Attitude And Perception Of Undergraduates Towards Film Advertisement
The basic thrust of this research was to examine the attitude and perception of Undergraduates towards Film or in-film advertisement using Crawford University students as case study. It was observed that for any organization either profit making or non-profit making to succeed in this competitive society, the need for extra ordinary advertising approach, strategies and tactics need not to be overemphasized and film advert is one of the approach. Survey research method was adopted coupled with 120 copies of questionnaires that were administered to the respondents who were selected via probability technique (simple random method) and 110 copies were retrieved. The frequency and percentage method of data analysis was used. However, from the findings, it is obvious that in film advertising has done lots of good things for advertisers and commercials because it helps reach the targeted youth audience while Crawford University students considered brand placement in the movies an effective advertising channel because it is catchy in nature. It was recommended that advertisers or advert agencies should be aware that most of the film lovers are kids, adolescents and youths therefore, advertisers should avoid the use of raw or picture that can have negative effect on children, indolence and youth mental and social behaviour.
1.1 Background of the Study
Film is indeed an important art and craft of mankind. It is also based on the projection of all still images in a continuous manner and at high speed in a way that seem moving images. The film medium is based on creative expression. Films are capable of providing multi-faceted services including entertainment and education to the audience across the globe. Film also generates mass mediated culture arising from elite, folk, popular or mass origins. Cinema combines many arts such as the performing arts, music, acting, photography and literature. It is a product of team work of directors, screen writers, producers, stagehand, technicians, musicians and so on. It is also based on certain well defined concepts, parameters and practices. It is a prominent audio – visual means of communication which attracts the attention of large number of people. Lumiere brothers of France invented the medium of film in 1890s in France. In 1895 Lumiere brothers captured a one and ahalf minute film which encompassed the visuals of a train arriving at a station, waves on the shore; workers leaving a factory etc. The medium for recording such moving and live pictures were observed nothing other than an invention of a scientist. The invention of film was termed as ‘the marvel of the 20th century’ by the communicators across the globe. Film also was subjected to several changes and modifications due to technological advancements. By that time in America and Europe a major shift happened to film making- its transformation into an industry. It was during that period huge professional theatre groups, operas, orchestra companies and news papers were too burgeoning. Film at its earlier stage itself adapted industrialization. Drama professionals saw the medium to record the facsimile of theatre performances on stage.
However, Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large, according to American Marketing Association (2007:01). This definition covers the major dimensions of marketing. Peter Drucker, Kotler and other management experts have emphasized the need for placing customer satisfaction at the centre of marketing concept. They have continued the call for customer to be the centre of marketing activities. Modern service providers have also realized that customers matter most from marketing management point of view. Philip Kotler defines: “Marketing is the science and art of exploring, creating and delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit”. Marketing identifies the needs and demands of customers and adopts certain strategies for the fulfillment of the requirements of the customers. Generally, marketing includes research, targeting, communications (advertising and direct mail) and often public relations. It is an ongoing communications exchange with customers in a way that educates, informs and builds a relationship over time. The over time part is important because only over time can trust be created. Modern organizations cannot achieve the goal of business management in the absence of effective marketing tools and techniques. Marketing is an important component of film management. The film makers are required to understand the marketability of film before making a film. The film advertising practices are embedded within the practice of film professionals to such an extent that they are not explicit, while others are explicitly undertaken. Consumer satisfaction cannot be achieved through asking consumers what they want to watch movies about and making them, but can be achieved by making films which are of high technical and/or artistic value and positioning these films appropriately in order to appeal to the target market. The films are made to satisfy the audiences who are mainly responsible for the success of film industry. The film makers and marketers should have an understanding of the different audiences that exist and produce the films which satisfy the needs of the audience. The movie advertising is more than marketing communications in the film industry.
