The Availability Of Human And Material Resources In Teaching Senior School In Lagos State

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The Availability Of Human And Material Resources In Teaching Senior School In Lagos State


Abstract


The study investigated the effect of availability of human and material resources for teaching science in senior secondary schools in Sokoto State. A descriptive survey research design was used. Forty-seven (47) science teachers in seven (7) sampled schools were selected across six (6) Educational Zones in the state. A total of three hundred and thirteen (313) senior secondary school two (SSII) students were selected as sample out of one thousand six hundred and twenty-eight (1628) students’. Three (3) instruments were used in collecting data which included Laboratory Facilities/Equipment Inventory for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Assessment Observation Form on Utilization of human and Material resources. The instruments were found reliable and valid for collecting data. Five (5) research questions were developed, of which research questions 1 and 2 were answered using frequency count and simple percentage. The findings revealed that there are adequate material resources in senior secondary schools but the resources are inadequately utilized by the science teachers. T-test statistical tool was used for the analysis of three (3) hypotheses. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that Ministry of Education and private school proprietors should make sure that laboratory equipment are supplied to the schools and the quantity should be supplied according to the number of students available in each school. It is also recommended that training of teachers should happen more frequently and they should make the best use of the available material resources.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Science education imparts a method of inquiry and a systematic way of processing knowledge about the physical world to the learners. For this reason, science education provides part of the foundation for any knowledge-based effort to improve health, nutrition, family planning, environmental, agriculture, and industry.

Science education has two broad purposes. The first purpose is to promote scientific literacy among citizens on matters directly affecting their own lives and the society so that they can make decisions based on information and understanding. This is essential for the sustainable development of a modern, technological society. The second purpose is to build up technological capability by equipping the future workforce with essential science-based knowledge and skills, and by preparing students for scientific disciplines in higher education and science-related careers. Given the potential benefits, the provision of quality science education to all children will have far reaching consequences on a country’s development prospect.

Practical activities in science education are regarded as one of the necessary elements to promote understanding of scientific principles. To accomplish this goal, the equipment and experiment have to be carefully selected to give students the relevant experiences that they may need. The understanding is enhanced if the examples are coming from the daily life of the students.

Provision of relevant equipment is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful science teaching. Other factors such as pre-service and in-service teacher training, technical and educational suitability of equipment, distribution, maintenance and supply of consumable instructional materials influence the quality of practical activities.

Science teaching and learning requires the intensive application of resources that would appeal to all the senses of perception to improve the effectiveness of instruction as well as maximize learning. Ige, (2000) stated that science teaching and learning can only be meaningful and effective if backed up by the necessary resources to enrich instruction. Other researchers have revealed that resources are potent tools, which could be used to effectively communicate science, while enriching the learning experiences of the learners (Ango 2002, & Ngoka, 2000).

There are persisting problems of unqualified and inexperience science teachers and lack of proper funding of schools and improper motivation of teachers by the government. This may probably have contributed to the poor performance of teachers in the discharge of their duties. It has therefore become necessary to find out the effect of the availability and utilization of material resources on secondary school students performance in science in Sokoto state.

The main goals of science education are to develop understanding of scientific principles by applying method of scientific inquiry, prepare students to make responsible decision concerning science related issues and inform students about possible science careers (Bybee, Carlson Powell & Trownbridge, 2007). To reach these goals, different learning environment, teaching approaches and methods are important factors to consider. In many studies, attitudes have been found to play an important role in learning such as enjoyment of science, belief on the utility of science and self-esteem at science are

Many research reports attributed poor performance of students in science to one of the following-

  1. Untrained teachers are employed to teach
  2. Lack of laboratories in schools.
  3. Inadequacy of material resources or
  4. Lack of knowledge and skills of using material resources while teaching etc..

School science laboratory is considered a very important resource for science teaching. This is because the ultimate goal of any instructional activity includes the use of laboratory in order to facilitate effective teaching and meaningful learning through practicals. Therefore, laboratory is a paramount importance for proper translation and implementation of educational policies, curriculum, material resources and assessment of school outcomes. To this end, it has been a major reason why science curriculum objectives cannot be achieved unless and until practical activities are carried out in science teaching and learning. This is in line with the findings of Kamar (2007) who stated that, at its early days, the laboratory was used mainly to demonstrate or confirm some previously learnt information. With the shift of emphasis on science education from the acquisition of knowledge to the development of inquiry skills, however, this earlier accepted role of the laboratory in science teaching and learning was challenge and effectiveness of laboratory activities questioned. He asserted that laboratory is now regarded as the core of the science teaching and learning process inquiry oriented activities that enable students to learn the accepted body of knowledge. Indeed, laboratory helps students to carryout practical work, in using their mind and hands.

