Availability Of Qualified Home Economics Teachers In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics In Senior Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Education and its benefits can never be over emphasized as the root of economic. Industrial, political scientific and technological and even religions development. all aspect of development is centered on education. Education is one of the vital instrument for development in any nation. Every education system at every level depends heavily on teacher for the execution of its programmes. Teachers are highly essential for successful operational of the education system and important for the educational development.
Teachers at all level of education play the decision role in pivoting the growth and the direction of education. It is an acceptable fact that teacher is the most important cog? In the educational machine and that teachers are highly instruction the access of any educational programme embarked upon by any government. This is because apart from being at the implementation level of any educational policy the realization of these progrmame also depend greatly on teacher dedication and commitment to their work (Adeniyi 1999).
Kaplan and Owings (2001) indicate that two brooded areas define teacher quality. Darling. Hammed (2000) states that the characteristics of teacher quality are verbal ability, subject matter knowledge,, knowledge of teaching and learning the ability to use a wide range of teaching strategies adapted to student needs.
Natural qualification of a teacher is another very influential determined of the classroom environment (Lundbery and Linnakyla. 1993). A teachers qualities include preparation and training. The use of a particular instructional approach and experience in teaching. This insight is shared by Mullis. Kennedy Martin and Sainsbury (2004) who indicate that teacher quality is an important determination of pupils performance.
The quality of education hinges on the qualification of teaching that goes on in the classroom reinforcing the idea that quality teachers make up for the deficiency in the curriculum and in educational resources Anderson (1991). Teacher quality is widely through o as an essential determinant of academic performance het there is little agreement as to what specific characteristics make a good teacher (Hamushtick and Rivkin, 2006). This is an important issue of the economic impact of higher student achievement can be a function of the depreciation rate of student learning, the total variation of teacher quality (as measured by student achievement on standard tests) and the labour market return to one standard deviation of higher achievement.
Researchers, policy makes, parent and even teachers themselves agree that teacher qualification matter. But defining, measuring and identifying teacher qualification is a far more controversial task. Subject matter knowledge is another variable that one might think could be related to teacher qualification while there is some support for this assumption. The findings, are not as strongly and consistent as one might suppose, studies of teachers score relationship between this measure of subject matter knowledge and teacher performance as measured by student outcome or supervisory rating.
Most studies show small, statistically insignificant relationship between teacher qualification and students academic performance. Secondary education is the pivot around which the development of the nations economy revolves. It is the engine room that provides the input resources into the nation economy and higher production system.
The National Policy on Education (2011 Revised Edition) looks at secondary education thus;
- – Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
- – The broad goals of secondary education shall be prepare the individual for useful living within the society and higher education
- – In specific term secondary education shall
- Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religions or ethnic background.
- Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talent opportunities and future roles.
- Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commence at sub-professional grades.
- Develop and promote Nigeria sciences and culture in the context and world cultural heritage.
- Inspire its students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence.
- Foster national unity with an emphases on the common ties that unite us in our diversity; Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves. Respect the values and feeling of other, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goal and live good citizens.
- Provide technical knowledge and vocational skill necessary for agricultural. Industrial, commercial and economic development.
To achieve the stated goal secondary education shall be of six, years duration given in two stages; a junior secondary school stage and a senior secondary school stage; each shall be of three years duration. The development of Nigeria education system since independence has been characterized by a rapid expansion.
Due to the development of expansion, the registration concerning universe basic education (UBE) claims that access is to be provided for all children by the year 2015. UBE also aims to improve equal and qualitative learning opportunity for all children. How can the nation get a qualitative education? Who is a qualitative teacher? Research for education and learning (Marzano R, Pickering and Pollock, 2001). Teacher effectiveness research is grounded in classroom and often uses classroom – based assessments. However, the recent Aspan Institute report, beyond NCLB (Commission on No child left Behind, 2007), written to guide the reauthorization of NCLB, defines “effective” in terms of teacher ability to improve student achievement as measured on standardized tests. Qualitative teacher is the one who selects right approaches to teaching, knowledgeable, intelligent content mastery, hardworking and efficiency self discipline, tolerant, friendly, who serves as a role model through good characters and manner commitment, respect for profession, dedicated, loyal and responsible. The current framework for teacher training in Nigerian is based n the NPE (2004) which emphasized on the quality of teachers. On the other side, students achievement refer to their academic performance. However the research will focused on the qualitative aspect of teacher and its relationship for the performance of students academically. A god teacher is perhaps the most common and least precise of all terms. Shulman, president of the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching, describes a good teacher in the following ways in the classroom of a good teacher student are visible, engaged, attentive and participating. In good teaching, students are responsible for their learning. They are accountable for their understanding. Good teaching is passionate, and it induces an emotional response in students good teaching starts with inducing habits of mind, but does not stop there. Good teaching engages practical thinking and problem-solving skill that can be applied in a variety of setting. And good teaching affects student values. Commitment and identities.
