Availability And Effective Use Of Laboratory Equipment As Determinants Of Students Achievement In Basic Science Practical In Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State
This study was carried out on the availability and effective use of laboratory equipment as determinants of students achievement in basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of science teachers and students in four selected secondary schools in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that laboratory facilities contributes to the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools.The study also revealed that the effective use of laboratory facilities during the teaching of basic science help to improve students academic performance in Basic Science. Therefore, it is recommended that adequate laboratory equipment’s must be provided if the teaching and academic performance of students offering science subjects in schools must be enhance.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The federal and state government undertook a lot of reforms and initiatives at various times to promote science education in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Some of those include modification of science curriculum used in schools, establishment of agencies like the national science and technology development centre and science equipment centres to allow boys and girls equal opportunities to learn science (Thompson, 2014).
Science is a very important aspect in the development of any nation. One of the ways of appreciating science teaching and learning is through effective laboratory instruction. The laboratory has long been a distinctive feature in science education. Its introduction has proved successful because students will go out from the laboratory able to “see and do” (Hofstein and Lunetta (2012). When students are taught in a school with adequate facilities, they tend to perform better than they would have done without these facilities makes science lessons concrete and stimulating and helps to enhance the achievement of students in secondary schools (Lunetta, Hofstein, and Clough, 2011).
Learning resources are very vital tools in education. They aid teaching and learning and include everything that provide information to teacher as well as the learner. Akano (2014) asserted that resources encompasses “man, machine, students, materials, brains and money which are to be planned, organized, directed, controlled and co-ordinated to achieve better teaching and therefore the teacher must manage these resources effectively in order to achieve the educational objectives.
A laboratory can be defined according to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2000) as a building or room fitted with relevant scientific equipment for conducting scientific experiment, analysis or similar work, or for research testing and experimenting technical work.
Laboratory exercise is an integral part of science teaching and should be used when laboratory practical can be combined with textbook and other teaching activities and when needed as a means of obtaining and learning scientific information (Ogundipe, 2016).
The study of Basic Science is facilitated through use of a laboratory for the demonstration or investigation of Basic Science fact or phenomenon. The overall objectives of the Basic Science curriculum as enumerated in FMR (2013) where to enable learners.
- Develop interest in science and technology;
- Apply their scientific and technology and skills to meet societal needs;
- Take advantages of the numerous career opportunities offered by science and technology;
- Become prepared for further studies in science and technology;
A closer look at these objectives will show that for a successful attainment of these goals a lot of laboratory and field work must be done by the students. Without the necessary equipment and effective use of these equipment students would not be able to meet these objectives.
Studies on the methodology of science have shown that students learn more from science lessons when they are given the opportunities to learn through doing than when they are allowed to observe (Hofstein, 2014). They enjoy measuring, manipulating apparatus, classifying data, designing experiments, testing of hypothesis and making inferences. These processes can only be developed and acquired if the students are allowed to participate in science instruction through a well-equipped laboratory experience.
Lawal (2016) reported no significant correlation between adequacy of laboratory equipment and academic achievements of students in Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). In his study on availability and impact of material resources on achievement in Basic Science in selected secondary schools in Katsina Metropolis. Okeke (2013) stated that if the laboratory will serve its purposes successfully then the students must be actively involved in doing their own thinking, evolving solution to problems, using their own hands and heads and therefore growing in skills development at the end of every laboratory experience.
Adegbemile (2011) observed that lack of science equipment and laboratories are some of the constraints facing science teaching in Nigeria. Adegbemile further stresses on the importance of learning resources in science teaching and insisted that human and material resources are very important for the effective teaching and learning of science as it reduces verbalization in class. Akano (2015) opines that the exposure of students to laboratory activities and experiments is the hallmark of science discipline both for skill acquisition, understanding of the basic principle and application of science. Many researchers in the subject of science suggested that learning in science is enhance, as well as improving of understanding level when students are engaged in science laboratory for practical experiment (Lunetta, Hofstein and Clough, 2013). Ugwu (2012) asserted that experimentation gives room for better attainment of lesson objectives since it depends on the availability of science equipment for proper understanding, development and application.
