Attitude Of Farmers Towards Paying For Agricultural Extension Services
The study assessed the attitude of farmers towards paying for agricultural extension services in Kaduna State. One hundred and fifty five respondents were randomly selected from Kachia and Jaba Local Governments (LGAs) for the study. Descriptive statistics, t-test and multiple regression were used to analyse the data. Majority (97%) of the respondents were literate. The study revealed that the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents have positive effects on their response to extension service delivery with the exception of age which showed a negative (t-value=-2.35**) effect on their response at 5% level of probability, The variables; gender, age, marital status, educational qualification, membership of cooperative, household size, years of experience in ginger production, and number of extension contacts collectively accounted for 47% (R2-value) variability in the degree of response to extension service delivery. It was also discovered that extension service delivery had significant effect on ginger outputs (t-value=2.79**) at 5% level of probability. Farmers with extension contacts had an average output of (2010.53kg) while the farmers without extension services had (1113.68kg). Trainings on spacing (4.07*), fertilizer application (4.05*), Mulching (3.34*) and weed control (3.14*) were satisfactory. However, training on harvesting (2.73) was not satisfactory. Linkage to credit institutions was satisfactory only to Bank of agriculture (3.4*). Distribution of planting material (3.238*) and Fertilizers (3.90*) were timely and satisfactory. Access to information (3.62*) was satisfactory for all media involved. The major constraints were price fluctuation (2.012*), inadequate extension agents (1.985) and poor transportation (1.830). Hence, ginger value chain should be improved to leverage and better the farmers’ income. Government should recruit more extension agents to bridge the gap of inadequate extension agents in the study area. Rural roads that farmers use to convey their produce should be maintained by the farmers and be assisted by the government to encourage timely supply of inputs and reduce the cost of production, thereby stabilise the price and increase the farmers’ income.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Problem Statement
- 1.3 Objectives
- 1.4 Justification
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 2.1 Historical Background of Ginger in the World
- 2.2 Uses of Ginger
- 2.3 Development of Agricultural Extension in Nigeria
- 2.4 Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) in Nigeria
- 2.5 Socio-economic Characteristics of Farmers
- 2.6 Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Service Delivery
- 2.7 Constraints to extension service delivery
- 2.8 Theoretical Framework
- 2.9 Conceptual Framework
- 3.1 Study Area
- 3.2 Sampling Procedure and Sampling Size
- 3.3 Data Collection
- 3.4 Analytical Techniques
- 3.5 Operationalization and Measurement of Variables
Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Socioeconomic Characteristics of Respondents
- 4.2 Farmers’ attitude to Agricultural Extension Service Delivery
- 4.3 Factors Affecting Ginger Farmers’ attitude to extension service delivery
- 4.4 Effect of Farmers’ attitude to Agricultural Extension Service Delivery on output
- 4.5 Constraints faced by Farmers
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Contributions to Knowledge
- Farmers’ Questionnaires
1.1 Background to the Study
Agriculture is important to the Nigerian economy as it engages about 70% of the labour force and contributes 32% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP); small farms produce 80% of the total crops (Nigeria forum, 2014). However the sector is faced with a lot of problems which makes it difficult to optimise its potentials. Some of the problems include poor marketing and distribution infrastructure, inadequate access to credit, and weak extension services. In an attempt to ameliorate the constraints, the Government established Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs). In 1975 Kaduna Agricultural Development Project was established to perform extension function under the Ministry of Agriculture.
Effective extension involves adequate and timely access by farmers to relevant information, with appropriate incentives, to adopt a new technology if it suits their socio-economic and agro-ecological circumstances. Public extension is one of the sources of information, but not necessarily the most efficient (Anderson et al., 2003). It is widely accepted that extension services are important elements in farming but poor and marginalized farmers in remote villages remain beyond the reach of appropriate extension services.