As stated above, the definition f teachers qualified. there are so many problems that are associated with teacher quantification, more especially in our secondary schools, the percentage of the student that pass their final exam that is WAEC and NECO in the last five to six years, the rate of failures in the examination is becoming so alarming. Some elites see the problem as a supply demand issue. The profession is not attracting the “right” individual into teaching some view the quality problem as a concern about preparation from the vantage point teacher who complete university-based programs do not leave with the appropriate knowledge and practices to be effective in contemporary classrooms.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Federal ministry of Education (2006) reporting on Nigeria, revealed that the academic performance of student in the senior school certificate examination conducted between 2000 and 2006 as below fifty percent (50%). The falling standard of education in the nation is becoming so thigh, more especially in our secondary schools. The student are performing very poorly in their academic performance. Their continues assessment is poor; their formal examination is equally very disappointing (FCE staff secondary, school 2009 end of third term examination”). The performance of Nigeria secondary school student in external examination showed 98% failure rat in the 2009 November 1 December Senior school certificate examination conducted by the national Examination Council (NECO-SSCE); out of the local number of 230, 682 candidates who set for the examination. Only 4,223 obtained credits level passes and above in five subject influencing English and mathematics (Bello-Osogie & Olugbamila, 2009).
In the 2009 may/June senior school certificate examination conducted by the West African Examination Council (WASSCE), only 25:99%) of the total number of candidate obtain credit level passes and above in five subjects. Including English science and mathematics, while in 2010 May/June WASSCE, out of the 1.135557 candidate that sat for the examination. Only 337.071 (24.94%) obtained five credit level passes and above in subjects that included English science and mathematics (Owadiac 2010).
Mathematics is one of the compulsory subjects that student most offer in senior secondary school curriculum according to National Policy on Education (2000), there are core subjects as well as electives that student must offer.
Majority of secondary school student often dread and show negative attitude towards mathematics (Awofela, 2000), and the trends of their achievement in the senior secondary school certificate examination is also a source of worry to the state holder; for instance the percentage credit pass of student in May/June WAEC mathematics between 2004 and 2—7 is a concern as indicated in the table above.
The public unhappiness becomes more prominent following the annual release of the West African Senior School Certificate Examination result. Student outcomes do not match the government and parental investment. All stakeholder are concerned about they the system is bringing out graduates with poor result. To them it is questionable whether or not teachers in our secondary school, the most important factor in the effectiveness of school and in the quality of child’s education is competent to teach effectively. The national policy of education state that “No educational system can rise above the quality of teachers in the system” (FGN 2006).
The federal government of Nigeria has made several attempts and enacted laws concerning the development of education. Among such attempts is the low concerning the recruitment of teacher, this is done in order to achieve educational aim and objective. This could be achieved if there are qualified teacher to teach at the appropriate level.
There is need for this research, in order to achieve educational aim and objectives. This could only be achieved through having qualitative teacher to teach at the appropriate level. There is need for this research. In order to find out if there is any relationship between teacher qualification and student achievements more specially in these few years that the nation is witnessing the massive failure of (SSCE). This study aim at determining, whether there is effects of qualification. Home – Economics Teachers Qualification on student Academic Performance of the student with learning disability in Oyo East Local Government. Area Oyo State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is set to achieve the following objectives
- Determine the effect of home-economics teachers’ qualification on in effective teaching and learning of home-Economics in senior secondary school
- Investigate the effect of home economic teachers years of teacher experiences on student academic performance in home economics in some selected secondary school.
- Establish the impact of home economic teacher knowledge of subject matter on students performance in home economics in the some selected secondary school.
