Attitude And Practice Of Women Towards Family Planning In Selected Market In Offa Local Government Area
The purpose of this study was to assess attitude and practice of women towards family planning in selected market in Offa local government area.. Ex-post facto research design was used for this study and the sample size consisted of 384 respondents. To achieve this purpose, a researcher developed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed which comprised of; stratified, simple random, purposive, proportionate sampling procedure. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, mean and standard deviation. The results of the study revealed that women in Offa in Kwara state, do not have significant attitude towards family planning with t-value of 1.291 and p-value of 0.18, finally the results of the study revealed that women in Kwara State do not significantly practice family planning with a (p-value of 1.05). On the basis of the research findings, the following conclusions are drawn; that women in Kwara State were knowledgeable about family planning, that women in Kwara state do not have positive attitude and practice of family planning. The following recommendations were made based on the conclusions. Federal, state and local government health units should encourage women in sustaining their knowledge of family planning through community mobilization and enlighten programmes.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Objectives of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms
- 1.7 Basic Assumptions
- 1.8 Delimitation of the Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 2,2 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Summary
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures
- 3.5 Instrumentation
- 3.6 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.7 Procedures for Data Collection
- 3.8 Procedures for Data Analysis
- 3.9 Ethical consideration
Data Analysis and Result Presentation
- 4.2 Data Analysis
- 4.2 hypothesis testing
- 4.3 Discussion
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.5 Suggestions for further studies
1.1 Background to the Study
The act of giving birth is the most serious labour in the world (Ademowore, 2011). The explosive increase in the nation‟s population emanating from indiscriminate childbearing, apart from a small number of privileged and conscientious countries that have succeeded in reducing the population growth, each pregnancy and birth remains a risk fatal experience for hundreds of millions of women worldwide.
Family planning is a means by which individuals or couples space the process of conception, pregnancy and childbirth in intervals, mutually determined by both husband and wife in order to have desired number of children that they can conveniently cater for their needs (Delano, 2010).
According to Ahmed (2014), Family Planning is the factor that may be considered by a couple in a committed relationship and each individual involved in deciding if and when to have children. Though, rarely articulated, family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a couple wish to have as well as the age at which they wish to have them. Family Planning are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, beside many other considerations.
World Health Organization (2011), describe family planning as a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes, and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote the health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country. The World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) estimates that 287,000 material deaths occurred in 2010, sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths.
National Demography Health Survey (2012), reported in Nigeria on maternal mortality rate, revealed that, 600,000 women died in agony every year. It is not an exaggeration to say that the issue of maternal mortality, fast in its conspiracy of silence in scale and severity, the most neglected tragedy of our time. Also 585,000 women die during pregnancy and child birth, and result from often pregnancy and child bearing.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control; however, it often includes a wide variety of methods, and practices that are for birth control. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as child-spacing). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion. The pervasive problem presently is population rapid growth, especially in developing countries where this population growth matters, because it has enormous impact on the human life. It will not be wrong to say that the most urgent conflict facing the contemporary world today is not between the states of ideologies but between the pace of growth of the human race and the disproportionate increase in the production of resources, necessary to support mankind in peace, prosperity and dignity (Sehgal, 2014).
Odimegwu (2011) Opined that, rapid growth of population is not caused by any single reason, but it is obvious that how crucial the demographic factor can be in the political stability and the socio-economic development of a country. It has now universally recognized that a massive population size, its rapid growth rate, and its controlled transfer of population from rural areas to the cities can create pressure on the resources of a country, adversely affecting its economic prosperity. There is convincing evidence that poverty incidence is always higher among larger households.
Despite the recent increase in contraceptive use, Nigeria is still characterized by high levels of fertility and a considerable unmet need for contraception. The total fertility rate in Nigeria is 6.0 births per women and considerably higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Hence, men should be actively involved at the knowledge level (the concept of family planning), the supportive level (being supportive for other to use contraception) and the “acceptor” level, (as contraceptive user). Their decision-making role should be taken into account in order to promote family planning. Research indicates that accepting pregnancy, knowledge on different methods choice, and the understanding of the side effects of different methods are among the factors related to family planning to low utilization of Family Planning Services in this study.
Attitude towards family planning is any strong belief, feeling, approval or disapproval toward people and situations. Attitude are learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluation of people issues, objects or events. Such evaluations are often positive or negative. (Paul, 2010).
Practice of family planning – Are the extent to which people are making use of whatever health services that are available. Knowledge and positive attitude can be seen but the practice is not found; which means that not having knowledge and the positive attitude and knowledge matters. (Becher, 2014). A survey of 600 Atyap (Kataf) women aged between 15-49 by Avong (2009) in the study, perception and attitude towards Nigeria population policy, family planning programme and family planning in Kaduna State”. Discovered that most of the respondents (98%) knew one form of modern method of family planning or the other but nearly all of them do not practice these modern methods of family planning due to fear of risk factors such as sterility, cancer, high blood pressure (HBP), weight increase, or weight loss, or fear of untimely death. The ascertain above corroborated what Hellandendu (2013) said in the study of violence against females. The research observed of artificial fertility regulation techniques are perpetuated by economic; political and gender structure in contemporary societies most of which work to the detriment of women. This is so because most of the artificial contraceptives are directed towards women which have detrimental health effects. Therefore, this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women in Kwara state, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt that Nigeria is one of the most populous country in Africa. The researcher observed that the problem of many children per family contributes to poverty, unhealthy, under-fed and ill-educated. The researcher observed that frequent birth by the mothers had been associated to a serious health problem to the mothers and their children; the health of the mothers is in coma due to frequent discharge of blood which is not regained before the conception of another pregnancy; and this accounted for thousands of deaths of women in Kwara state. Fertility in the country remains high with a total fertility of 6.0 births per women and considerably higher in the rural areas than in the Urban (Population Bureau, 2012).