Extension service in agriculture is indispensable and it offers more than just expert assistance in improvement of production and processing, but also enables flow of information and transfer of knowledge and scientific findings into practice. These activities are performed according to rules which regulate the establishment of organization, functioning, goals and fields of operation, their obligations and rights. The response of farmers to extension service delivery has not received adequate attention; the focus has been more on research and extension. The public sector programmes are constrained by many factors including lack of transportation, communication and poor skills of service providers. This situation could lead to poor extension service delivery to the farmers that in turn affect their perception on the services they receive. It is an established fact that agricultural production, as currently practiced under traditional methods, has not been able to sustain Nigeria.
The effort of government in information dissemination to ginger farmers is appreciable, but farmers’ adoption of innovations remains low and their perception and feedbacks to the extension services have not received adequate attention. Farmers’ acceptance, rejection, compatibility, relevance of the services that are provided by the extension organization (ADP) require a thorough assessment to find out the level of their reactions with regards to farmers’ satisfaction with the extension services that are been delivered to them in the study area.
Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) is a rhizome, which consist of numerous short finger-like structures or branches born horizontally near the surface of the soil. Two commercial varieties are commonly cultivated in Nigeria. The yellow ginger variety locally called
“TafinGiwa” is stout with short internodes. The black ginger variety locally called “YatsunBiri” has a dull-grey colour rhizome. The yellow variety is more popular than the black variety apparently due to its high yielding capacity and pungency.
Ginger is produced in several parts of Nigeria particularly in the Guinea Savanna Zone (southern part of Kaduna State) and to a little extent in Keffi and Akwanga Local Government Areas of Nasarawa State (Dauda and Waziri, 2006). Ginger offers a substantial protection from stroke and heart attack because of its ability to prevent blood clotting and a multifaceted herb, crucial in the battle against cardiovascular diseases such as bowels and kidney diseases, respiratory system, colds and flu, headache, pains, stomach upsets and as well helps to clear sore throats.
1.2 Problem Statement
The level of adoption of technologies by farmers should not always be used in measuring the success or failure of extension delivery because the effectiveness and efficiency of extension delivery mechanism is to a large extent responsible for success or failure of extension programmes. Agbarevo, (2013). Farmers are often blamed for not responding to extension delivery programmes without considering the effectiveness and efficiency which the services are delivered.
Although studies have been carried out on extension service delivery for agricultural production and marketing of ginger (Asumgha, 2002), farmers’ feedbacks have not received appropriate attention, with respect to quality of services delivered, in terms of content, timeliness of input supply and farmers’ demand for the services and their level of involvement in extension activities.
It has been observed that farmers are resistant to adoption of innovation in the area, this could be attributed to high cost and late supply of inputs such as fertilizer. Moreover, the low extension activities in the area, inadequate and irregular extension visits as well as low market prices, remain threats to ginger production, Adegboye, (2010). The low yield of 25-30tonne/ha as against a potential of 70-80tonne/ha in the area is not encouraging. This may be an indication that farmers are not fully benefiting from the production innovations that are passed through the KADP.
(Shehu et al., 2013). The yield can be improved if the farmers’ attitude to agricultural extension service delivery is adequately assessed and incorporated into the adoption and diffusion process of the ADPs and the identified constraints ameliorated. This necessitated the conduct of this study to assess the response of farmers to the extension service delivery in the area. In doing this, the following research questions were raised:
- What are the socio-economic characteristics of the ginger farmers in the study area?
- What are the farmers’ attitudes to agricultural extension service delivery on ginger production?
- What are the socio-economic characteristics affecting ginger farmers’ attitude to extension services?
- What are the effects of farmers’ attitude to extension service delivery on ginger production
- What are the constraints faced by ginger farmers in accessing the extension services that are provided by KADP?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study was to examine the attitude of farmers towards paying for agricultural extension services on ginger production in Kaduna state.
