Availability Of Computer Facilities For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Computer Science In Junior Secondary School
The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of computer facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary school. Descriptive survey method was used where both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed. The study was conducted in 5 selected secondary schools, which encompassed of 241 teachers, 5 principals and 10 deputy principals. The teachers were selected by simple random sampling technique. The instrument used to collect data for the study was a closed and open-ended questionnaire, semi structured interview, observation and document analysis. The data collected were analysed by SPSS 17.0 version of computer program to compute frequency counts, percentages and t-test. It was found that the level of availability and extent of utilization of different computer facilities for teaching purpose in secondary schools of the zone was very low. There were no differences in perception among teachers with different background, subject and grade levels to use ICT facilities for teaching purpose. Major challenges faced by schools which have contributed to limited provision and utilization of ICT facilities were; shortage of computers & absence of internet access, lack of finance, absence of training offered to teachers, lack computer laboratory rooms, absence of school-based ICT policy, absence of qualified IT teachers and technical assistant. It was concluded that the government had not fully supported ICT program to integrate ICT in teaching and learning purpose. It is recommended that, the schools’ administrative bodies, woreda, zone and regional government should supply necessary ICT facilities to schools. They should also provide technical support and training opportunities for teachers through workshop, in-service training etc.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypothesis
- 1.6 The Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definitions of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Concept of ICT and Computers
- 2.3 ICT in Education System
- 2.4 Importance of ICT In Education
- 2.5 The Need of Availability and Utilization Of ICT Facilities in Teaching And Learning Process in Classroom By Teachers
- 2.5.1 Why Teachers Use ICT
- 2.5.2 How ICT Can be Used in the Classroom
- 2.5.3 ICT Skills Needed by Teachers
- 2.6 Benefits of ICT to Secondary Schools
- 2.8 Factors Influencing the Use of ICT at Secondary Schools
- 2.9 Main ICT Challenges In Nigerian Education System
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population and Sampling Techniques
- 3.3 Sources Of Data
- 3.4 Data Collection Instruments
- 3.5 Method of Data Collection
- 3.6 Data Analysis
- 3.7 Ethical Considerations
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
In the era of globalization, educational organizations should become more flexible, responsive and capable of adapting to change in order to ensure its survival. Organizational change is the movement of an organization away from its present state and toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg, 2010). Schools as social organizations where the future citizens are shaped and developed through the process of teaching and learning, showing a very strong demand in order to constantly change and adapt to existing organizational changes to become an effective learning environment. In line with this Aggarwal (1985) stated that, schools are expected to help all students to develop their potentials to the fullest level. They also must improve their core business (teaching and learning process) that aims at helping and empowering all students to raise their broad outcomes required by the changing world through instructional improvement. To achieve these expected outcomes, governments needed to play a more important role in supporting teaching and learning process through integration of information communication technology ICT in their schools. Because the use of information communication technology ICT can improve education quality, expand learning opportunities and make education accessible (Olaleye et.al, 2010).
The Transitional Government of Nigeria prepared the national Education and Training Policy (ETP) in 1994. The policy has aimed at improving the education access, equity, quality, and relevance (USAID 2008). Within the framework of the 1994 Education and Training Policy (ETP), the government of Nigeria launched the first five year Education Sector Development Program (ESDP-I) in 1997, ESDP II in 2001, ESDP III in 2006 and ESDP IV in 2011; as part of a twenty-year education sector indicative plan which has been translated into a series of national ESDPs. The main thrust of ESDP is to improve quality, relevance, equity, and efficiency and to expand access with special emphasis on primary education in rural and underserved areas, as well as the promotion of education for girls in an attempt to achieve universal primary education.
Ministry of Education also stated that; to enhance the quality of education at secondary level: ICT infrastructures are provided to schools to receive satellite education transmission, providing personal computers to schools to set-up internet laboratories, organizing training for teachers, digitization of existing video-based educational contents for web access, eventually facilitating community access to ICT, internet facility provided through the School Net project will enable teachers to develop their professional qualifications, it will also allow students to access the Internet and other online resources as well as to access global knowledge services and also display and download the content broadcast through the satellite television from educational media agency (EMA) to their local area network (MoE, 2006). In fact that, Information communication Technology ICT today has become a global issue, with information playing a very important role in a country’s economic development. So that, the government designed ICT capacity building program including ICT for education. MoE in its overall strategies stated that “The use of ICT in secondary schools will be promoted and strengthened in order to improve educational quality by enhancing the pedagogical skills of teachers and also by enabling both students and teachers to effectively use electronic educational materials” (MoE, 2005).
The current ICT initiatives for secondary education are one of the quality improvement initiatives, which will enable teachers and students to access Internet services and browse through digitized school contents (MoE, 2005). Even though ICTs play significant roles in enhancing the quality of education, and the government has a wide plan, there is the gap between Nigerian’s government secondary schools, those who have access to, and control technology and those who do not, make a huge difference in the use of ICTs. This means, that the introduction and integration of ICTs at different levels and various types of education is the most challenging undertaking (MoE, 2008). Although attempts have been made to improve the quality of education in general and ICT program in particular in government secondary schools in Enugu Zone, still there exist some major challenges to implement ICT programs effectively. This resulted in the deterioration of the quality of education in the Zone level and declining the effectiveness of the schools. Even though there are different factors which contributing in the deterioration of student’s academic achievements, however school-based factors such as the inappropriate provision and utilization of ICT facilities may take the lion’s share.
