Availability Of Teachers And Laboratory Facilities For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics In Junior Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

Availability Of Teachers And Laboratory Facilities For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


This research was carried out to assess the availability of teacher and laboratory facilities in Home Economics in junior secondary school in State . Teachers and Student from each of the selected schools in Igbo-Eze Local Government of Enugu were randomly exampled. Three research questions were formulated to find out the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities in effective teaching and learning of Home Economics. After a thorough review of relevant literature, structured questionnaire was used to collect valid and relevant data which were analyzed and a simple percentage analysis method was used to analyze the responses elicited from 360 respondents. It was discovered that factors such as lack Home Economics qualified Teachers , lack of laboratory equipments, vague practical and instruction materials, lack of power supply, inadequate training for Home Economics teachers among others contributes to the ineffectiveness of teaching and learning of home economics especially in the area of study in junior secondary schools. The study suggested that, school owners should endeavor to employ qualified teachers during employment, more equip their school laboratory with modern home economics gadget such as electric oven, toasters, sewing machines blenders etc so as to enhance effective teaching of home economics in junior secondary schools.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Home Economics is one of the compulsory prevocational subjects taught at the Junior Secondary Education level in Nigeria educational system. According to Anyakoha (2007), Home Economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills that make for self-reliance, employment and paid employment. Occupational skills are best understood as competency on resourceful skills capable of steering an individual to be self-reliant, independent and productive in meeting lives challenges. Creese, A. (1976) said occupational skills are life survival skills which an individual needs to function effectively and face the challenges of life.

Occupational skills in Home Economics include food and nutrition skills, home management skills and clothing and textile skills. By teaching occupational skills Home Economics Education Program enables an individual to learn, explore and prepare for a job or trade. Thus Home Economics could play a significant role in achieving the goals of the National Economic and Development strategy (NEEDS). These goals include wealth creation, employment generation, reduction of poverty, elimination of corruption and the general reorientation of values.


1.1 Background of the Study

Tertiary institutions offering Home Economics face enormous challenges. Teachers get frustrated because there are a few or unavailable facilities to teach and carry out practical’s. When this happens the products are found wanting when sent to the job market because they have not fully and confidently grasped the course content and course work effectively. Lack of facilities has really been a major problem and students have to buy most of these items by themselves.

These problems have made Home Economics in the tertiary institutions very expensive, (Flock 1974). Confirming the neglect of vocational and Technical Education by the government, Anyakoha (2005) said, lack of modern equipment has also been a major problem as students read more about sophiscated equipment and have no opportunity of exploring such equipment for a first-hand information but resort to pictures in books. Anyakoha, (2007), again complained that due to the combination of other courses, work in the Home Economics Department has become tedious, such that it is difficult to plan field trips, visits to industries, institutions and organizations where these equipment can be found to aid learning and facilitate class room work.

Due to lack of funds and aid from government and donor agencies to help build more practice houses, modern equipped food laboratories, textiles and sewing rooms, spacious demonstration centres and lecture halls, students and lecturers are clung to the old laboratories and the out dated facilities. Library facilities are poor, books are lacking and the few books found are too old, and this makes research and learning very different on the part of the student. From the ongoing it will be seen that Home Economics Education has not been given its pride of place as other professions in the march toward our national transformation.

We are living in a world where science and technology have become an integral part of the world’s culture. With the increasing rate of unemployment in Nigeria, an effective training in the major areas of Home Economics will ensure functional and productive life for individuals towards national development. The research seek to investigate the challenges of Availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school in Enugu North (a case study of Enugu north L.G.A)


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Home Economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills that make for self-reliance, employment and paid employment. Occupational skills are best understood as competency on resourceful skills capable of steering an individual to be self-reliant, independent and productive in meeting lives challenges. Creese, A. (1976) said occupational skills are life survival skills which an individual needs to function effectively and face the challenges of life.

Occupational skills in Home Economics include food and nutrition skills, home management skills and clothing and textile skills. By teaching occupational skills Home Economics Education Program enables an individual to learn, explore and prepare for a job or trade. Thus Home Economics could play a significant role in achieving the goals of the National Economic and Development strategy (NEEDS). These goals include wealth creation, employment generation, and reduction of poverty, elimination of corruption and the general reorientation of values. In spite of these laudable qualities of Home Economics as a skill, there are series of challenges which impede its growth to be one of the pathways to national transformation.

Some of these challenges include, Federal Government’s lukewarm attitude towards vocational and technical education programmes generally in Nigerian Universities, the perception of the society towards graduates of Home Economics as those who could not fit into any other challenging course, lack of candidates interest as they see the programme as expensive, inadequate manpower to teach Home Economics at the Junior and senior secondary school levels; as well as frustration on the part of teachers because of lack of modern equipment for proper practicals to mention but a few.