- Find out whether home economics teacher teaching methods affect student academic performance in home economics in selected secondary school.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to provide answer to the following research question;
- What is the effect of home economics teachers’ qualification on effective teaching and learning of home-economics in senior secondary school?
- Does home economics teachers’ year of teaching experience affect student learning of home economics in secondary.
- What is the impact of home-economics teacher knowledge of the subject matter on performance of student in home economics in secondary school.
- Do home economics teacher teaching method affect academic performance in Home-economics.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis were raised for this research;
- HO1: There is no significant relationship among student academic performance in home economics taught by teacher of different qualification in senior secondary school.
- HO2: There is no significant relationship among student academic performance in home economics whose teachers have different year of teaching experience in senior secondary school.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The purpose of any educational research is to contribute to the development of knowledge. The research finding would be of great help to the government and other stakeholder by revealing the relationship between the quality of teachers and student academic performance in our schools. This will consequently guide the ministry in adopting a new policy of recruiting teacher i.e. to make sure they recruit qualified teacher who are highly effective i.e those with knowledge of content, teaching experience, professional certificate and overall academic ability.
The finding will be of benefit of student, most especially those in the post graduate studies, to add more, or to contribute from where the researchers stopped or what is left to be done in the area of study.
The research finding will be of benefit to any individual who is interested in knowing the effects of home economics teacher quality and students achievement. The finding will be of great importance and help in conference writing related to the area. It will make teachers plan and present their lesson excellently and also those unqualified teacher to go and further their studies so as to meet the minimum required qualification for teaching.
The research finding will help to society to dictate what is to be included in the curriculum so as to improve the quality of the teachers as well as the students. This study will be of significance to curriculum planers. The information from this study will be of benefit to the curriculum developers of the National Policy on Education to forestall all the lapses during the course of building.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
In the study it is assumed that
- There are qualified and unqualified teacher in the schools
- There are experienced and inexperienced teacher in the schools
- The school have some of the basic material for learning but lack most of the materials.
- Some of the teachers will cooperate with the research
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is concerned with the availability of qualified home economics teachers in effective teaching and learning of home economics in senior secondary schools.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
Operational definition of terms is defined as a statement of the procedures or way in which a researcher is going to measure behaviours of qualities. The operational term would frequently be used in the research work. Definition of the terms is very important for full understanding of the whole study.
Teacher Qualification means attributes of teacher that reflect their competence for effectiveness in teaching learning process. For example, their professional qualification their experiences and communicative competence means influencing one variable over another as a result f treatment
Student’s Academic Performance:
Knowledge and skill of student at the end of teaching-learning process, in particular, their achievements in the SSS home economics paper.
Teacher with teaching certification in home economics e.g. B.A. Ed/B.Ed home economic M.ED MA.Ed Learning disabilities is a generic term that refers to an heterogeneous group of disorder that manifest in children in various forms.
Conclusion and Recommendation
From the findings these conclusions were drawn. Home economics teachers are encouraged to further their studies so as to increase their knowledge and experience in their subject field or area of specialization. Home economics science teachers should be well committed to their duty. Home economics teachers were encourage to use different teaching methods to make their students learn better. Home economics teachers should know their subject matter very well so that they could help their student to learn better.
The National Policy on Education postulated that “No Education could rise above the quality of its teachers”. The students’ performance depend upon the quality of the teachers. Therefore, poor performance of student s in Nigeria was also attributed to lack of quality teachers in our schools.
Based on the proceeding’s conclusion, the following recommendations were made.
- Teachers of home economics should be encouraged to go for both long term and short-term training to boost their quality in teaching and learning in senior secondary schools. this is because by s doing, their power of knowledge and command of experience would be greatly enhanced or boosted and this serves importance to both the teachers and students.
- Government should ensure the adequate recruitment of dedicated, qualified teachers to teach in all senior secondary schools in the study area in particular and the country in general.
- Teachers should also attend seminars, workshops to keep abroad of new teaching approaches.
- Teachers with long years of experience should be encouraged and motivated to stay in teaching profession as the length of service/experience significantly affects the students’ performance in home economics teachers. Registration council should introduce tests and examinations for teachers at regular intervals.
- That government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system.
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