Availability And Utilization Of Audio Visual Resources For Teaching And Learning In Art Education Department Of Faculty Of Education, University Of Nigeria Nsukka

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Availability And Utilization Of Audio Visual Resources For Teaching And Learning In Art Education Department Of Faculty Of Education, University Of Nigeria Nsukka


Abstract


The advancement of educational system cannot only be achieved by the use of conventional media technologies; audio visual aids are instructional materials that permeate the teaching and learning processes. Thus, this study aims at determining the application of audio visual aids in the teaching in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka. The study adopted a descriptive survey design in which Four (4) research questions were used for the study. The population of the study consists of all the lecturers and students in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka. The procedure used in this study was simple random sampling techniques where art education department were selected out of the faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka with a total number of One hundred and fifty (150) respondents. A questionnaire of Four (4) point scale was used as instrument for data collection. Mean was used in answering the research questions. The result of the analysis shows that, some schools lack audio visual aids which contribute in destabilizing the teaching and learning process, that some teacher are incompetent in the use of audio visual aids, also that , irregular power supply, and limited time are factors that limit the use of audio visual aids in department.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

The teacher’s task is by no means easy as it involves someone who has some ideas, knowledge, information or experiences trying to share what he or she has with someone else who does not have a similar experience. It is a communication task which requires the teacher to use every available means to convince the learners to buy his/her ideas or accept the message. It is not enough for the teacher to give information, he or she must support what he or she says with educational media which appeal to the learners’ sensory experience so that learning may be effective.

Audio visual aids, otherwise referred to as educational media, could be defined as the wide variety of equipments and materials used for teaching and learning by teachers and students (Okechukwu, 2010). They are instructional materials by which the teacher, through the utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish and correlate concepts, interpretation and appreciations. They make dynamic learning experience more concrete and realistic. The use of audio visual aids improves students’ critical and analytical thinking.

In the past, a teacher effectiveness depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, knowledge of how to organize and present content meaningfully and an understanding of those being taught, but today, much emphasis is placed upon the use of audio visual aids. Audio visual aids make learning more permanent in the minds of the learners because people remember about 90% of what they see and do. Gana (2000) opined that the successful utilization of any audio visual aid depends on the wisdom and the resourcefulness of the teacher. The teacher should make adequate use of available audio visual materials on his everyday teaching. This will arouse the interest of the students and enable them see things in their natural setting.

When education was introduced in Nigeria in the past, chalkboards, charts, pictures and some concrete objects were only used as audio visual materials, but with the recent developments in the education system, materials like model, television, computer and radio-tape recorder are now being used in the schools. Audio visual aids are very crucial to the proper implementation of any curriculum used in the education process (Eze, Ani, & Eya, 2007). Learners are supposed to see, hear, feel, touch and practice whatever they are learning, and for every academic delivery to be effective, cognizance should be taken of the present day education and technology and their efficient gadgets and techniques resulting in improved way of learning. The teacher as a chamber of knowledge has to improve his mode of lesson delivery to be in line with the current trend. He cannot remain static in a world that is constantly changing educationally and technologically, he should familiarize himself with the innovation that abound in his profession so as to cope with up-coming challenges. This is because one way of ensuring that the learner is being carried along in the process of learning is by the provision and utilization of audio visual aids in teaching. When teaching is appropriately done with appropriate audio visual aids, it has a direct impact on students’ achievements since their interests in learning are stimulated (Abbatte and Mcmahon 2002).

Education is a life long activity, therefore, a learner must be supplied with the necessary skills to enable him or her perform effectively in his or her environment and the world at large. The learner can only have this information through the good use of audio visual aids in conjunction with the presented learning materials. Education experts and experienced teachers agree that the use of audio visual aids helps the students whose teachers constantly and gainfully employ those materials because they tend to perform better academically than those whose teachers rarely employ audio visual aids in their teaching.

Audio visual is defined as the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey a message or information. In other words, audio visual means “an individual or a small group using a computer to interact with information that is represented in several media, by repeatedly selecting what to see and hear next” (Agnew, Kellerman and Meyer, 2011).