Kolawole and Oginni (2015) asserted that laboratory and field work aid the understanding of difficulty concepts in the curriculum, creates opportunity for the testing of facts and theories in science. Presently in our schools, there exist gender differences in science achievement and these have attracted some debate. Njoku(2015) in a study on trends in student’s achievement in integrated science observed that male students performed significantly better than female students. Ibritam (2011) found out that boys and girls performed equally better academically when laboratory equipment are available and accessible for used. It is therefore believed that learners can achieve more if given the opportunity to use the available equipment at their disposal.
Laboratory equipment plays a paramount role in the teaching and learning of science subjects and inevitably the student’s academic achievement in the subjects. Despite the effort, aimed at improving science education in Nigeria there has been in recent times a growing public anxiety about fallen standard of education especially in the science subjects like Basic Science. One of the disturbing problems of the Nigerian education system is the inability of most of the students to perform well in examinations in most Nigerian public secondary schools (Okafor, 2014).
The roll of the laboratory equipment becomes a key component in understanding basic science. It provides students with the opportunities to questions, observes, samples experience and experiment with scientific phenomena in their quest for knowledge of living things. Availability of laboratory equipment could helps students connect to the object of study and increase students. Participation laboratory equipment if available for teaching and learning can increase students’ interest in science and develop students understanding of scientific concepts and skills. It allows collaborative working and gives students the skills to tackle global challenges (Hofstein and Mamlok-Naaman, 2013). The absence or the insufficient supplies of these learning resources undoubtedly affect academic performance of students in science subjects. Teachers can only achieve their aspirations if enough laboratory equipment for teaching and learning of Basic Science are available. For learning to be effective the optimal utilization of laboratory equipment are of great importance for a subject like Basic Science.
Passive learning through lectures and textbooks reading may not provide a lasting understanding or interest in a field of study. Students should be able to use laboratory equipment with proficiency to investigate changes in matter and function. Effective utilization of laboratory equipment helps students to be more effectively “minds on as well as hands on” when the fell they understand how the equipment they are using works (Dahar, Faize, Niwaz and Dahar, 2015).
There is a need of science laboratory in schools because practical knowledge is more important than theoretical knowledge, the concepts which are not clear in a classroom are easily understand by students by doing simple experiments and the experiments which is to be performed is remembered and retained for longtime (Adesoji and Olatunbosun, 2012). The science laboratory experience increases the research aptitude of the students and thus making the bright future of students. It is against this background that this study is setup to examine the difference between the availability and utilization of Basic Science laboratory equipment and students performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study investigates the availability and utilization of Basic Science laboratory equipment as they affect students’ performance in secondary schools. Studies have shown that students perform poorly in science subjects including Basic Science. Lack of equipment and ineffective use of these materials are some of the reasons advanced for poor performance of students in Basic Science this is because practical work constitutes an integral part of science teaching and if the equipment are not there, the teaching of science will be mainly verbalization of words without adequate practicals. Also, students are not sufficiently exposed to practical in schools and this attitude has rendered science teaching in many of our secondary schools into “chalk-talk” affair. Students hear when you teach them, they see when you demonstrate and they understand when they practice.
From the foregoing, there is a strong indicative that academic achievements of science students are a correlates of learning resources available at their disposal in the environment of instructions. Therefore, a careful and cautious attention be accorded to it if we want to build and sustain scientists of the future in Nigeria. Based on these facts, the study seeks to find out the Availability and Effective Use of Laboratory Equipment as Determinant of Students Achievement in Basic Science.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to examine the availability and effective use of laboratory equipment as determinants of students achievement in basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State.
Specifically the study intends to:
- Find whether laboratory contribute to the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools.
- Find out whether adequate availability of laboratory facilities enhances students learning outcome in basic science.
