The Use Of Audio-Visual Technology In School Libraries And Students’ Academic Performance (A Case Study Of International Early Learning Center/Dorothy International School School, Aba)
The age of digitalization and globalization has given unprecedented impetus to the development audio-visual technology. Audio-visual instructions in schools have therefore continued to accelerate students’ understanding and appreciation of learning.
The value of audio- visual media is further underscored by their positive impact in school libraries, the libraries positive influence of the academic performance of students and the enhancement of teacher’s performance. Libraries are no doubt veritable instruments in a nation’s educational development.
The work therefore focuses on the use of audio-visual technology in school libraries, evaluated the effects of the use of audio-visual technology on the academic performance of students, and proffers solutions to problems hampering the effective application of audio-visual technology in our educational process.
The global wave in the use of educational technology and its revolutionary effects is a major attraction to the choice of this topic for study. This project examined systematically the effects of the use of students in developing nation like Nigeria taking the case of a private primary cum secondary school library. The choice of private school is pertinent, as most government schools have no functional libraries. There is a growing consciousness among some private school owners on the relevance of functional school libraries.
This project identified that an ideal library exists in International Early Learning Centre / Dority International Secondary School Aba in Abia State. A wide range of audio-visual materials and their equipment for operation abound in the library.
However, many a time materials and equipment are not used in the library. Similarly, the students are unable to use the materials and equipment themselves. There is no convenient time for them to use the audio-visual materials and equipment.
Despite all these constraints, audiovisual technology is adequately used in the school in teaching and learning.
The results gathered indicated that students’ academic performances are significantly improved after being taught using audiovisual technology.
Nowadays, knowledge is recorded in many physical forms. Before printing was invented, the papyrus, vellum, codex etc were used in recording human knowledge. With the invention of printing came books and other printing forms.
Recently, another form of media has come into prominence and that is the audio-visual media. Audio-visual may include graphic materials such as pictures, maps charts, sides etc, and finally multimedia packages such as motion pictures, video recording etc. There are also information-bearing items like microforms, computer readable data files and three- dimensional objects e.g. botanical specimens.
Audio-visuals have a variety of definitions. It is derived from a latin work meaning, “I hear”. In library and information science, it is replay of sound which we hear. This covers microforms, disc recorders, amplifiers, loud-speakers and their enclosures and any other techniques which are used to record or replay sound waves (Sincher, 1977).
Audio-visuals mean something related to sound and visual or light. They include printed materials and their equipment.
Audio-visual materials can be categorized into audio materials and visual materials – Audio include Radio, lecture/talk, Audio tapes/cassette compact Disc, Telephone, etc. Visual materials can be identified by grouping than into two ways-2 dimensional and 3 dimensional; projectiles and Non projectuals. Visual materials can also be classified under graphics/photographic.
Audiovisuals are a combination of audio and visuals. They include TV programmes, multi-media packages, VCR, and even computer programmes. Some cannot be treated without the equipment for using them as progectors, TV receiver, microreader, Record player, photocopying machine, VTR laminating, 35mm camera with accessories etc. they can also exist in some other forms as slides of computer screens, down loading of computer screens to create a simulation of a computer search, interactive video disc which requires the image storage medium, a TV monitor or computer screen, appropriate software, and a means of receiving inputs.
They are usually not in book and so are not easily available. They are usually expensive because some of them require projectors, moreso, they are usually hard to process because they lack some of the normal bibliographic details. They, however, can be catalogued using the territorial areas. Finally, they are of easily accessible to users. They are used mainly as reference materials, and user are encouraged to borrow them.
1.1 Background of the Study
This research work titled. “The use of Audio – visual Technology in school libraries and students Academic performance” is informed by the prevalent global wave in the use of educational Technology Vis the – a vis the situation of nursery, primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. Being an experimental research, the study investigated the use of audio-visual material and equipment in a typical school library (International Early Learning Center/Dority International Secondary School Aba) and evaluated the impacts of the use of such technology on the academic performance of students.
1.2 Brief Profile of International Early Learning Center / Dority International Secondary School
IELC / DISS is a private nursery, primary and secondary school. IELC is for the secondary division. The school is owned by Mrs. Zovannah Onuma; an American woman married to Eng. E. Onumah from Abia State, Nigeria.
The nursery section was established in 1984 along faulks Road Aba while the primary section was opened in 1986. However, owing to rapid increase in population of school children, the school relocated to its permanent site in 1992 and it was in the same year that the DISS was opened.
The school is situated at no. 19-21 Umuodu Avenue Abayi Osisiona L. G. A,Abia State. It has a population of over 5,700 and more than 500 workforce including the non-teaching staff.
The school is aimed at graduationg students who are academically competent, constructively self-directed and who are oriented towards being positive, intelligent, sensitive and mature citizens of this country. The school vigorously pursues the attainment of these heart warming objectives.