Reisman (2010) described audio visual as a ray of “computer-driven interactive communication system, which

create, store, transmit and retrieve, textual, graphic and audio tory networks of information.
Fetterman (2016) also viewed audio visual as those resources used for instruction that include one or more media such as graphics, video, animation, image and sound in addition to textual information. He identified four important characteristics of audio visual as:

  • Audio visual systems are integrated
  • The information content must be represented digitally
  • The interface to the final presentation of media.

The power of audio visual lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating the many senses of the audio lance. It is also interactive, enabling the end users of the application to control the content and flow of information. This has introduced important changes in the educational system and impact the way we communicate information to the learners (Neo and Neo, 2013).Ogunbote and Adesoye (2016) expressed that audio visual technology adds new dimension to learning experiences because concepts were easier to present and comprehend when the words are complemented with images and animations.

The evolution of audio visual has made it very possible for learners to become more involved in their work. With audio visual technologies, they can create audio visual applications as part of their project requirements. This would make them active participant in their own learning process, instead of just being passive learners of the educational content.

Reinsman (2014) expressed that audio visual involves processing, storage, generation, manipulation and retention of audio visual system, and the resources could include text files, pictures, video, audio , databases, archives, library catalogs, course notes, relevant links to various websites and easy access to search engines available on the Internet (Shuell and Ferber, 2011).

Audio visual in Education has been extremely effective in teaching individuals a wide range of subjects. Audio visual is changing the way we communicate with each other. The way we send and receive messages is more effectively done and better comprehended.

While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more effectively.


Statement of the Problem

There is an urgent need to improve the quality of education to bridge the gap between developed and developing nations, and audio visual instruction is considered as a necessary tool for this purpose(Shuell and Ferber, 2011). However, the presence of audio visual alone will not stimulate significant changes in a school. Teachers are important ingredient in the implementation of audio visual instruction in education.

Without the involvement of teachers, most students may not take advantage of all the available potential benefits of audio visual on their own. Teachers need to actively participate in the use of audio visual facilities (Reinsman, 2014). They have to be trained in the use of audio visual and in its integration in the classroom activities to enhance thinking and creativity among students.


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the Availability and utilization of audio visual resources for teaching and learning in art education department of faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.Specifically, the objectives of this study are to:

  1. Determine the availability of audio visual aids in teaching and learning in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.
  2. Determine the pattern and frequency of use of audio visual by teachers in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.
  3. Determine the teachers’ competence in the use of audio visual aids.
  4. Identify factors that limit the use of audio visual aids in teaching and learner in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.

Significance of the study

The findings of the study will be of much significance to students, teachers and researcher in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka. This is because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to the group of learners when conducting a research on the same topic.

Again, the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to them, that non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides basis for the falling standard of education in the country.

Furthermore, the study will be good significant to parents and the society, in account that when conducting parents teachers meeting, such issues may be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solutions.


Scope of Study

The study focused on the application of audio visual aids in teaching in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.


Research Questions

The study is structured to provide answers to the following research questions:

  1. How available are audio visual aids for teaching and learning in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.
  2. What is the pattern and frequency of use of the audio visual aids for teaching and learning in art education department?
  3. How competent is the teacher in the use of audio visual aids ?
  4. What factors limit the use of audio visual aids in teaching and learning in art education department?

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion, Implication of the Study and Recommendations

This chapter shows the result of the study, based on the data interpretations made in chapter four which are examined and inference drawn from there.


Discussion of the Findings

The result obtained from research question one, shows that the respondents agreed on item 1-4 which are above the cut-off points (2.5), that availability of audio visual aids can enhance the teaching and learning in art education department that students can learn effectively with the use of audio visual aids. These finding are in line with the assertion of (Onyeozu, 2009), that audio visual aids are resource materials which facilitate teaching and learning.
Research question two shows that, the respondents in item 1, 3 and 4, agreed that, students taught with audio visual aids will understand the concept in art education department vividly than those taught without audio visual aids. However, item 2 which is below the cut-off point (2.5) shows that audio visual aids are not adequately and frequently use in their school. The first findings are in agreement with Ikot (2012) who discovered that there was significant difference between the performances of the students taught audio visual aids than those taught with conventional materials.

