Attitude Of Men Towards Family Planning And Implication For Their Involvement
This study is on attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement in Oghara-efe community. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Oghara-efe community in Ethiope west local government of Delta state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made elderly men, elderly women, youths and family heads were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the Study
The issue of family planning all over the world has attracted attention due to it important in decision making about population growth and development issues. Uncontrolled birth is a major contributing factor of an increase in the world’s population, particularly in Nigeria. Statistics shows that the population of the world was about one billion in 1859 in 1930, the population had doubled (two billion) in 1976, the total population was said to be four billion. Today, it is more than six billion, with Nigeria having a population of over 162 million, thus being the largest country in Africa and the 7th in the world map (United States Census Buxau, 2010). Life is a precious gift that every individual hunger for and in an attempt to grab this gift, our health must be maintained. There are so many problems that have been found to result from poor family planning method. Some of these problems include: Over population, criminal abortion, child dumping, increased child morbidity and mortality, as well as increases material morbidity and mortality rates. Over population as one of the consequences of poor family planning has succeeded in causing a lot of harm to individuals, families, society and the nation at large. Maternal mortality and child mortality have been found to occur due to poor family planning practice, according to the statement of the WHO (World Health Organization) and United Nation Education, Scientific Children’s Organization (UNESCO) in 1991) that over three million children and two hundred thousand women die each year and also women’s health and action research (2004) had showed rates of child and maternal mortality and morbidity rate in the world due to poor altitude towards Ante-natal care in which family planning is one of the objectives. The President of Nigeria, his Excellency, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan was quoted in Vanguard newspaper on June 28, 2012saying “Nigeria families should have only the children they can afford. To ensure this order was followed , a new planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) was created. He said it may be time for birth control legislation. Family planning, until recently, a very sensitive subject in Africa, is now very increasingly accepted as a necessary ingredient of socio-economic development. It is now thought to be an important health measure that contributes to the health of parents, children and the entire nation. Because of the great effect over population has on socio-economic status, education and health in general, a full understanding of this phenomenon and the major factors governing it are essential, thus the need to adopt family as a means of checking the escalating birthrate cannot be over emphasized. Unfortunately, this idea is not adequately emphasized on, especially in the rural areas, where it was observed that they g=have a high regard for large families and children are seen as a blessing from God. They believed that the more children a man has, the more hands to help with work especially on the farm. It is also believed that children give status to a women and security in old age. In Oghara-efe Community in Delta State, it was observed that husband often make sexual demands with little or no consideration for material health and the children’s survival. They compound their wives potential mortality rate by either not allowing her to seek family planning, advice or will not seek it as a collection responsibility. This present mentality in Oghara-efe community and its consequent socio-economic, educational and health effect on the villagers makes it important for this study to be carried out
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Worldwide more than 129 million women want to prevent pregnancy but they and their partners are not using contraceptives. Reasons for this are many. Fear of social disapproval or partners’ opposition pose formidable barriers, as most decisions that affect family life are made by men. Worries of side effects and health concerns hold some people back; others lack knowledge about contraceptive options and their use. Services and supplies are not yet available everywhere, while the choices are also limited, (WHO, 2007). Worldwide 350million couples lack access to effective and affordable family planning 80,000 women die every year from unsafe abortion. That is why the researcher wants to investigate attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement in Oghara-efe Community
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To assess the level of knowledge of men on as a family planning method
- To determine the attitude of men towards family planning in Oghara-efe community
- To determine factors influencing men attitude towards family planning in Oghara-efe community
- To ascertain the relationship between attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no attitude of men towards family planning in Oghara-efe community.
- H1: there is attitude of men towards family planning Oghara-efe community.
- H02: there are no factors influencing men attitude towards family planning
- H2: there are factors influencing men attitude towards family planning
1.5 Significance of the Study
It will provide the health care professionals verifiable data on knowledge and attitude of men towards family planning which will in turn help to design programmes to increase knowledge and improve attitude of men towards family planning. This study will further help policy makers and stakeholders to plan and implement various delivery strategies to integrate men into family planning. It will enlighten and increase general public’s awareness towards male involvement in family planning and motivate potential male clients to seek family planning services. All these are very crucial to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality rate, as well as easy the responsibility bore by women in terms of decision making on family planning methods.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement in Oghara-efe Community. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and an acquired state through experiences
The practice of controlling the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization.
The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
The fact or condition of being involved with or participating in something.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement in Oghara-efe community. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement
This study was on attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement in Oghara-efe community. Four objectives were raised which included: To assess the level of knowledge of men on as a family planning method, to determine the attitude of men towards family planning in Oghara-efe community, to determine factors influencing men attitude towards family planning in Oghara-efe community, to ascertain the relationship between attitude of men towards family planning and implication for their involvement. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Oghara-efe community in Ethiope west local government of Delta state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made elderly men,elderly women, youths and family heads were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Family planning programme planners have not actively developed programmes that would require the involvement of men in family planning. One main family planning method for men that is widely accepted is the use of the condom. However, males can prevent unwanted and unplanned for pregnancies if they employ Vasectomy. The study found that:
The physical involvement of the male partners is not felt although they provide their support both financially and serves as reminders of their wives. Also the insistence on the presence and consent of the male partners at least for the first visit to the health center by service providers sometimes restricts the use of the service since most of the male partners seem to show no interest in the use of contraceptives
Spousal communication is a key factor that helps to increase the possibility of family planning and can have a bearing on the type of contraceptive that a person uses. When spouses communicate about the use of family planning methods it helps to draw the attention and participation of the male partners.
The educational level of spouses also affects the decision to engage in family planning. Those who have a high level of education are more comfortable with family planning methods and are likely to adopt the use of contraceptives compared to those who do not have a high level of education.
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations are made
- Since all respondents in this study were females, it would be insightful for future studies to capture male opinions in order to establish the extent of support and usage of contraceptives among that population.
- Also, it would be insightful for future studies to investigate the level of trust in family planning procedures from both the perspective of the service providers and the extended families of users.
- Futures studies can also investigate why some women are still not engaged in family planning process after its long years of introduction.
- There is the need for inter-sectoral collaboration to empower women so that to a large extent they can take control over their lives in terms of the use of the FP methods. This is necessary because it appears that their overdependence on the male counterparts and closed relative economically has over the years limited them from using family planning methods.
- In addition, the service providers should embark on a sensitization programme to educate people on the side effects of these contraceptives and how the side effects can be handled to prevent any damage to the patient.
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