The problem confronting this research therefore is to investigate Availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school in Enugu North (a case study of Enugu north L.G.A)


1.3 Objective of the Study

  1. To determine the nature of Home Economics
  2. To determine the nature of the effective teaching of Home Economics
  3. To determine the Availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for the effective teaching of Home Economics in Junior secondary school in Enugu North LGA

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of Home Economics?
  2. What is the nature of the effective teaching of Home Economics?
  3. What is the Availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for the effective teaching of Home Economics in junior secondary school in Enugu North LGA?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The research proffers a study framework for the formulation and implementation of policy for addressing challenges of the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities for the effective Teaching of Home Economics in junior secondary schools.

It also serves as a source of information for students, Teachers and Home Economic Experts.


1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. Ho The level of understanding of Home Economics in junior secondary school in Enugu North is Low
    Hi The level of understanding of Home Economics in junior secondary school in Enugu North is high
  2. Ho The availability of Teachers and Laboratory facilities for effective teaching of Home Economics is low
    Hi The availability of Teachers and Laboratory facilities for effective teaching of Home Economics is high
  3. Ho The impact of teachers and laboratory facilities on the effective teaching of Home Economics is low
    Hi The impact of teachers and laboratory facilities on the effective teachings of Home Economics is high

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of the Availability of teachers and laboratory facility for the effective teaching of Home Economics in junior secondary school.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Home Economics Defined

Nigerian Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) (2007) recognized Home Economics as one of the vocational subjects in the junior secondary school curriculum. This is aimed at providing students with basic knowledge, skills and attitudes in the various aspects of family life. It is designed to enable students integrate basic knowledge learnt with skills and expose them to the numerous opportunities for successful home making. According to NERDC (2007), objectives to be achieved by the students of Home Economics at junior secondary level include to:

  • Contribute to healthy family
  • Develop manipulative skills that will enable the students function effectively in the society within the limit of their capacity.
  • Develop healthy and aesthetic values, attitudes and skills,
  • Develop the ability to adapt to their changing environment.
  • Develop a sense of inquiry and scientific approach to daily living and appreciate the dignity of labour.
Retention Defined

Retention is the ability to possess, use, keep information and ability to reproduce past experiences or previously familiar materials, much of the experiences one thinks are not retained were never stored in the long term memory system.

Lecture Method Defined

According to Blair,(2007) lecture method is the commonest method in use by teachers, it does not foster critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving. It allows a great deal of information to be passed to the learner. Lecture method does not stimulate students’ innovative, inquiry and scientific attitudes. It encourages students to cram facts which are easily forgotten.

Teaching Defined

Teaching is an art of creation and the product of this creation is the human personality. Teaching is defined as a systematic activity deliberately engaged in by the teacher to facilitate the learning of the intended knowledge, skills and values by the student and getting the necessary feedback (Offorma, 2006).

Development Defined

Hornby (2000) defines development as the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and stronger. This implies that development implies a gradual or advancement through progressive change or changes which according to some scholars is seen as multidimensional involving changes in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and education of absolute poverty.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the “availability of teachers and laboratory facility for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics in Junior Secondary schools. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine examined the impact of availability of teachers and laboratory equipment on effective teaching and learning of home economics among junior secondary school. The study specifically was aimed at identifying how teaching method, availability of laboratory equipment, instructional materials towards effective leaning of Home Economic in junior secondary schools. It revealed how the use of laboratory equipment and teachers disposition can aid the teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school. The study adopted the survey research design. The population size is the entire junior secondary school in Igbo-Eze Ezike, local government of Enugu state while 2 public school of the location were randomly selected as the sample size of the population. In all 360 respondents were used as the sample size. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed with Likert Scale (Strongly Agree, Agree, Strongly Disagree, Disagree) using frequency tables and percentage.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Lack of proper use of laboratory equipment and facilities in teaching Home Economics can influence student’s attitude toward learning Home Economics.
  2. Teachers availability and accessibility to student is determinant to effective teaching of home economics
  3. Inadequate provision of laboratory facilities by the responsible authorities for teaching Home Economics can influence the effective teaching and learning of Home Economics.
  4. There is shortage of qualified and competenc Home Economics Teachers in Junior secondary schools in Igbo-Eze.
  5. Home Economics as subject that deals with impacting skills must not be thought in vague if effective teaching can be achieved.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Regular training and seminars should be conducted for teachers on Home Economics to enable to effective teaching of Home Economics among Junior secondary school
  2. Teachers of Home Economics should maintain an approachable disposition towards student in other to foster proper understanding of concepts and practical done home Economics.
  3. Awareness on different use of modern Home Economics Gadgets like toasters, electric sewing machines, mixers etc should be done for student in Junior Secondary schools for effective learning of Home Economics.
  4. Teachers should ensure the use of instructional materials designed with real world problem rather than outdated recipes in Home Economics in Junior Secondary school.
  5. Governments and private School owners should equip junior secondary schools with modern laboratory facilities and other home economics gadget as this would enhance teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school.
  6. Government and School Owners should ensure they employ only Home Economics qualified teachers and regular assessment on computer literacy should be conducted for them.

5.5 Suggestion for further studies

The main focus of this study was on the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities toward effective teaching and learning of Home Economics in Junior Secondary School Igbo-Eze. The researcher therefore suggests for further research be conducted in Junior secondary school in Nigeria since this study was limited to Enugu State.


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