ICT facilities and its program in secondary schools have not been effectively implemented due to different problems. The researcher therefore, considers it important factor for the successful implementation of teaching, which aimed at improving quality of general education for all Nigerian students, by contributing the systems help to effectively implement ICT program in the zone in line with enhancing the quality of education. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the availability of computer facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu state.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The Government of Nigeria has been attaching a top priority and increasingly allocating huge resources for the expansion of equitable, relevant and quality education at all levels and quantitative progress has been made (MoE, 2008). However, the quality of education being offered is not been achieved at the desired level (MoE, 2008). Since the issue of quality of education is important as that of quantitative expansion, there is a great debate among educators at all levels of Nigerian education system about the quality of education (World Bank, 2008). To address the problem, various measures are being made and efforts are exerted to transform educational system and thereby improve educational quality. One of the main areas of intervention of quality of education is the provision and utilization of information and communication technology ICT facilities in secondary schools all over the country, which focuses on continued improvement of quality teaching and learning through targeted interventions which bring about long lasting change in Nigerian education system (MoE, 2008).
In recent times, the education system all over the world has certainly been affected positively by the influence of information and communication technology ICT. According to Abdul-Salaam, et- al, (2011), information and communication technology ICT has the potentials to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skill; to motivate and engage students in learning; to help relate school experiences to work practices; to help to create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school; to strengthen teaching and to provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Ekundayo et, al (2009), in their study also emphasized that, the utilization of ICT by teachers will enhance effective teaching through, good course organization, effective class management, content creation, self-assessment, self- study collaborative learning, task oriented activities, and effective communication between the actors of teaching learning process and research activities will be enhanced by the use of ICT based technology. Other educators, such as, Ajayi, et. al, (2009), pointed out that, with the aid of ICT, teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore.
The literatures indicated that, ICT have high impact on educational reforms and methodology. Although attempt have been made to improve the quality of education by providing ICT facilities in government secondary schools of Nigeria, still there exist some major challenges to improve the provision and utilization of ICT facilities in most secondary schools all over the country. According to Ministry of Education (2010), concerning the use of ICT facilities in secondary schools:
- Still low level of confidence or belief amongst a number of teachers on the benefit of ICT
- Serious shortage of plasma TV in government secondary schools in all regions.
- Lack of accessories for maintenance of plasma TV’s in all regions.
- Lack of computers, & its maintenance, and services in secondary schools etc. (MoE, 2010).
This indicates that, the provision and utilization ICT facilities to improve the quality of education all over the country were insufficient in most government secondary schools.
Therefore, the area which this study focused is unless the stakeholders dealing with those problems and find solutions for those challenges in the secondary schools, the vision and mission to be capable of transforming the quality of education delivery to produce professionally well informed, responsive, innovator and problem solver, knowledgeable, motivated and committed citizens will not be achieved. Thus, this study is expected to identify, and examine the major factors that hinder the provision and utilization of computer facilities at junior secondary schools in Enugu state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In recent times, information and communication technology (ICT) is playing indispensable roles and has been accepted all over the world. In fact, the pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology, social, political, cultural and global economic transformation. As well as, the field of education has also been affected by the high influence of information and communication technology. As a result, ICT has high impact on both the quality and quantity of teaching, and learning processes. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for students, teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another, and with the world, more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning.
To this end, the main objective of this research is to assess the availability of computer facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu state.
The specific objectives of this study are:
- To assess the availability of computer facilities for teaching and learning computer science in secondary schools of Enugu state.
- To examine the extent to which computer facilities are used by teachers and students in secondary schools of Enugu state.
- To examine whether teacher of computer science have equal access to use computer facilities for teaching in Enugu state secondary schools.
- Identify the major challenges affecting the availability and utilization of computer facilities in Enugu state secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following four basic questions:
- Do schools have adequate computer facilities available for teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools of Enugu state?
- To what extent do teachers and students utilize computer facilities for teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools of Enugu state?
- Do computer science teachers have equal access to use computer facilities for teaching purpose in Enugu state?
- What are the major challenges affecting the availability and utilization of computer facilities in Enugu state secondary schools?
- HO1: Availability of computer facilities does not affect effectiveness of teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu state
- HA1: Availability of computer facilities affects the effectiveness of teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu state
1.6 The Significance of the Study
Organizational development is essential to embrace the values and policies of a changing society. Every school need to critically examine its practices, procedures, problems, prospects, and structures as an ongoing exercise. Currently, there are both internally and externally, increasing pressure is being placed upon schools of Nigeria to enact reform specially to bring the quality of education. Calls for school reform and restructuring over the past few years, the Nigerian government secondary schools have focused their attention on the importance of ICT to enhance the quality of education. Therefore, the results of this study:
- May serve as a basis for secondary school administrators to assess their strengths and weaknesses to provide appropriate ICT facilities necessary to improve teaching and learning process in their schools.
