Availability And Use Of Instructional Material In Teaching Of Basic Science In Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

Availability And Use Of Instructional Material In Teaching Of Basic Science In Secondary School


Abstract


This study evaluated the availability and use instructional material in teaching and learning of basic science in secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area. The population for study was made up of 12,254. Of secondary student in Igbo Etiti; the researcher designed a questionnaire to carry her research work. The findings of research work shows that there is a significant relationship between the availability and the use of instructional material based on these findings, recommendation was proffered. Keywords, the availability and use of instructional material in teaching and learning of basic science in secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Aguokogbuo (2000) says that educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences.

Instructional material elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching of basic science and other related subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioral change. These authors include Greenwood (2001) Nwanna Nzewunwa (2003) and Adekeye (2008) more specifically; it was emphasized in the works of these authors that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behavior of learning’s of every field, especially basic science.
It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are important catalysis of social re-engineering and changes; according to the researcher, it is found that basic science teaching and learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.

Advanced in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching-learning situation positively. The availability of instructional material in teaching and learning of the student, have made both teaching and learning become very pleasant to basic science teachers. A study by Owolabi (2004) revealed that the performance of Nigerian students in ordinary level basic science was generally poor. This was attributed by the author to many factors of teaching strategy, teaching strategy itself was considered as an important factor. Jegede et. al (1992) reported factors responsible for students’ academic performance in learning of basic science.

The factors can be said to be poor laboratory facilities, inability of the basic science teachers to put across ideas clearly to the students and inadequate number of learning facilities in school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state. Basic science cannot be fully taught without the availability of instructional material; the teaching of basic science without learning materials will certainly result to poor performance in the course.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The relevance of education in any society cannot be understood. It is regarded as the single potent factor that leads to the improvement of the individual as well as the society. The need to provide basic formal educational instructional material in teaching of basic science in secondary school in Igbo Etiti L.G.A of Enugu. The lack of availability and the credibility of instructional material in teaching of basic science in terms of effectiveness and appropriateness of instructional material have remained a major problems and issues of interest in Igbo Etiti local government area.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. Assess instructional technology tools available to teachers at secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state.
  2. Determine instructional material used by teachers.
  3. Determine instructional material used by student in learning.
  4. Identify ways teachers used technology material for teaching of basic science in secondary schools in Igbo Etiti L.G.A.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no ways teachers used technology material for teaching of basic science in secondary schools in Igbo Etiti L.G.A
    H1: there are ways teachers used technology material for teaching of basic science in secondary schools in Igbo Etiti L.G.A
  2. H02: there are no instructional technology tools available to teachers at secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state.
    H2: there are instructional technology tools available to teachers at secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state

1.5 Significance of the Study

The research will be of significance to the entire secondary school in Igbo Etiti L.G.A. of Enugu, especially to the student in there learning field of study.It will help the educationalist in providing, utilizing and improving the use of instructional material in teaching of the student in schools. In the other hand, it will direct and encourage secondary schools on the use of instructional material in teaching and learning of basic science.

The benefit of effective use of instructional material as a tool for teaching and learning of the student cannot be over emphasized, poor academic achievement of the student will be minimized. The study would also benefit the future researchers who would be interested in carrying out a further research work in the same field. Finally, this study has also been a source of inspiration and the researcher found it very helpful to her academic advancement it has exposed her to so many things.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The researcher confines the study to the five secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state. Specifically designed for secondary school students who are engaged in basic science. This means that the application of the research findings is generalized with in secondary schools in Igbo Etiti local government area.

The research will take duration of four months to complete. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Availability:

The quality of being able to be used or obtained

Instructional Material:

Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material.

Teaching:

Define teaching. teaching synonyms, teaching pronunciation, teaching translation, English dictionary definition of teaching. The act, practice, occupation, or profession of a teacher.

Basic Science:

Basic science principally refers to the scientific disciplines of Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. The principal idea behind something being labelled as basic science is that study of basic science leads to a better understanding of natural phenomena.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on availability and use of instructional material in teaching of basic science in secondary school. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of availability and use of instructional material in teaching of basic science


5.2 Summary

This study was on availability and use of instructional material in teaching of basic science in secondary school. Four objectives were raised which included: Assess instructional technology tools available to teachers at secondary school in Igbo Etiti local government area of Enugu state, determine instructional material used by teachers, determine instructional material used by student in learning, identify ways teachers used technology material for teaching of basic science in secondary schools in Igbo Etiti L.G.A. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Etiti local government of Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staffs and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

Finding from this study revealed that apart from two- dimensional instructional materials, most schools lack other valuable very important instructional materials for teaching and learning basic science. Most teachers hardly improvise instructional materials and that even when the instructional materials are available, teachers do not adequately utilize them in the teaching and learning of basic science


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made.

  1. There is need to re-orient the basic science teachers and indeed all science teachers on the provision and utilization of instructional materials.
  2. Science teachers should endeavor to belong to professional bodies, attend seminar/workshops regularly e.g. Curriculum Organization of Nigeria (CON)
  3. Government should pay more attention to education and provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning

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