Practical work is the backbone of effective science teaching and learning. Alebiosu, (2003) emphasized that scientific enterprise is an activity packed one, involving continuous exploration and verification of facts, which is in line with the findings of Ogunkola and Olatoye, (2004) who opined that practical work should be based on investigations, which pupils plan and carry out. He further pointed out three elements of investigation as: (1) asking questions, predicting and hypothesizing, (2) observing, measuring and manipulating variables and (3) interpreting results and evaluating scientific evidences. Hence practical work in science, promote long term memory in students, enhances pupil development of the ethical dimension of science, instill the spirit of collaboration and active participation among learners, exposes learners to scientific experiences that could ultimately help them in developing scientific skills and attitudes, inculcate in the students the spirit of inquiry and scientific mode of thinking (Ogunkola & Olatoye, 2004).

According to Agwu (2002) Improvisation is the making or inventing of a piece of science teaching equipment in emergency. It is an essential part of laboratory management for the purpose of maximizing the use of the available resources.

Improvisation is describable in the following instances:

  1. When the improvised material would improve the lesson effectiveness.
  2. When the locally available materials are available for use.
  3. When the improvised materials would serve the same function as the standardized one.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The summary of the West African Examination Council (Waec) result for five (5) years (2009 – 2013) of the sampled schools indicated poor performance of students in physics, chemistry and biology (see appendix 10.). There are varieties of resources which the science teacher can use to teach in order to enrich learning. These resources should be provided in quality and quantity in the classroom for effective teaching-learning process (Umeoduagu, 2000). Furthermore, research reports have shown that these materials are grossly unavailable in most schools. Few available ones are either inadequate or underutilized (Achimugu, 2005; Okebukola and Jegede, 2002). Teaching and learning could not be effective without adequate and relevant use of instructional resource materials (Grant, 2000).

The material resources assist students in acquiring clear concept of subject matter, but the unavailability of material resources in teaching/teaching science may lead to poor performance in science by school children. This is the reason why many teachers cite the unavailability of material resources in their schools as reason for not teaching the subject practically. The unavailability of material resources in most Nigerian schools have made science teachers not demonstrating phenomena let alone allow pupils to have the opportunity of finding out things for themselves (Ayodele,2000).

It has been noticed that less emphasis is placed on the provision and utilization of material resources for teaching and teaching science in most secondary schools in Sokoto State. There is the problem of inadequate material resources in most of the secondary schools and also there is lack of knowledge and manipulative skills by most of the teachers on how to utilize material resources during teaching. These made the subjects very difficult to learn and also causes poor performance in science by the school children The main thrust of this study is to investigate effect of availability of human and material resources for teaching science in senior secondary schools in Sokoto State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Find out the level are material resources available for teaching in senior secondary schools
  2. Find out the degree do Science Teachers Utilizes available material resources in their schools
  3. Find out the whether Training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resources in teaching science
  4. Find out if there is a relationship between human resource management and motivation

1.4 Research Questions

This study investigated the following research questions:

  1. To what level are material resources available for teaching in senior secondary schools?
  2. To what degree do Science Teachers Utilizes available material resources in their schools?
  3. Does Training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resources in teaching science
  4. Is there a relationship between human resource management and motivation?

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is of great significance to the teachers, students, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large in so many respects. The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is in line with assertion of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the teachers who will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional materials and thereby facilitate success. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic. Oremeji (2002) supportively asserts that any teacher who takes advantage of these resources and learns how to use them correctly will find that they make almost an incalculable contribution to instruction. He further says that instructional materials are of high value in importing information, clarifying difficult and abstract concepts, stimulating thought, sharpening observation, creating interest and satisfying individual difference.


1.7 Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study is focused to determine the effect of the availability of human and material resources for teaching sciences in senior secondary schools in Sokoto State. The study involves all SS2 students, science teachers, Laboratory facilities and the supply and utilization of instructional materials in Sokoto State Secondary Schools.


