Availability Of Instructional Materials And Laboratory Facilities For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry In Senior Secondary Schools In Obot Akara L. G. A

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Availability Of Instructional Materials And Laboratory Facilities For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry In Senior Secondary Schools In Obot Akara L. G. A


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The study was specifically carried out to determine whether there is an adequate provision of instructional materials and laboratory facilities in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhances chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; and ascertain whether there will a significant difference in the academic performance of chemistry students thought using adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities and those thought without adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of Chemistry teachers of selected senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The study also revealed that the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhances chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. Therefore, it is recommended that it is evident that availability of biology laboratory facilities promote learning of the subjects. Therefore government and all other stakeholders of education should as a matter of priority make available these facilities in the schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Chemistry is an incredibly fascinating field of study, because it is so fundamental to our world. Chemistry plays a role in everyone’s lives and touches almost every aspect of our existence in some way. Chemistry is essential for meeting our basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, clean air, water and soil. Chemical technologies enrich the quality of life in numerous ways by providing new solutions to problems in health and materials and energy usage. Chemistry as one of the major sciences is concerned with the composition, structure and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergo during chemical reactions. Chemistry is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes under different conditions of temperature and pressure.

The teaching of chemistry without instructional materials will certainly result to poor performance in the course. Franzer et al. (2002) stressed that;a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. Instructional materials serve as a channel between the teacher and the students in delivering instructions. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching-learning process. It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching; especially for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need material for background information on the subject they are teaching.

Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and administering exams. Instructional materials are essential for all of these activities. Basssey (2002) described instructional materials media as system component that may be used as part of instructional process which are used to disseminate informative message and ideas or which make possible communication in the teaching-learning process. Kochhar(2012), stated that instructional materials are very significant learning and teaching tools. He suggested there is need for teachers to find necessary materials for instruction to supplement what textbooks provide in order to broaden concepts and arouse student’s interests in the subject. Instructional materials assist the teacher to achieve the stated goals and objectives. Instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. This gives the learner the opportunity of experiencing as he/she observes, hears, touches, feels or manipulates, carries out some experiments or interacts with concrete objects and situations. Teachers needs to select and use a combination of instructional materials which enable the learners read, hear, see, touch and taste because it brings good result in the attainment of stated instructional objectives or actively involved in intellectual, emotional and physical aspects.

More so, modern Science curricula stress students’ involvement in Science activity and teachers’ use of pedagogy that moves away from teacher-dominated to student-centered. Empirical studies within and outside Nigeria have established that students achieve greater learning both in cognitive and psychomotor domain when resources are used for instructional purposes, (Ifeakor, 2006). This conforms to a Chinese proverb that says; what I hear, I forget. What I do, I understand. Students cannot ‘do’, when the facilities of ‘doing’ are not provided. Instructions given in form of practical work improve the learners’ level of understanding. Not only would the resources make Chemistry to be activity-oriented, it would also make the student centered and self reliant. The indispensability of the resources to the teaching of Chemistry cannot be over emphasized. Science laboratory is an important component in the learning of science subjects but it depends upon the degree to which it is efficiently used, only the availability of Science laboratory is not a guarantee of students’ performance until both the students and teachers actually use science laboratory facilities efficiently (Lewin, 2000). The proper use of laboratory and demonstration of experiments are the indicators of student performance. Science laboratories are important only when they are used in the school setting. According to Raimi (2002) and Adeyegbe (2005), laboratory adequacy was reported to affect the performance of students in Chemistry. Likewise, about the use of laboratory, Farounbi (1998) argued that students tend to understand and recall what they see more than what they hear. Students see when they actually use laboratories in the teaching and learning of science. Similarly, Adesoji and Olatunbosun (2008) found that laboratory adequacy was also found to enhanced achievement through attendance at Chemistry workshop.
Science laboratory is a very important resource input for teaching science and is an important predictor of academic achievement. Throwing more light on school facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (1997) asserted that school facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the main problems facing most secondary schools in the Nigerian society today is the relative decline in the academic achievements of the students especially in the sciences. The secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State are no exception. The academic achievements of students in the Chemistry have been on the decline (Ajagun 2000) and being able to reach the desired goal can be termed achievement. Most research findings in academic achievement in sciences are applicable to Chemistry as a science subject. The poor achievements in Chemistry could be attributed to some factors such as: – lack of use of apparatus Tabotndip(2000), lack of fund to purchase material Ezeudu(1995). From experience as a teacher, there are other factors that contribute to poor achievement in biology which include: Lack of facility for imparting knowledge. Inadequate equipment in laboratories where they exist. Lack of teacher’s zeal to make use of instructional materials or improvise in the absence of standard materials. Lack of students’ exposure to practical lessons and insufficient time for practical activities. Lack of interest in creativity in the part of teachers and poor teaching strategies. Large size of the classes, leading to inadequate or poor management of classes. Unqualified or inexperience teachers handling biology classes.

