Availability Of Educational Facilities And Academic Achievement Of Senior Secondary School Students In Calabar Educational Zone

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Availability Of Educational Facilities And Academic Achievement Of Senior Secondary School Students In Calabar Educational Zone


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the availability of educational facilities and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone. The study was specifically carried out tofind out if the availability of educational facilities influences students academic performance; find out whether there is an adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone; ascertain whether the availability of class room facilities influences students academic performance; and ascertain whether the availability of instructional facilities influences students academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between the availability of educational facilities and students academic performance. The study also revealed that there is no adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Therefore, it is recommended that Federal government should most importantly provide needed funding that supports state and local educational efforts and to help build and modernize educational facilities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Educational facilities are the resources utilized by students and instructors to help in the teaching and learning process. The size and capacity of classrooms, labs and laboratory equipment, and library facilities, which included suggested textbooks and set volumes, were also investigated in this study. According to Alimi, (2004), the frequency with which available school facilities such as laboratory facilities, library facilities, textbooks, set books, and other reference materials are used during respective class courses is referred to as utilization of educational facilities. The significance of school facilities in the establishment of a successful educational system, especially at the secondary level. The importance of education cannot be overstated. The application of educational goals and objectives necessitates the supply, optimum usage, and effective administration of educational facilities. (Alimi, 2004).

According to Bandele (2003), the value of educational facilities cannot be underestimated. Modern laboratories, libraries, and classrooms will be installed in all of our schools. According to Adesola (2005), the degree of accessible materials and facilities is a positive for instructors and demonstrates the level of inventiveness and devotion of the teachers to successful class delivery. As previously stated by Alimi, there is a need for the rehabilitation of ancient buildings, seats, desks, and cabinets, as well as the procurement of contemporary classrooms. Babatunde, (2008) highlighted facilities as a significant element influencing academic success in the educational system. These include, among other things, school furniture and leisure equipment.

School can be thought of as a structured atmosphere in which educational curriculum are understood. It is a formal organized organization that functions as a transitional stage in life between the family and society. School is a place where children are prepared to function as adults, and this preparation is accomplished through the teaching and learning process, the goal of which is to instill in the learner desirable positive and effective changes in behavior through critical thinking in a more conducive environment that is structured to facilitate learning (Babatunde, 2008).

Balogun, (2000) opined that Secondary school, is the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage, requires school plant and facilities that include all types of buildings for academic and non-academic activities; equipment for academic and non-academic activities; areas for sports and games, landscape, farms and gardens, including trees, roads, and paths. Secondary schools also require furniture and bathroom facilities, lighting, acoustics, storage facilities and parking lots, security, transportation, cleaning materials, food services, and special facilities for students with special needs. Their look and upkeep impact most parents and persuade them to form opinions about the quality and efficacy of what goes on in the school. It is considered that without such amenities, no matter how appealing the vacant buildings are, they cannot be effectively utilised for educational purposes (Balogun, 2000). Schools must have appropriate facilities to allow teachers and students to complete the course goals. This is the essence of the school’s infrastructure and amenities. Several studies in the field of education have focused on school factors such as school type (public or private), size, student body demographics, teacher certification, and their link to students’ academic outcomes. Udo, (2006) maintains that through their facilities, schools may impact their students’ connection, dedication to all school activities, and academic accomplishment. Students and instructors at schools with inadequate facilities are more likely to fail to perceive a clear emphasis on academic aims and the learning environment, and such a school is more likely to be unconducive to the learning process. According to Udo (2006), resources alone cannot increase student performance in classrooms.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to Udo (2006), the outcome of our educational system has dropped below the minimal for our educational objectives, which he believes indicates a failure in our curriculum, facility provision, instructors and teaching methods, or evaluation system. In this time of economic crisis, educating all children is a huge challenge. It is challenging because of the enormous number of children, particularly in a developing nation like Nigeria, where planning has long been a concern As a result, there is a need to utilize and maintain the limited plant and facilities available in schools in order to provide excellent teaching and learning effectiveness.

Reduced learning time, alienated students, inability to provide specialized curriculum, low staff morale, lack of technology proficiency, safety hazards, high rates of teacher attrition, and reduced ability to meet special needs may result from deteriorated and inadequate school plant and facilities (21st Century School Fund, 2002). It is usual to find certain schools nowadays where the settings are far from favorable to learning; where classroom spaces are insufficient, because most students are found to be packed in classes, particularly in public institutions. Learning can take place under trees in some instances. Some schools are typically in bad condition. Inadequate learning materials may hinder teachers’ efficacy and students’ learning. Poor working circumstances and inadequate facilities have eventually reduced motivation and satisfaction, demoralizing instructors.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to assess the availability of educational facilities and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone. Other aims of this study are:

  1. To find out if the availability of educational facilities influences students academic performance.
  2. To find out whether there is an adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone.
  3. To ascertain whether the availability of class room facilities influences students academic performance.
  4. To ascertain whether the availability of instructional facilities influences students academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study.

  1. Is there a significant relationship between the availability of educational facilities and students academic performance?
  2. Is there an adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone?
  3. Does the availability of classroom facilities influences students academic performance?
  4. Does the availability of instructional facilities influences students academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between the availability of educational facilities and students academic performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between the availability of educational facilities and students academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will add to existing knowledge in the field of educational planning in particular; the outcome would allow for the improvement of educational planning in Cross River State and Nigeria in general. This is due to the fact that the findings will aid in the better understanding and improvement of school plant and facilities.

This study will also be of benefit to school administrators and owners as the results will show how impactful educational facilities on educational performance. This study will also be of great benefit to students as they will know the reasons why they should make effective use of available educational facilities.

Finally, this study will serve as existing material for future reference and further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on the availability of educational facilities and academic achievement of senior secondary school students. It will find out if there is a relationship between educational facilities and the academic performance of senior secondary school students. It will also be focused on the impacts of educational facilities on the academic performance of students.

This study will be using senior secondary school teachers of Calabar Educational Zone as enrolled participants.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Influence:

The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects

Secondary School:

Secondary school is an educational institution where the second stage of the three schooling periods, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age takes place

Students:

High school students.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the availability of educational facilities and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the availability of educational facilities and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone. The study is was specifically carried out to find out if the availability of educational facilities influences students academic performance; find out whether there is an adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone; ascertain whether the availability of class room facilities influences students academic performance; and ascertain whether the availability of instructional facilities influences students academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected senior secondary school students in Calabar Educational Zone.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between the availability of educational facilities and students academic performance.
  2. There is no adequate availability of educational facilities in secondary schools in Calabar Educational Zone.
  3. The availability of classroom facilities influences students academic performance.
  4. The availability of instructional facilities influences students academic performance.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Federal government should most importantly provide needed funding that supports state and local educational efforts and to help build and modernize educational facilities.
  2. The government and other education stakeholders should improve the quantity and quality of education facilities and the teaching staff in secondary schools so as to improve students performance.
  3. Government should appoint school inspectors to inspect educational facilities in order to access their extent implementation, efficiency, and effectiveness with respect to students satisfactions and teachers performance.
  4. The state government should develop more useful and reliable policies for provision and distribution of educational facilities and resources in the state. They should develop incentive programs of state funding in order to assist local school systems with their maintenance tasks, and provide free textbooks for the students. Or the cost of essential textbooks should be subsidized.
  5. There should be a conductive teaching and learning environment, hence government should as a matter of urgency build more classes in secondary schools. Also there is the need to recruit more qualified teachers in all subject areas.

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