Research question three points out that, the respondents in item 1,3 and 4, which are above the cut-off point (2.5) agreed that, the improvement of the class instructions largely depend on the competence of the teacher to use audio visual aids, especially in teaching English language. On the other hand, item 2 which is below the cut-off point (2.5) shows that, English language has not been made optional because of the teacher’s incompetence in selecting and using audio visual aids.

Research question five reveals the factors that limit the use of audio visual aids in the teaching and learning in art education department, the respondents all agreed that, electricity, financial instability of the school and teacher’s incompetence are factors that limit the use of audio visual aids in teaching and learning in art education department.


Conclusions

It is observed that, to enhance the teaching and learning in art education department, audio visual aids must be made available in schools because they stimulate teaching learning processes. Effective use of audio visual aids by the teacher can improve academic performance of the student university of Nigeria Nsukka. However, it observed that there are factors that limit the use of audio visual aids in the teaching and learning in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka.


Implication

The result of this study has obvious implication to the teaching and learning on English language in secondary schools, therefore it is recognized that there is need to make audio visual aids available and effectively utility, so as to enhance the teaching and learning in art education department. However, insufficient fund and noninvolvement of government in the provision and maintenance of instructional materials can destabilize the teaching and learning processes.

On the other hand, lack of supervision of the teacher by the educational board contribute to the teacher`s negligence in the use of audio visual aids that are readily available in the school, incompetence also limit the teacher to use of audio visual aids.


Recommendations of the Study

On the basis of the results obtained from the research and the literature reviewed, the following recommendations were made after examining the application of audio visual aids in the teaching and learning in art education department

  1. A seminar workshop on the use of diverse instructional materials should be organized to acquaint teachers on how to use them to teach especially English language because of its value in educational system.
  2. A committee should be set up to monitor the teacher on the usage of instructional materials like audio visual aids in the teaching in art education department
  3. Educational managers should ensure that English teachers have educational qualification in English as a way of acquainting them with the principles and administration of instructional materials in secondary schools
  4. School administration should ensure that instructional materials are made available for teachers and they are adequately equipped with the technical knowhow on how to use them to teach effectively and efficiently.

Limitations of the study

The researcher encountered some challenges on the process of carrying out this study. They include:

  1. The researcher encountered financial problems as regards to the production of the questionnaire and typing of work.
  2. Some of the respondents were reluctant in completing the questionnaire.
  3. Some of the respondents decline when the research was going them the questionnaire.
  4. There were also limitations in the study such as lack of time, due to Management; the researcher had to cut down the scope of the study.

Suggestions for further studies

In view of the information to the study, the researcher suggests that further studies should be carried out on the comparative iteration of audio visual aids for effectively teaching and learning in art education department . Also the same study should be repeated in other to determine whether the same result will be obtained.

Strategies to test teacher’s ability in using instructional material like audio visual aids in the teaching in art education department.


Summary

This study has revealed the application of audio visual aids in the teaching and learning in art education department in faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka, it adopted a descriptive survey with a sample size of One hundred and fifty (150) respondents from faculty of education, university of Nigeria Nsukka. The study examined four (4) research questions using mean and standard deviation.

Findings reveal that audio visual aids are resource materials that enhance the teaching and learning in art education department, which should be made available in schools. The improvements of class room instructions largely depend on the effective use of audio visual aids by the teacher. However, irregular power supply, limited time and teacher’s incompetence are factors that limit the use of audio visual aids.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Why use audio-visual resources in teaching and learning?

Studies (Ode, 2014; Adamu, Ibrahim, Adamu & Ibrahim, 2018) have shown that the use of audio-visual resources improves effectiveness in learning in general and reading in particular because it provides opportunities for modelling, observation and feedback during the course of instruction.

What is the difference between visual aids and teaching materials?

Teaching and learning resources are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are facilitated in school (Sofowora and Egbedokun 2010). Visual aids are types of designated teaching and learning materials that may be locally or commercially produced. They appeal mostly to the sense of seeing.

What is the role of visual materials in teaching?

As a supplement to mere talk, the organisation of learning and seeing is enhanced through the timely and appropriate utilisation of visual materials.

What are the available AV resources for students?

The study found the availability of AV resources such as slide/film projectors, computers, internet (audio and video) lessons, android mobile devices/phone tablets, etc. However, only few of these resources were being utilized and to a low extent. 

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