The school has a library with a strong collection of both print and non-print materials. The library is headed by a professional librarian; a HND graduate in library science and assisted by a professional librarian also, there is also library security.
However, with the exponential increase in materials owing to the new policy of the school to purchase of daily basis a copy of daily newspaper and regular acquisition a of new materials, accommodation for the materials has become a problem. The library also needs more personnel to help in rendering effective service to users and to maintain orderliness and absolute quietude especially when students are using the library.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This research work although is carried out primarily to fulfill the basic school requirement for the award of Technical Teacher Certificate (TTC) is also essentially set to achieve the following objectives:
- Identifying the various kinds of audio-visual learning aid used in school libraries and in IELC/DISS in particular.
- Examining the use of audio-visual materials and their media in the school
- Evaluating the impacts of the use or otherwise of the A/V materials on the academic performance of the students in the school under study.
- Discovering the constraints inherent in the use of A/V material and their equipment in school library and suggesting ways of redeeming them.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research topic is chosen to investigate the impact of the use of A/V material sand equipment would have on pupils in nursery, primary and is IELC/DISS Abayi, Aba, Abia State.
The desire to carry out this work is consequent upon the new wave of educational technology sweeping across the globe. The study investigated how school libraries in Nigeria could brace up the challenges posed by education technology.
This study is particularly important to school managers and government as it would enable them to know the various A/V materials and media that can be used in school libraries and possibly come to realize the positive impacts the use of A/V technology has on students academic performance and hence take positive steps to develop our school libraries and position them to encompass these media in their holding so as to meet the challenges of this information age.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to how A/V materials and equipment are used and assessed in IELC/DISS library for effective use on the academic performance of students. There is no comparative analysis as it is purely an experimental research. It rather tested the impacts of the use of the A/V media on students of the school studies. The study covered all sections of the school-nursery section, only the upper nursery was studied. The reason for this being that pupils in the lower nursery might not be sensitive enough to answer the research questions.
1.6 Research Questions
- What is the population of students surveyed?
- Does a library exist in the school under study?
- Does the school use audio-visual materials and equipment in teaching the students and what is the range of the audio-visual materials in use?
- Which places are designated for the use of the A/V materials and equipment?
- Can the students use the A/V resources on their own and what range of materials are they able to use unaided?
- What reasons account most for the non-use of the A/V materials and equipment?
- Does teaching with audio-visuals facilitate understanding and in what areas is the impact most felt?
- How adequate is the use of the materials and what factors account for the inadequacy of use?
After a careful study of this research topic, the following assumptions were made and of which the research findings were expected to authenticate of disprove that:
- There are varieties of audio-visual materials and equipment that can be used; in school libraries.
- The use of A/V materials and equipment increases chances of students comprehension oft he subjects taught.
- Audio-visual materials and equipment are not effectively used in school libraries in Nigeria.
- Many pupils in nursery and primary school and students in secondary school cannot effectively use the A/V materials and equipment themselves.
- Certain factors such as finance, accommodation and skilled manpower affect the effective use of A/V materials and equipment in school libraries.
1.7 Definition of Terms
To properly grasp the content to his work, some concepts used need operational definition. Some of the concepts are Audio-visual technology, school libraries, students and academic performance.
1.7.1 Audio-visual Technology
Audio-Visual Technology in this context simply means audiovisual materials and their equipment of use. This term is usually inter changeably used with such terms or concept as educational technology, Audiovisual resources, educational material etc Educational technology according to Madu (2000) is a machinery or hardware of education of education or a highly structured approach to teach like programmed learning. The same Madu (2000) defined audiovisual as a combination of audio and visual materials which are used in the instructional or learning process to facilitate teaching and the Macmillan dictionary of information technology as a general term for non-book materials that can be viewed or listened to such as films filmstrips, tapes, and overhead transparences. There are a wide categories of there materials and equipments as have been briefly high lightened in the preamble.
1.7.2 School Libraries
School libraries are libraries found in primary and secondary schools whose collection are simply for the young people. However the scope of school libraries have expanded and so is the opinion of experts in the field on what a modern school library should be. A school library is presently referred to as a multimedia Center, Media Resource Centre, School Media Centre, Instructional Resource Centre etc. The variation in terminology not with standing. A school library is an information center located in a school environment for ht purpose of providing information services to support teaching and learning process of the school. To Iroha (1985) a school library is a collection of wide variety of library materials and resources housed in each school, centrally agonized by a staff professionally to offer services to students and teachers that will enrich and support the education programmes of the school.
From the definitions given, certain features of a school library are discernible. It is an information center which contains both, books and non-book materials and is organized and managed by a professionally trained librarian or qualified teacher librarian who uses available information resources to provide information to support teaching and learning activities of the teachers and students.