Maternal mortality is high due to the short interval of pregnancy which amounted to births related cases, this trends has causes pre-term birth (birth within 37 weeks of pregnancy) low birth weight (child birth less than 2,500grams) and infant morbidity in the rural area for instance in Kwara state. The weaned children are in a serious health condition because the period for normal breast feeding is lacking, thereby resulting to low immunity that prone to contagious diseases.
In spite of the importance of population growth to the society, couples, cultural resistance to child-spacing has brought about numerous social problems like indiscriminate child bearing, unwanted pregnancies, high rate of infant morbidity, drop-out from schools, and the low standard of living which has been on the increase with poverty also contributing to the incidence where families continue to reproduce uncontrollably because, of the believe that. It is a taboo to regulate fertility; these ugly threat has been observed by the researcher in Kwara state; Nigeria.
National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) (2012), estimated on maternal mortality rate that 600,000 women died every year out of 585,000 women died during pregnancy and child birth, to break this vicious threats in our various rural areas. This study is out to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of family planning among women in Kwara State, Nigeria. This is to know whether the women have knowledge about family planning, their attitude and practice towards family planning.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to assess attitude and practice of women towards family planning in selected market in Offa local government area.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of the study are to assess:
- The knowledge on family planning among market women of Offa Local Government Area
- The attitude of market women towards family planning in Offa Local Government Area
- The practice of family planning among market women in Offa Local Government Area
1.5 Research Questions
The study is proposed to answer the following research questions:
- What is the knowledge of women about family planning in Offa Local Government Area?
- What is the attitude of women towards family planning in Offa Local Government Area?
- What is the practice of family planning among the women in Offa Local Government Area?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be beneficial to:
- The health educators in planning awareness program for the client, thereby creating enlighten to the client in making decision that are related to family planning methods.
- Findings of this study will enable the client to benefit from the awareness programs that are provided by the health educators in areas that are related to family planning methods.
- Findings of this study will sensitize the policy makers in creating policies that would support family planning practices.
- Findings of this study will help tremendously in reducing mortality and morbidity through the awareness program on issues or family planning and unwanted pregnancies.
- Findings of this study would contribute to the body of knowledge for Researchers and other educational purposes.
1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms
Attitude refers to inclinations to react in a certain way to certain situations; to see and interpret events according to certain predispositions.
To the capacity to acquire retain and use information, a mixture of comprehension, experience, discernment and skill.
Application of roles and knowledge that leads to action.
Women who lives in areas or communities with a population less than a thousand persons.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
On the basis of available research evidence the following assumptions were made for the purpose of the study.
- Knowledge of women towards family planning is low in Kwara State, Nigeria.
- That attitude of women towards family planning is positive.
- Practice of family planning services among women in Kwara State is in poor conditions.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The purpose of this study was to assess attitude and practice of women towards family planning in selected market in Offa local government area. Three purposes, three research questions and three hypotheses respectively were formulated and tested for this study. Related literature was reviewed under the conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprised of 72,844 women of reproductive age 15 – 49 years within the three already existing senatorial districts in Kwara state of Nigeria where two wards were sampled from each local government area for the study. Samples of three hundred and eighty-four (384) respondents were sampled using proportionate sampling procedure. And three hundred and eighty-four (384) copies of questionnaires were purposively administered to the respondents, out of these; three hundred and seventy-nine (379) were dully field and returned. Data collected was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20) using frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, one-sample t-test in testing the formulated hypotheses. Null hypothesis one was rejected while hypothesis two and three were retained. The findings of this study revealed that Women in Kwara state of Nigeria have significant knowledge of family planning. However, the attitude and practices of women in Kwara state towards family planning were negative indicating that even though the women have knowledge of family planning, it was not translated into positive used.
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn;
- Women in Kwara state of Nigeria are knowledge about family planning p value < 0.021.
- Women in Kwara state of Nigeria has negative attitude towards family planning p=0.18.
- Women in Kwara state of Nigeria do not practice family planning p value=1.05.
On the basis of the conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were made:
- Federal, State and Local Government health authorities should encourage women in sustaining their knowledge of family planning through community mobilization and enlighten programme.
- Federal, State and Local Government should organize community programmes for friends/relations where forums of free discussions on family planning can be held for a better understanding of the use of family planning methods.
- The health directorate in collaboration with the family planning unit should roll out more programmes such as organizing workshops and seminars to educate married couples on the benefits of family planning practices; this will bridge the gap between knowledge and practices of family planning.
5.4 Contributions to Knowledge
This study has made concerted effort to:
- Established useful information on family planning which will continue to serve as source of information research findings.
- Enable the client to benefit from the awareness programmes that are provided by the health educators in areas that are related to family planning.
- The study established that women in Kwara state of Nigeria have significant knowledge of family planning.
- The study sensitizes the policy makers in creating policies that would buttress family planning practices.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
- This study was conducted in Kwara state of Nigeria. The study can be replicated in other states of the country.
- A research can be undertaken on the socio-economic and cultural deterrents to family planning practices among women.
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