- Find out if the effective use of laboratory facilities during the teaching of basic science help to improve students academic performance in Basic Science.
- Find out if there is any difference in the performance of students taught using laboratory equipment and those taught in the theoretical lesson.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher raised the following research questions to guide this study:
- Does laboratory contribute to the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools?
- Does adequate availability of laboratory facilities enhance students learning outcome in basic science?
- Does the effective use of laboratory facilities during the teaching of basic science help to improve students academic performance in Basic Science?
- Is there any difference in the performance of students taught using laboratory equipment and those taught in the theoretical lesson?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between laboratory facilities and students academic perormance in Basic Science.
- Ha: There is a significant relationship between laboratory facilities and students academic perormance in Basic Science.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hopeful that findings from this study may help to identify the availability of laboratories equipment as determinants of student achievement in of basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State.
This study may also help to provide some information for curriculum designers and classroom teachers in order to utilize equipment provided for them and other relevant approaches to enhance meaningful learning of basic science by students.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study seek to specifically assess the availability and effective use of laboratory equipment as determinants of students achievement in basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State. This research work will be conducted in Ogun State. Some selected secondary schools in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State will be used for this research work.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is the process by which activity originates or is changed through reaction to encountered situation, provided that the characteristics of the change in activity cannot be explained on the basis of nature response, tendencies, maturation or temporary state of the organism.
It is the systematic process of imparting worthwhile values, or helping people to learn. It is a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impact information, knowledge, skills and so on to an immature of less experienced person.
Is a student doing well academically, obtaining life skills and giving back their community.
Science is derived from a Latin word “Scientia” which means knowledge, it is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe; it also refers to a body of knowledge itself; of the type that can be rationally explained and applied (Wikipedia, 2014).
Refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory. They are also the type of equipment found in a building or room equipped for conducting scientific research or for teaching practical, as for carrying out scientific experiment and science related activities. Elegbede(2016).
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the availability and effective use of laboratory equipment as determinants of students achievement in basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the availability and effective use of laboratory equipment as determinants of students achievement in basic science practical in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State.The study is was specifically set tofind out whether laboratory contribute to the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools, find out whether adequate availability of laboratory facilities enhances students learning outcome in basic science, find out if the effective use of laboratory facilities during the teaching of basic science help to improve students academic performance in Basic Science, and find out if there is any difference in the performance of students taught using laboratory equipment and those taught in the theoretical lesson.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent areBasic science teachers and students in some selected secondary schools in Ipokia Local Government Area Of Ogun State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- Laboratory facilities contributes to the effective teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools.
- The adequate availability of laboratory facilities enhances students learning outcome in basic science.
- The effective use of laboratory facilities during the teaching of basic science help to improve students academic performance in Basic Science.
- There is a difference in the performance of students taught using laboratory equipment and those taught in the theoretical lesson.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Adequate laboratory equipment’s must be provided if the teaching and academic performance of students offering science subjects in schools must be enhance.
- Teachers should encourage students to develop interest in laboratory activities by engaging them in practical and providing instructional materials that will challenge them to be actively involved during practical lessons.
- Ministry of Education and professional organizations should organize workshops, seminars and conferences for basic science teachers on delivering of activity based lesson.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Do laboratories promote science education?
The chapter concludes with a summary. Laboratories have been purported to promote a number of goals for students, most of which are also the goals of science education in general (Lunetta, 1998; Hofstein and Lunetta, 1982).
What are the benefits of laboratory experiences for students?
Laboratory experiences may also promote a student’s ability to collaborate effectively with others in carrying out complex tasks, to share the work of the task, to assume different roles at different times, and to contribute and respond to ideas.
What factors affect tools and equipment for teaching?
One of such factors is the availability and utilization of tools and equipment. Tools and equipment for teaching are the educational resources that are available in schools that can be used to achieve educational goals and objective (Adeogun, 1999). These include workshops, equipment and tools.
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