Film advertising, in line with the marketing management processes in other industries, begins at the new product development stage and continues throughout the formation of the project ideas, through production, distribution and exhibition. Several actors are involved in the process of film marketing which basically involves the marketing an idea or a script to a production company to the final marketing of the film in cinemas, on DVD and through other exhibition outlets such as cable television and terrestrial television. Durie et.al. (2000:03) define film marketing as “any activity that assists a film in reaching its target audience at any time through its life”. The scholars have noted that it was necessary to continue the film marketing journey into the realm of film consumption and out the other side. This broad definition implies that film marketing encompasses a range of activities. Kerrigan (2010:07) noted that film marketing as a research area should not stop at the exhibition stage, but must consider value creation and recreation activities that take place for and between consumers before, during and after film consumption. Film consumption is a dynamic and cyclical activity which is inspired by other cultural products such as books, music, television, newspaper articles and so on. This necessitates any study of film marketing to consider both the producer and consumer perspectives and to look at where these intersect. The value creation begins at the point where consumers become aware of a film, try to make sense of the messages they are receiving from the film makers, marketers and mediated by the press and other film consumers. The process ends somewhere after consumption when the consumer makes sense of their experience and draws on this experience to consume the film again, to recommend to others or move on to a related film. The process of value creation cannot be seen as being a contract between the film maker/ marketer and the consumer, but takes place in the circuit of cultural consumption, observe du Gay et al (2000:02).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Films and talk about films constitute a certain portion of our daily conversation. It is difficult to imagine a day pass without the average person coming in contact with movies by watching them, as they are or seeing clips from the news; seeing billboards, handbills, flyers, posters, advertisements, hearing or talking about them with friends and family members. These are all forms of advertisement and creating awareness about the film. However there are many challenges facing the advertisement of a film as they do not really get to people in the rural areas as they barely know if there is a film released to be watched, there is not enough money to finance the advertisement process etc.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The primary objective of this study is as follows
- To examine film industry and how advertisement is been run to gain the attention of undergraduate.
- To find out the perception of student concerning film advertisement.
- To examine if film advertisement is effective enough to draw the attention of undergraduate student to watch such films.
- To investigate strategies to be used to improve the attitude of undergraduate concerning film advertisement
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for this study
- What are the various means of advertisement been run to gain the attention of undergraduate?
- What is the perception of student concerning film advertisement?
- Is film advertisement effective enough to draw the attention of undergraduate student to watch such films?
- What are the strategies to be used to improve the attitude of undergraduate concerning film advertisement?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study focuses on attitude and perception of undergraduates towards film advertisement.
This study will be significant to film makers as they will be privy to the extent at which the advertisement of their movies goes
This study will also be beneficial to the advertising agency, as it will help them improve on the quality of advertisement to be used in promoting a particular movie
This study will be significant to academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on this topic.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study examines attitude and perception of undergraduates towards film advertisement. This study will also, examine film industry and how advertisement is been run. The study will further find out the perception of student concerning film advertisement. More so, this study will examine if film advertisement is effective enough to draw the attention of student to watch such films. Lastly, this study will investigate strategies to be used to improve the attitude of student concerning film advertisement. Hence this study is delimited to Crawford university Ogun State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get enough data as it was difficult for the researcher to navigate the harsh terrain of the environment as most of the community where the schools are located are not on land.
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
1.8 Definition of Terms
A settled way of thinking or feeling about something.
The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
A comparatively new medium and is being again used in India after a certain lapse.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to examine the attitude and perception of undergraduates towards film advertisement using Crawford University as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting film industry and how advertisement is been run. The study also, find out the perception of student concerning film advertisement. Furthermore ,the study examine if film advertisement is effective enough to draw the attention of student to watch such films. Lastly, the study investigate strategies to be used to improve the attitude of student concerning film advertisement . A total of 110 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from student of Crawford University
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Student perspective towards film advertisement is that some film advertisement is too long.
- Some film advertisement lack in depth.
- Some film advertisement is not attractive enough.
- Some film advertisement quality is low.
In other to attract student to watch your film you have to do something remarkable.
- Let your viewers experience the story.
- Be smart with press junket.
- Involve your audience in the making of the film.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Film makers should make improvement on the quality of films been churn our yearly so as to prick the interest of undergraduate student to see it.
- Film makers should invest in quality forms of advertising in other to promote the standard of their films
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