Availability And Utilization Of ICT In Teaching And Learning Business Education Courses
The study examines the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The survey design was adopted in the study. A population of 240 respondents was used in the study. A sample of 180 respondents comprising business education students was selected using the simple random sampling technique. The technique of Mean and frequencies were employed in data analysis. The findings of the study indicate interactive ICT facilities are grossly lacking for teaching and learning of business education courses. Also, it was revealed in the study that interactive ICT are not utilized for teaching business education courses. Non interactive ICT devices were also revealed to be lacking for teaching of business education courses and were thereby rarely utilized in business education implementations. From the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government and other relevant stakeholders in education should provide adequate ICT resources for the teaching of business education courses in tertiary institutions. This will enable lecturers to effectively utilize them in the classroom and at the same time help to equip students with appropriate ICT skills needed for effective functioning in the modern electronic age, In-service training programme such as seminars, on-the-job retraining and retraining programmes, workshops on ICT resources utilization should be mounted on a regular basis for serving business educators in tertiary institutions and finally, ICT agencies should assist with free distribution of ICT resources to tertiary institutions as their corporate social responsibility to communities. Free donation of ICT equipment will also be of great help to the university community.
1.1 Background of the Study
Though teaching and learning are intimately linked processes and are interdependent as well as inter woven, teaching is a social phenomenon, while learning is a psychological phenomenon. It is teaching which generally results into learning but there can be learning without teaching. Lecturers in the recent trend of teaching and learning are therefore seen as facilitators or guide, and I believe this can better be enhanced through utilization of ICT facilities.
The nub of teaching learning process lies in the moment by moment relationship between the willing leaner and the competent co-lecturer. Rao (2008) quoted Burton (2001) who argues that teaching can be made effective by relating it to learning; teaching objectives can be identified in behavioural terms and appropriate learning situations may be created to realize these objectives. The appropriate teaching condition or structures may be generated for effective learning; the effective teaching aids may be selected for creating strategies and tactics may be selected to achieve the optimal object of learning; the university of relationship of teaching and learning will be an aid to understand the nature of teaching and thereby, teaching theories may be evolved. The knowledge of the relationship will equally be helpful for teaching to produce effective Business Education lecturers.
ICT has been acknowledged globally as one of the greatest techniques infused into the teaching learning process. It is used in the context of this research work to imply a diverse set of electronic technologies, technological tools and resources used to communicate, disseminate, store and manage information in the course of teaching and learning. ICT include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies and telephony (Adoni and Kpangbam, 2010; Chukwudi and Ejita, 2008). The impact of ICT on learning is the vision that it enables learning anywhere, any time and anyhow. ICTs are utilized during academic activities especially by lecturers and students (Usang, Azubuike and Umoren, 2007). Anissimov (2009); Bless and Truth (2009) and Bliss (2009) agrees with this view but further noted that there is variation in the level of usage of ICT in tertiary institutions among countries.
The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has totally revolutionized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate within organisation or across the globe according to Miller and Akume (2009).
Information and communication technology refers to a systematic process of gathering, processing, storing, sending and retrieving of information through the print, broadcast, computing and telecommunications media (Onwuagboke, 2009). Similarly, Achuonye (2002) sees information and communication technology as the collection, storage, processing dissemination and use of information. Information and communication technology has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills; motivate and engage students in learning; it also help in relating school experiences to work practices, helps to create economic viability for workers; contributes to radical changes in school; strengthen teaching and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Kirschner and Woperies, 2003).
Ogunsola (2005) sees ICT as an electronically based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live. Information and communication technology offer several opportunities in education, they can be used as a means of preparing the current generation of students for future workplace, that is, providing tools for tomorrows practices. This is underscored in the foreword written by Lemke. C. (1999) in the Milken exchange on education technology commissioned report. Lemke noted inter alia “today’s students live in a global knowledge based age, and they deserve lecturers use of technology (ICTs) students can be given the opportunities of becoming a part of the knowledge age and skills imparted to the young people in an increasing complex world.