The specific objectives were to;
- Describe the socio-economic characteristics of ginger farmers in the study area
- Assess farmers’ attitudes to agricultural extension service delivery,
- Examine the socio-economic characteristics affecting ginger farmers’ attitude to extension services,
- Determine the effects of extension service delivery on the output of ginger farmers and
- Identify the constraints faced by ginger farmers on extension services delivered by the KADP.
1.4 Justification of the Study
The result of the study will provide the KADP an in-depth understanding of extension service needs of ginger farmers. It is also envisaged that the results of the study will contribute in the design of appropriate extension policies and programmes for ginger farmers to enhance their productive capacity hence their standard of living. The result of the study will also add to the body of knowledge through paper presentation and publications. In addition, it will help the extension organization (KADP) to apply the appropriate strategy for effective extension service delivery.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significant effect of socio-economic characteristics of ginger farmers on their response to extension service delivery.
- Ho: Farmers’ attitude to extension service delivery have no significant effect on the output of the farmers.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The main objective of the study was to assess the attitude of farmers towards paying for agricultural extension services on Ginger production in Kaduna state. The specific objectives were to; describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assess their response to agricultural extension service delivery, examine the socioeconomic characteristics affecting the respondents’ response to agricultural extension service delivery, determine the effects of extension service delivery on the output of the respondents and determine the constraints faced by the respondents in extension services that are delivered by KADP for ginger production in Kaduna State for the year 2014.
The study used multistage sampling technique to collect primary data through structured questionnaire; the two local governments (Kachia and Jaba) were purposely selected for the study, 10% of the respondents were randomly selected from each village that made up a total of 155 farmers. Descriptive statistics were used to achieve objective (i), (ii) and (v). Objective (iii) and (iv) were achieved using t-test and multiple regression analysis respectively. The average age of the respondents was 51 years. Less than half (34%) of the respondents were old people. The respondents were educated (97%).
The extension services delivered to the respondents include; trainings on ginger production, linkage with financial institution, distribution of inputs to farmers and access to extension information.
It was discovered that the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents have positive effects on their response to extension service delivery with the exception of age. The variables collectively accounted for 47% variability in the degree of response to extension service delivery. It was also discovered that there was significant effect of extension service delivery on the output of the respondents; hence the null hypothesis was rejected. The major constraints faced by the respondents are; price fluctuation, inadequate extension agents, poor transportation, incompetency of extension agents, late distribution of inputs and difficulty access to information.
Based on the findings, the study revealed that respondents were influenced by their socio-economic characteristics such as gender, education level, household size and extension visits. However, age influenced the response negatively. The Farmers’ attitudes were satisfactory on trainings on spacing, fertilizer application, weed control and mulching. However, training on harvesting was not satisfactory. Linkage with financial institution was satisfactory. Likewise, access to extension information was satisfactory.
The agricultural extension service delivery had significant effect on the output of the respondents. Price fluctuation, inadequate number of extension agents, poor transportation, incompetency of extension agents, late distribution of inputs, and difficulty access to information were the constraints faced by the respondents in the study area.
- The ginger value chain should be improved to leverage and better the farmers’ income, thereby stabilise ginger price.
- Extension agents should be recruited by government and non-governmental organization to increase the number of extension visit as well as reduce the extension to farmers’ ratio.
- Rural roads should be maintained by the farmers through community efforts and they should seek assistance from government and non-governmental organization to rehabilitate or construct better roads.
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
The study has contributed to knowledge in the following areas;
- The study revealed that extension service delivery had a significant and positive effect on ginger farmers’ output by 64.4%.
- Farmers’ attitude to agricultural extension service delivery on ginger production was constrained by price fluctuation (40.24%).
- The farmers’ age was inversely related to their response to agricultural extension services, with a coefficient of (-0.182) at 5% level of probability.
- Agricultural extension service delivery had a positive effect on farmers’ access to information (100%) and trainings (80%)
- The farmers’ attitude to extension service delivery increased with increase of extension contacts (1.213) at 10% level of probability.
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