Automation And Its Impact On The Office (A Case Study Of Ughelli North Local Government Council, Ughelli, Delta State)

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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This work is dedicated to the Almighty God, the most high for his infinite mercies, directions, blessings and protection through the journey of my academic pursuit.


This work was made possible by the encouragement and guidance of some dear ones. I therefore, express my profound gratitude for their support morally and otherwise.

My special thanks go to my darling supervisor, Mrs. P. O. Nwogwugwu for her patient and understanding, whom by her directions led me through this work.

I also recognize in a special way my dearest parents Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ogbuniba and my sweet sibling Mr. Ugochukwu Ogbuniba who supported me financially in this work and since I started this journey for the past five years. I will not forget the encouragement of my sweet siblings Ogechukwu, Ejike, Chinelo, Ngozi, Chukwuma and Austin the baby of the home. I also express my appreciation to my cousin Engr. Gabriel, Doctor and Abumchi who is more or less a brother to me.

My profound gratitude also goes to my loving friends Engr. Kingshenry, Ngozi, Chinasa, Ebele, Onyii, and Ujunwa. And also to my course mate Nelly, Chinwe, Ijeoma, Christian, Chinenye and Ugochi for their co-operation, may God reward them abundantly.


The study examined the automation and its impact on the office. This research covers the selected local government council in Ughelli, delta state. In this research, the related literatures were reviewed. The populations used for this study were thirty office managers which were picked from the local government council.

The instruments used for this study were questionnaires which were administered to office managers in the local government council. The data collection were analyzed and presented in tables. Having analyzed the findings in the previous chapter and the results one find out was that, the automation is helpful to the office Technology and Management’s profession hence following merit were found that automation helps to increase the knowledge of individuals office managers, helps in online truncation, prompt dispense of information, increase in productivity, fast information gathering, group discussion and many others.

In the light of the result, the researchers suggest that the office managers should be able to know the operational mode of the office automated machines, since it is very important to their profession. And also, it will help the office managers to get needed training they required by giving them time after work.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of content
  • List of tables

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 The purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research questions
  • 1.6 Delimitation of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study

Chapter Two

  • Literature review
  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.2 The effect of automation on the office managers
  • 2.3 Enhancing the office manager through the automation
  • 2.4 Benefits of automation to its users (office manager)
  • 2.5 Summary of review related literature

Chapter Three

  • Research methodology
  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of the study
  • 3.3 The population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample of the study
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection-
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • Presentation and analysis of data
  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Data presentation
  • 4.2 Data analysis
  • 4.3 discussions of findings

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Restatement of the problem
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestions for further research
  • 5.6 Limitations of the study
  • Reference
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

List Of Table

  • Table 4.1 Impact of automation services on the office technology & Management
  • Table 4.2 Use of computer on monotonous task to an office manager
  • Table 4.3 Impacts of the automated mahcines on the lives of individuals’ office managers
  • Table 4.4 Skills required of an office managers using the modern office equipment
  • Table 4.5 Problems encountered by office managers using automated machines in their organization

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The whole world is on the immense of technology, and this phenomenon has got in far reaching effect on almost all spheres of human endeavour.

Different people have different perceptions of what impact the modern technology via the automation is playing, to address the issues of performance of the Office Technology and Management profession in the new millennium.
To be precise, many scholars have dealt on this topic but the researchers of the project work have tried to portray actually what the impact of the automation is, regarding the performance of Office Technology and Management profession.

Automation according to Oladipupo (2008), is a massive network of computers that can offer users access to vast amount of information and easy global communication. Its main function in any social system may be identified as information, education, entertainers, communication and integration. Therefore, the automation as an information superhighway has been aroused to perform all these immeasurable impact for the rest of the world.

One cannot talk about information and access without making regular reference to the information technologies and their convergence particularly automated machines.

Information and communication technology rapidly changing the way we work and live, most especially regarding the way the office is handled. We see a world of network. That is bringing new opportunities and options to people at work, at home and on the movies directly stating how our society live, learn, work play and our society evolves.
Information itself drives it valve from the meaning that an entity (a human being) assigns to data. It therefore becomes a performed in an organization.

The question now is, how far this form of inexhaustible resource can carry the users with special automated mahcines on office technology and management profession.

The machines used in the office technology and management profession are involved effectively to perform the work in business media, the mass media, the information gathering media, and the likes, have seen the different faces of typewriters. Mail exchange, computers, cellular, fax telephone and other technological information gathering system.

Emphasizing more on the meaning of the automation and how it works Rutherford (2007), described the automation as ‘a global collection of many different types of computers and computer networks that are linked together.

The office technology and management profession, people who are conversant with the services that the personal computer renders will no doubt find the internet fascinating job-made-easy and enjoyable.

But many people cannot purchase or acquire this precious information superhighway, what risks are involved. Who are supposed to use these inexhaustible resources?

The aim of the study is to know the impact of automation on the office as regard to secretaries work.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most people believe that the automation has no impact on office technology and management profession. That office manager does not need the automated machines services at all. They also say that office manager’s only need typewriter carry out their duties. They also say that if office managers include the use of the internet in their profession, that work will be tedious.

According to Sir Walter ford (1992), says that the duty of the office manager/secretary is to take down records, minutes of the meetings and typing of orders by the above authorities and it involves the use of the typewriter.
Pluto (1990) says thus, ‘the automated machines are used by high senior officials and those trained personnel and as such the office manager/secretaries who are regarded as a low staff do not fit into this cadre’. Roberts [1990] in his opinion says, ‘office machines and the secretary are not compatible’.

With these very reasons, we have decided to carry out this research work so as to find out the actual impact automation has on the office technology and management profession.

1.3 The Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to find out the impact of automation on office. Specifically, the study aim to ascertain the following.

  1. To find out the impact of the automation on the office technology and management profession.
  2. To ascertain if the use of internet facilities, is a monotonous task to the office managers.
  3. To ascertain, the impact of the automation, on the lives of individual office managers.
  4. To find out the skills required from office managers to operate the office machines
  5. To ascertain if there are problems being caused by the automation of the office in the office technology and management profession.

1.4 Significance of the Study

It is importance that office managers should at times take critical look outside their private areas of concentration and state the latest system of improving their techniques at their field of specialization. The study is not only important to the office managers but will also serve as green light to entertain the whole universe, education, communication and media practitioners on how to restructure their programmer to suit their receiving audience.
It will also help the office manager to be abreast with the events taking place within and outside the country.

1.5 Research Questions

  • What are the impacts of automation on the office technology and management profession?
  • Does the use of computer everyday a monotonous task to an office manager?
  • What are the impacts of the automated mahcines on the lives of individuals’ office managers?
  • What are the skills required by an office managers using this modern equipment.
  • What are the problems encountered by office managers using office machines?

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

The geographical area covered by the researcher is in Ughelli LGA of delta state are used as samples on which judging the impact of automation on the office will be based.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Owing to the vast and difficult nature of the project, and also owing to the time and financial constraints, it is only Ughelli LGA in delat state will be used as the areas of the study.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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