Lecturers will need to use ICTs in order to equip tomorrow’s employees and customers with the requisite competence and knowledge to use ICTs within their work (Davis & Tearle, 1999). ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive and engaging. ICT has simplified education through the application of electronics media, internet etc. Ndukwe (2006), emphasized that the production and introduction of calculators and computers in the education system worldwide has helped in simplifying teaching and learning in schools, thereby content, and it provide real opportunities for individualized instruction.
Business education is one of the courses taught in tertiary institution is that aspect of the total education programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to perform in the business world as producer or consumer of goods and services that business offer (Igboke, 2012). Azubuike (2019), noted that business education fall under creative, technical and vocational courses within the high institution programme. The course is aimed at equipping students with practical business skills which will enable them to participate meaningfully in production in future. As a practical course, it is intended to prepare student for the world of work; both as employees and as employers, oyebade (2008) and (chibuzor, 2012) and also stated that business education is an essential element of general education; this is because it is concerned with entrepreneurship development among the students. He further stated that, it is concerned with the act of imparting business orientation.
Furthermore, Okoli (2010) noted that business education is an important part of the general education which emphasizes on the acquisition of skills and competencies for use in offices and business related occupation.
Similarly, Nwazi (2010) describes business education as encompassing education for office occupation, business teaching, business administration and economic understanding. In all, Abdulkadir (2011) opines that one remarkable important characteristic of business education programme is that, its products can function independently as self-Employed and Employers of labour. To this end, the tenet of business education embraces basic education for teaching career, entrepreneurship, business understanding, office management and vocational practices.
Azubuike (2019), enumerated the following as the objectives of business education at all levels of education;
- To develop basic skills for personal use in the future
- To prepare students for further training in business education.
- To provide the needed background for teaching in business courses.
- To develop basic skills in office occupation.
- To relate the knowledge and skills acquired to national development.
- To acquire the basic knowledge and skills of business education.
- To provide orientation and basic skills with which start a life of work for those who may not undergo further training.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years there has been a general poor performance in business education courses, this is not only applicable in secondary examinations were business education subjects are taught but also in university precisely under business education most students who enroll in business education department do not graduate successfully with their mate.
Unfortunately, in Ebonyi State University in Department of Business Education, there are little or no ICT tools for teaching and learning in various classrooms. teaching and learning method in the class rooms in department of business education still adopt the old traditional method of teaching, where the lecturer acts at repertoire of knowledge while student are busy coping what is said and expected to vomit them verbatim during examination. It is worrisome because this has led to massive failure in examinations as the students are rarely grounded in their learning but are mainly subjected to mere memorization of the topics taught.
The present study contributes to the literature on the use of ICT in education by examining the availability and level of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning of business education courses in Ebonyi state university.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the level to which Information and Communication Technology influence teaching of business education courses in University of Ebonyi in Ebonyi, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
- Establish the extent to which business education lecturers are skilled in the use of ICT facilities in teaching business education courses in University of Ebonyi in Ebonyi, Nigeria.
- Identify the extent of availability of ICT facilities for teaching business education courses in University of Ebonyi in Ebonyi, Nigeria.
- Ascertain the extent of utilization of ICT facilities provided for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- Identify the challenges in the use of ICT facilities for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- Determine the extent to which available ICT facilities has help students in learning business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions were answered:
- Are business education lecturers skilled in the use of Information and Communication Technology facilities in teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University?
- Are ICT facilities available for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University?
- To what extent are ICT facilities utilized for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University?
- What are the challenges in the use of ICT facilities in teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University?