There is a general impression that science education is not achieving the desired objectives especially with high incidence of students’ poor performance in chemistry and other science subjects at senior secondary certificate examination. This situation has assumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State and particularly in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The failure of educational system to provide adequate and appropriate teaching-learning aids in order to improve academic performance of students is of a great concern.. It is believed that if adequate instructional materials are made available to school and are used appropriately in teaching-learning process, a better performance could be achieved.

Likewise, if science laboratories are provided to schools, there are three possibilities that they remain unused, used inefficiently and used efficiently. Furthermore, Science laboratories are provided to schools with deficient quality and less quantity of equipments, apparatus, materials, and chemicals owing to limited funds. However, science laboratories may contribute to higher level of academic achievement if used effectively and properly with national commitment. In view of the above, this study seek to assess availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study generally is focused on the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. Below are the specific objectives;

  1. Dtermine whether there is an adequate provision of instructional materials and laboratory facilities in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  2. Find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  3. Find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhances chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  4. Ascertain whether there will a significant difference in the academic performance of chemistry students thought using adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities and those thought without adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities in Obot Akara Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Is there an adequate provision of instructional materials and laboratory facilities in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area?
  2. Does the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area?
  3. Does the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhance chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area?
  4. Will a significant difference exist between the academic performance of chemistry students thought using adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities, and those thought without adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities in Obot Akara Local Government Area.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities doess not promote the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  • Ha: The availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities promotes the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to Chemistry teachers in Obot Akara Local Government Area in particular and in Nigeria in general. Teachers and would find this study relevant and useful in teaching and learning procedures. The study will emphasize on the need to use of instructional materials. This present research will help in obtaining useful information concerning the availability and usability of Chemistry laboratory facilities for teaching Organic Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools. The result obtained will provide relevant information on factors that influence the availability and usability of Chemistry laboratory facilities for teaching Organic Chemistry in senior secondary school. It will greatly increase our knowledge about what happens in schools. The study will enlighten teachers on the importance of using available Chemistry laboratory facilities for the teaching of Chemistry.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instruction Materials:

Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education.

Laboratory:

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

Academic Performance:

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The study was specifically carried out to determine whether there is an adequate provision of instructional materials and laboratory facilities in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; find whether the the availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhances chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area; and ascertain whether there will a significant difference in the academic performance of chemistry students thought using adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities and those thought without adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities in Obot Akara Local Government Area.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were Chemistry teachers of selected senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate provision of instructional materials and laboratory facilities in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  2. The availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities aids chemistry teachers in effective instructional delivery in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  3. The availability of instructional materials and laboratory facilities enhances chemistry students learning quality and academic performance in senior secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area.
  4. There will a significant difference in the academic performance of chemistry students thought using adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities and those thought without adequate instructional materials and laboratory facilities in Obot Akara Local Government Area.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Instructional materials should be provided by the Ministry of Education for effective teaching and learning of Chemistry concepts in Delta State Senior Secondary School.Other Stakeholders like the PTA should also make effort to provide teaching materials to schools.
  2. It is evident that availability of biology laboratory facilities promote learning of the subjects. Therefore government and all other stakeholders of education should as a matter of priority make available these facilities in the schools.
  3. It is important that resources are made available for establishing laboratories with adequate facilities in schools. Hence, the Nigerian government should include practical activities in science as a part of the formal assessment procedures and take immediate steps to equip/set up science laboratories for the effective teaching and learning of science.
  4. Science teachers should be more resourceful by providing support materials for science teaching and learning so that students learn by doing, develop thinking skills, and attempt innovations.
  5. The government should enforce, encourage, train and monitor chemistry teachers in senior secondary schools in using, effectively ,the supplied laboratory resources in order to enhance teaching ability of the teacher and also improve the learning attitude of students in chemistry.

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