination, legitimate authority, and constitutionalizing should be prevalent. There is, therefore, an overriding need to institutionalize the rule of law for the conduct of government business, and where government institutions and private actors should be subjected to the rules and regulations which is common in the state.
  3. Accountability and transparency should be stronger enforced in the public office to ensure openness, scrutiny, probity, and availability of information in government decisions and actions to reduce corruption. Stronger institutions of accountability and transparency should be encouraged.
  4. There is a need for government programs to serve and yield to the needs and welfare of the people. This is because the essence of creating government is the provision of the good life to the citizenry who are the stakeholders of the state. To realize this, there should be an agreement of opinion and reconciliation of various interests in the state.

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