- To what extent do available ICT facilities help business education students in learning business education courses in Ebonyi state University?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In line with the specific objectives and research questions, the following null hypotheses was tested:
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of business education lecturers and students in the use of Information and Communication Technology facilities for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of business education lecturers and students on the availability of Information and Communication Technology facilities for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of business education lecturers and students on the utilization of Information and Communication Technology facilities provided for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- There is no significant difference in opinion of business education lecturers and students on the challenges in the use of ICT facilities for teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of business education lecturers and students on the help of available ICT facilities in learning business education courses Ebonyi state University.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to the students, lecturers, education shake holders, the government philanthropists.
Information and communication technology is of great important to lecturers and students of business education in Ebonyi State University; this is because from this research, they will able to ascertain the important of information and communication in teaching and learning.
Secondly, this work will be of great important to educational stakeholders. This is because from the research they will be able to know the plight of the student and therefore work out modalities to solve the problems.
Furthermore, the work will be of great important to the philanthropists in the area, this is because from the work, they will be able to identify problem of students in studying business education. This will encourage them to donate information and communication technology tools that will be used in teaching and learning in the area.
Finally, the findings would be useful to curriculum planners.
Curriculum planners who would wish to resolve the issue of the availability and utilization ICT instructional materials may have cause to know the true situation and properly restructure business education programme curriculum to take care of inadequacies. Curriculum planners would be more objective when the findings are taken to consideration.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
The researcher has the following assumptions:
- Information and Communication Technology enhance university students over all learning experience.
- Lecturers and students are skillful in Information and Communication Technology.
- Adequacy of Information and Communication Technology facilities in Ebonyi state University.
- There is no obstruction of power supply in the use of Information and Communication Technology.
- All instructional materials for teaching and learning are provided by the schools.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
This study was delimited to Ebonyi state University Nigeria. The study was equally restricted to all business education lecturers and students requiring ICT skills such as internet browsing, Microsoft word, power point and Microsoft Excel. This was because they are direct beneficiaries involved in using Information and Communication Technology in teaching business education courses.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was to investigate the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University. The research work in chapter one cover background of the study, statement of the problem, five specific objectives, five research questions and five hypotheses. The chapter two reviewed some related literature while chapter three discussed the research design and methodology. Chapter four contained the analysis of research questions and test of hypotheses as well as the summary of discussion of the findings
Based on the study, the researcher came up with the following findings:
- Business education lecturers are not skilled in the use of ICT facilities in teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- Relevant information and communication technology facilities are not available for teaching business education courses in university of Ebonyi in Ebonyi, Nigeria.
- ICT facilities are not utilized in teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
- There are a lot challenges in the use of ICT facilities in teaching business education courses in Ebonyi state University.
On the basis of the findings, the researcher concluded that business education students will not be able to acquire ICT skills that will give them competitive advantage in the professional world if business education lecturers are not skilled in using relevant ICT facilities in teaching business education courses
For solution to the problem as identified from findings and conclusion drawn from the study, the researcher made the following recommendations:
- Business education lecturers should engage themselves in continuous training in ICT facilities.
- Ebonyi state University should fully equip business education department with ICT facilities.
- Adequate use and management of facilities should be ensured by the heads of department as well as lecturers.
- Government should provide adequate fund for business education programme to enable it procure necessary relevant ICT facilities.
- Business students should have easy access to ICT facilities without paying for additional cost.
5.4 Limitation of the Study
The limitation of the study was lack of cooperation from the respondents as to filling and returning of the questionnaire. Another limitation was the issue of administrative bottleneck in obtaining permission from the school authorities where the study was conducted. However, these limitations were minimized through follow-up by the researcher and the assistants not minding the time consumed and also ensure punctuality of every time given by each respondent.
5.5 Suggestion for Further Study
A study of this nature cannot cover every area hence; there is the need for further studies.
It is on this basis that the researcher suggested that further research can be conducted as:
- Extension of similar studies to others zones of the country.
- Determine the influence of ICT in teaching and learning business education in the Nigeria universities.
Availability And Utilization Of ICT In Teaching And Learning Business Education Courses
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