1.8 Operational Definition of Key Terms

The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.

Effect:

This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in a person (s) or something by another person (s) or thing; that is the way in which an event, action or person changes someone or something.

Performance:

This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.

Utilization:

The act of using something to achieve a purpose

Instructional Material:

What the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.

Availability:

Something that is ready to be used at any given time.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that:-

  1. Senior secondary schools in Sokoto State have adequate instructional facilities.
  2. But the facilities are inadequately utilized by the science teachers. The study shows that when students are taught with available material resources, they tend to perform better than they would have done without material resources. This is in line with the findings of Maduekwe (2007) who stressed that availability and use of material resources seem to positively influence students performance, as such it affect the attainment of stated objectives.
  3. The study also indicated that male students from schools with adequate instructional facilities performed better than female from school with adequate facilities.
  4. Public senior secondary schools have more instructional facilities than private schools in the State.
  5. Training and development have impact on performance and productivity of human resource in the sense that it connotes the organizations efforts in its programme to provide the need based training and education to its workers to enable them become complete in handling their present or future assigned tasks. Also Humble (1969:25) noted that staff development is reappraisal of the staff resources to achieve the dissolved objectives of an organization.

5.2 Implications of the Study

Implications of these findings include the following::

  1. Inadequacy of material resources will make students not be able to acquire the necessary scientific skills and attitudes expected of them. This may result in students having negative attitudes toward science.
  2. Inadequacy of material resources make practical lesson boring and consumes much time. iii.Low provision of material resources causes poor performance in science by students.
  3. Lack of knowledge and skills of using material resources while teaching by some science teachers make it difficult for the learners to learn effectively.

5.3 Limitations of the Study

The following are the limitations of the study

  1. The research was conducted using only senior secondary schools two students in Sokoto state
  2. The study covers only seven senior secondary schools (five public and two private) due to the time factor and financial constraint.
  3. The scope of generalization of this study is limited to the population used in this research.

5.4 Recommendations

On the basis of the above findings the following recommendations are made:-

  1. The Ministry of Education officials and private schools proprietors should make sure that laboratory equipment are supplied to schools and the quantity should be supplied according to the number of students available in each school.
  2. The Ministry of Education should make it compulsory to all the proprietors of the private schools to provide adequate science laboratory facilities/ equipment to their schools for the successful conduct of practicals, or else refuse registration of schools refused to comply.
  3. Ministry of Education should make appropriate plan to expose science teachers to training workshop on improvisation in order to update their techniques and also attend conferences, seminars and workshops on material resources production, utilization and management.
  4. In view of the result of this study, the following recommendations for both management of human resources in teaching science in educational institution:
  5. That Training and development programmes/policy should be introduce and monitor to ensure the implementation like in-service course for teachers, staff seminar like induction courses, on-thejob-training, off-the-job-training. Refreshers courses etc. This is in line with what Roscoe and Freak (1976-292) noted that organization has to give the minimum training to its employees to make them at least become acquainted with the objectives, polices, rules standards and procedures peculiar to the organization and the particular job.
  6. That Educational management should build and equip all schools with the best science and technical equipment, provide all the basic educational materials and other necessary facilities to enhance the human resources in teaching science effectiveness and efficiency.
  7. That Human resource management should have sound policies in respect of staff transfer and promotion to ensure that justices and fairness prevail in dealing with the staff.
  8. That teachers who are the bedrock of any education system need to be treated fairly well in terms of prompt settlements of their entitlements and enjoyment of other benefits enjoyed by other public servants. So that the desire of the government, parents and solicit for an improved educational system will be a hopeful dream and not a night mare; and investment in education will be very beneficial to society in the final analysis. To stem the tide, government should also through appropriate agencies enhance, the status of not only teachers but also teaching profession, there should be a deliberate policy of emancipation regarding all cadres of teacher to make teaching as lucrative as any other job within the public sector. This would not only attract qualified personnel to teaching but also retain them on the job.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. Similar research should be conducted to cover at least three (3) States in order to see if similar result could be obtained
  2. Similar study should be conducted to cover both science and non-science oriented schools to correlate these findings.

The Availability Of Human And Material Resources In Teaching Senior School In Lagos State


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