- May also provide information for teachers, school administrators, supervisors, government and other stakeholders regarding the factors that hinder the provision and utilization of ICT facilities and the ways to improve them.
- May provide valuable information for those who engaged in education sector development program, specially to improve the quality of education
- The findings may create the awareness to support the decision-making process of any school administration on use of ICT in teaching and learning and provides a justification for the need for provision of ICT to schools.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
Refers to all forms of technologies such as internet, computers, websites, telephones mobiles, wireless devices, networks, hardware, software and telecommunication equipment.
Are a technological device (PCs, laptops, printers, scanners, projectors, etc.) used to processing, analyzing, synthesizing, sharing different kinds of information and information processing activities and tools that are necessary to improve teaching and learning process.
Types of ICT Materials:
Those includes any communication device or application, encompassing: computers, LCD projectors, printers, photocopy machines, duplication, fax, and scanning machines, radio, television, cellular phones, hardware and software, satellite systems, as well as video conferencing internet access and other facilities that ensures student’s learning.
Amount of ICT Materials:
Are the quantity or number of ICT materials and that are found in the schools to enhance teaching and learning process.
Utilization of ICT Materials:
Refers to using different types of ICT facilities in classroom and in different educational settings for the purpose of teaching and learning process.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The main goal of the study was to investigate the availability of computer facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary school in Enugu educational zone. The study explored how information and communication technology facilities are available in the schools and how much those facilities are used by teachers, students etc. for teaching of computer science in junior secondary schools. Hence, based on the analysis of the data, the study came up with the following findings:
The majority of the respondents through questionnaires indicated that extent to which the availability of both desktop and laptop computers in the schools, and each department offices of schools covered by the study was low. As a result, the availability of computers in senior secondary schools in Enugu educational zone for teaching and learning of computer science was found at lower level. But the finding also indicates that, the extent to which the availability of computers for administrative purpose were found at good level.
The majority of the respondents through questionnaires and interview indicated that, there are many organizational or school-based factors that seriously affect effective utilization of information communication technology ICT for teaching and learning purpose. The most important school based factors includes; shortage of computers in the schools, lack of finance and financial support from government to buy ICT facilities, absence of training offered to teachers on the use of ICT, lack well-furnished laboratory rooms, absence of school based ICT policy, absence of internet connection in the school, absence of computer accessories for maintenance, lack of maintenance to ICT facilities in school, and absence of instructional software in computer science.
The main goal of this study was to assess the availability of computer facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in junior secondary school. These conclusions serve as a basis for recommendation in the form of guidelines to secondary schools. It was indicated that ICT can make a very profound and remarkable impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning when they are effectively integrated in teaching and learning process. However, the findings of the study show that the schools those are covered by this study were not equipped with different ICT facilities to improve the quality of teaching and learning. As a result both teachers and students are isolated from and less benefitted to modern information and communication technology facilities recommended and commonly used for teaching-learning of computer science. Hence, teachers would be demotivated & failed to contribute a lot in bringing professional growth, improving the teaching and learning process in strengthening student performance so as to bring quality of education at all.
In considering the finding of the study, it is possible specifically to concluded that shortage of ICT facilities, lack of finance and financial support from government and other stakeholders, absence of training offered to teachers on the use of ICT, lack of well-furnished laboratory rooms, absence of school based ICT policy, absence of internet connection, lack of maintenance to ICT facilities, absence of instructional software, absence of well qualified IT teachers, absence of technical assistant, lack of interest by principals to provide ICT facilities in teaching-learning purpose, absence of guidance and support by school administration, absence of reward systems for encouraging technology usage, and lack of motivation by principals to use ICT for teaching-learning purpose are major problems inhibiting the usage of ICT equipment and facilities for teaching – learning of computer science in the schools covered by the study Enugu state.
- The school administrators must facilitate access of ICT facilities to teachers, students, and the administrative staff, by allocating money to purchase different ICT facilities such as computers, internet access, instructional soft wares in different subject areas, different computer accessories etc.
- Most of the computer laboratory rooms in the schools covered by the study were built without the idea that ICT would be used; therefore all schools should make efforts to rearrange and renovate the existing computer laboratory rooms. This is because, most computer laboratory rooms do not have well electrical installations, air conditioners, window protectors and solid doors. It is therefore difficult to use electrical installations, freely moving of students and teachers in such spaces of computer laboratory.
- Once teachers have access to ICT they are more likely to learn on their own and to put into practice knowledge and skills gained through formal training or informal inquiries from colleagues. Students get more benefits from ICT when teachers use them for pedagogical purposes and such practice thrives best in an environment conducive to learning and innovation.
- Teachers should use technology to access information, model problem solving, and develop simulations that provide greater understanding of how technology is used in the work world.
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