Awareness And Practice Of Personal And Environmental Hygiene Among Primary School Pupils

Health Education Project Material

Awareness And Practice Of Personal And Environmental Hygiene Among Primary School Pupils


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the awareness and practice of personal and environmental hygiene among primary school pupils using some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school, determine the level of primary school pupils awareness on personal and environmental hygiene, find out the personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils, and find out the environmental hygiene practiced by primary school pupils. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of pupils of some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 100 respondents and all validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypothesis was tested using chi- square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school. Furthermore, the study also revealed that the personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils includes: food hygiene, oral hygiene, body hygiene, and coughing and sneezing hygiene. In the light of the findings, this study recommends that the educational authorities in the country can develop and adopt policies and guidelines that will make way to have adequate access to resources, items and opportunities to maintain personal hygiene at school and home. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A school is an establishment designed to provide learning spaces and a learning environment for the student’s teacher under the leadership of the teachers. A school is a place that not only provides education to children but also a learning environment. After stepping out of the house it plays a vital role in the development of a child. It includes cognitive as well as the creative development of the child.1, The environment denotes the physical-biological and social world in which the system or man exists. It is the total of all external conditions and influences on the developmental cycle of biotic elements over the earth’s surface. The environment indicates all of the internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding or affecting the development and behavior of a person or group.2 Sanitation is the process of maintaining the cleanliness and health of the premises, including the provision of a sewer system and a clean water supply. Sanitation systems are designed to care for human health by providing a hygienic environment that will stop the transmission of disease, mainly through the fecal-oral route.1 A Healthy school environment can be created if there is a regular supply of safe water proper means of collection removal and disposal of waste matter, regular cleanliness, and sanitation condition good lighting.3 School environment sanitation and health facilities are an important public health issue.4

The foundations of lifelong responsibility for the maintenance of personal hygiene are laid down in childhood, which is important for a healthy childhood, for a healthy adulthood and for the development of positive values about health and the use of health services. Personal hygiene (PH) can be described as the principle of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external body (Johnson, 2015). Personal Hygiene refers to all activities, actions and practices carried out by an individual to keep the body clean and healthy. There are so many benefits attached to personal hygiene such as prevention of diseases, quick recovery from illnesses, social acceptance by people, emotional satisfaction and good personal appearance. Personal Hygiene is the first step to good grooming and good health and this involves all measures taken by individuals to preserve his or her health (Johnson, 2015). Improved standard of hygiene will prevent health problems like dandruff, athletes foot, body odour, pin worms, excessive ear wax, gastro-intestinal diseases ( Web Health Centre, 2015).

Poor health among school children is resulted from the lack of awareness of the health benefits of personal hygiene. Diarrhoeal diseases, skin diseases, worm infestations and dental diseases are most commonly associated with poor personal hygiene. One of the major problems faced by school children are infections. The primary causes of infections are contaminated water and poor sanitation, as well as poor hygienic practices. Lack of personal hygiene coupled with poor sanitation favor person-to-person transmission of infection. Infection and malnutrition form a vicious circle and retard children’s physical development. Repeated attacks of infections often compound the existing poor health of children, compromising children’s attendance and performance at school and not uncommonly, can result in death [1]. The condition may even be worse in a slum community with poor socio-economic condition and compromised living situation. The origins of many of the illnesses of adulthood also have their roots in the health behaviors of childhood and adolescence. However, majority of the childhood illnesses are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices among school children through proper health education by their parents and teachers.

Children in their primary schooling age can learn specific health-promoting behaviors, even if they do not fully understand the connections between illness and behavior [2]. Health habits can be developed in this period. More research on this ground is needed. The present inadequate knowledge base hinders the development of improved strategies for enhancing the maintenance of personal and environmental hygiene, which is of great importance to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Globally, the high mortality and morbidity due to communicable diseases among primary school age children has been attributed to their neglect of poor personal and environmental hygiene. Children need to be taught and guided by adults to be able to adopt certain behaviours as regards their health and well-being. To effectively address the issue of communicable disease among school children, parents, teachers, and other stake holders must work out modalities to take and encourage children to adopt good personal hygiene and environmental practice.

However, it has been observed that little or nothing is been done to inculcate these practices among primary school children hence increase in the rate of contact/spread of these communicable diseases and worse mortality from these diseases. Therefore, if adequate measures are put in place, communicable disease can be reduced to its barest minimum among primary school children.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of the study is to examine the awareness and practice of personal and environmental hygiene among primary school pupils. Specifically, the objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. Ascertain whether personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school.
  2. Determine the level of primary school pupils’ awareness on personal and environmental hygiene.
  3. Find out the personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils.
  4. Find out the environmental hygiene practiced by primary school pupils.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;

  1. Is personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school?
  2. What is the level of primary school pupils awareness on personal and environmental hygiene?
  3. What are the personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils?
  4. What are the environmental hygiene practiced by primary school pupils?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • Ho: Personal and environmental hygiene is not effectively taught in primary school.
  • Ha: Personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that this work will prompt the school authorities and the various parents-teachers association to collaborate to identify key areas of health needs among school children and institute appropriate health interventions. It is also expected to improve the knowledge base of classroom teachers on basic hygiene practices and the need for them to ensure adequate practice by the children.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses to examine the awareness and practice of personal and environmental hygiene among primary school pupils. However the respondent for this study will be delimited to teachers of some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Hygiene:

Refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness.

Personal Hygiene:

This is the action, habit or practice of keeping oneself clean, especially as a means of maintaining good health. The practice of personal hygiene can also protect the health of others.


1.10 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the awareness and practice of personal and environmental hygiene among primary school pupils using some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the awareness and practice of personal and environmental hygiene among primary school pupils using some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school, determine the level of primary school pupils awareness on personal and environmental hygiene, find out the personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils, and find out the environmental hygiene practiced by primary school pupils.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are pupils of some selected primary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Personal and environmental hygiene is effectively taught in primary school.
  2. The level of primary school pupils awareness on personal and environmental hygiene is high.
  3. The personal hygiene practiced by primary school pupils includes: food hygiene, oral hygiene, body hygiene, and coughing and sneezing hygiene.
  4. The environmental hygiene practiced by primary school pupils includes: proper waste dumping, house sanitation, and healthy cleaning practices.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Schools should provide hygiene education to kindergarten and early grade school children to supplement the training provided by parents and guardians, to ensure that all children learn at an appropriate age how to protect themselves and others from preventable exposure to illness and other hygienic hazards.
  2. The educational authorities in the country can develop and adopt policies and guidelines that will make way to have adequate access to resources, items and opportunities to maintain personal hygiene at school and home.
  3. There should be gender equity in the distribution of personal hygiene materials and sanitation facilities within schools.

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