The school library in this era of information revolution and has taken sweeping wave of globalization, has taken a new dimension in a media content, function and services.
It is am media Resource Centre and hence, emphasizes the provision and utilization of both print and non-print and non-print media.
Essentially, a school library is aimed at achieving the following objectives.
- Support teaching and learning within the school system
- Promote the development of reading skills and encourage long term learning through reading.
- Stimulate research and independent study
- Provide opportunities for further reading and use classroom textbooks
- Provide material for recreation and encourage students to read for pleasure.
- Provide pupils / students with vocational information leading to choice of a suitable career.
In this project, students is a generic term used to designate school children in nursery, primary and secondary schools. They are those who are taught by the teachers and they constitute a greater number of users
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
After gathering the data, presenting and analyzing them, valid deductions were able to be made.
5.1 Summary of Findings:
From the mass of data available, it is hereby inferred that:
- International early Learning Center/Dority: International Secondary School (IELC/DISS) has a functional school library and the library is stocked with all kinds of materials (print and print).
- The School under study uses audiovisual materials and equipment in teaching the students and there are a wide range of audiovisual resources used for the purpose.
- However, and contrary to what should be the case, the audiovisual material and equipment are not used in the school library alone. In fact, most of the time, the material and equipment are used in the classroom. Sometimes they are used in other odd places like the Art room and Laboratories.
- A greater percentage of the students cannot use the audiovisual resources themselves, and the few who can use them only use very few of the materials. The students are not ale to use them materials and equipment themselves because; they are unaware of how use the materials, they are not being given any training or taught how to use the materials and equipment. They do not have access to the materials and equipment and no orientation is given to them on how to use the A/V media. Consequently, they think and conclude that the A/V materials are not meant for them to use but only to be used by the teachers to teach them.
Nevertheless, the students understand better when they are taught with the audiovisual media. They comprehend fully and clearly the subjects taught. Using the A/V resources in teaching students makes them to experience practical realities of issues. It equally makes reading interesting and the students are motivated to read more.
But, the A/V materials and equipment are not adequately and effectively used. The reasons being that, there is not enough space for the materials and equipment. They are obviously scattered in the library, in the classroom and even in the Art rook. Again, there are no experts to handle the materials and equipment additionally, there is no equipment can be taught or when the students can freely use the materials and equipment. Possibly, they are often restrained or prohibited even from making use of the materials themselves.
This study has revealed that a wide range audiovisual materials and equipment can be used in school libraries. It has also shown that the A/V materials and equipment are not adequately and effectively used as a result of certain known factors. In the light of the discoveries, the following recommendations are herby made:-
- For school libraries in this information age to play complementary role in teaching and learning, and to meet their various other worthy objectives, a wide range of audiovisual materials and equipment should be procured and kept and used in a school library as it is the only safe and convenient place they can be kept and used. This is particularly important especially now that school libraries are regarded as Media Resource Centers.
- Similarly, the students should not only be taught with the audiovisual media, but also how to use them. This world not only make comprehension of the subjects easy, but world also avail the students of the various resources of the library and so begin to appreciate the school library as a powerful media of education.
- In all schools, both private and public, enough space should be provided for the school library to especially accommodate the audiovisual media. Professional librarians and media specialists and technicians should be employed if good use is to be made of the materials and equipment.
- A/V materials and their equipment for use are very expensive. Therefore, government should make substantial budgetary allocation for provision of audiovisual resources to school libraries. The materials should be put in good places to avoid damage. This implies that school libraries should cease to be dusty rooms where books are packed, but a well air conditioned and ventilated place where information is provided to aid teaching and learning.
- Finally, a special fund should be made available to the school library by the school management for the upkeep and maintenance of audiovisual materials and equipment, School PTA should also make valuable contributions to this effect PTA and even old Boys Association should donate some of these materials and equipment considering the inestimable value of A/V resources.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are audiovisual aids in education?
Undoubtly, audiovisual aids are those instructional aids which are used in the classroom to encourage teaching learning process.
How do teachers and students perceive the use of visual aids?
The analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the teachers and students had positive perceptions of the use of visual aids. Dahiya. L. S.  studied that lessons can be made more interesting with the help of these aids; subject with more practical aspects have more need of audio visual aids.
Do technical devices have greater impact on students’ performance in schools?
So there is no doubt that technical devices have greater impact and dynamic informative system. The researcher wants to explore the “Impacts of audio-visual aids on students’ performance in high and higher secondary schools of district Nowshera”.
What are audio visual aids in history?
Audio visual aids are effective tool that “invest the past with an air of reality.” A.V aids provide the learners with realistic experience, which capture their attention and help in the understanding of the historical phenomena. They appeal to the mind through the visual auditory senses.