Attitude Of Business Education Teachers Towards Students’ Academic Performance In Business Studies In Lagos State
Today the developments of Nigerian educational system and students’ academic achievements have placed many demands on the effectiveness of business teachers. One of the demands is that schools should graduate students with employable skills. In this study, teachers rated their opinions towards effectiveness of and how it affects the students’ academic performance. A population of 261 public secondary school principals in Lagos State was used as sample for this study. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. A structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to elicit responses. Means and standard deviations were used to answer research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses. The study revealed that business studies teachers were ineffective in adhering to some aspects of time management; classroom management and lesson note preparation and delivery for optimal achievement of instructional goals and improved students’ academic achievements and consequently employability. It was recommended among others, that business studies teachers should endeavour to see time and class management as well as proper lesson note preparation as veritable tools for effective interaction, mastery and acquisition of requisite skills for employability especially now that students’ achievements at both internal and external examinations seem to be at its lowest ebb.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background To The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
- 1.7 Scope Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Business Education: General Overview
- 2.3 Business Studies In Nigeria
- 2.4 Business Teacher Teaching Effectiveness
- 2.5 Model For Evaluating Business Education Programme
- 2.6 Improving Resources In Business Education
- 2.7 Empirical Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population Of The Study
- 3.3 Research Instrument
- 3.4 Method Of Data Collection
- 3.5 Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background To The Study
Education is the bedrock for survival, growth and development of any society. As a concept, it has generated a lot of controversies over the years. However, its relevance to individual and societal growth shows its significance to the economic, social, political and cultural development of human society world-wide. According to Wokocha (2011) every society has its way of educating its citizenry.
In Nigeria, our education policy has been changing from one system to another in a bid to meeting local educational demands and international best practices in education. Only recently, Nigeria education pattern shifted from 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4 system of education. The 9-3-4 comprises of six years of primary school categorised into lower basic (1-3) and middle basic (4-6); three years of junior secondary school (JSS 1-3) now called upper basic and three years of senior secondary school (SSS 1-3) (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2008) and four years of tertiary education. According to Okolocha (2006), the vision of the various reform agenda especially at secondary school system is to address the issue of imbalance with regards to access and quality of education (Yusof, et al., 2012) offered. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2008) Secondary education (which is education people receive after primary school) shifted from 6-3-3-4 system of education to 9-3-4 system in response to the international goals of Education for All (EFA), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Nigeria adopted home-grown National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
The broad aims of secondary education according to Nigeria National Policy on Education, FRN (section 5, 2004), are preparation of students for useful living within the society and for higher education. Specifically, secondary education is to: Provide a higher level of education for all primary school (Abrar, et al., 2010) leavers, offer diversified curricular to cater for all, provide sub-professional manpower in science, technology and commerce, provide technical knowledge and vocational skills, inspire desire for self-improvement and achievement and raise citizens who can think and respect the views of others.
The age bracket of the secondary school students (12-18 years) show the needs to give them valuable counsel about life in order to discover their abilities and potential to contribute to economic development and as well be useful in life. In line with this assertion, Okwuanaso (2004) maintained that young people at this level need counsel and guidance for them to make appropriate choices of career. Nigeria youths need appropriate skills and competencies for employment at work places. Acquisition of the right skills will provide an enabling environment and opportunity for one to secure employment, be self-dependent, play citizenship roles or enrol in advanced business studies or business related programmes.
The problem with our 6-3-3-4 system of education is that, it seems to lack proper focus, guidance and directions for our youths (students) and is too theoretical. In line with this, Teboho (2000) revealed that the growth of our education industry is mainly in size and not in quality hence, the education system of Nigeria is yet to meet the challenges of preparing students for the contemporary global world. The quality of our education with its emphasis on theory more than practical has resulted in production of graduates with unemployable skills leading to unprecedented increase in different types of crimes in the country. According to Nwadiani (2012:47), “the low relevance and poor quality of education in Nigeria akin to schooling or learning shock, educational system failure, dystrophies and dysfunction, are traceable to some observable rots there from the service delivery”.
According to Becker (1997), many business students find it difficult to apply economic principles after studying business concepts. It is therefore, imperative now to find ways and means of making the teaching and learning of the subject more effective.
Principals’ assessment will help to analyse the strength and weaknesses of teachers and performance of students. Such assessment could initiate action that might lead to improvement especially now that there is public outcry about the quality of secondary school teachers and their inability to graduate students with employable skills. The worry is based on the indices of poor academic achievements (performances) of secondary school students in internal and external examinations. Field work carried out by Nwadiani (2012) from West African Examination Council (WAEC) results of 2010 shows that out of 9565 that registered for selected courses, 8106(84.75%) sat for the examinations; 4218(52.04%) got credit and above and the rest either got ordinary pass, failed or were absent. Fieldwork also carried out in selected secondary schools in Lagos state, Nigeria with respect to Nigeria Examination Council Organization (NECO) results, West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) results and Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) results by Nwogu (2011) and the researcher in 2012 show poor performance of students in business subjects.
According to Nwogu, out of 296 students that sat for office practice in selected schools, 14% got credit while 86% got pass, failed or had their results withheld. In the same school in 2009, 211 sat for the same office practice, 46% got credit and distinction while 54% were made up of those who got pass, failed or were absent. In another school visited, 18 students registered for commerce in WASSCE in 2008. 7 got pass, 3 failed and others had their results pending or withheld. In another school, out of 100 candidates that took commerce in 2009 WASSCE, 46% pass and 16% failure were recorded with other results either pending or cancelled. No student in this school got credit and above. In another school visited, 300 students registered for financial accounting in NECO results in 2009. 26% got credit while 74% comprises those that had either ordinary pass, failed or had their results seized by the Board. In BECE which is an examination for JSS3 (Upper Basic 3), the researcher observed from the available records of some secondary schools visited that, out of 1530 students that sat for business studies examination, only 699 got credit and above while others were either pass, failed or result withheld.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
As a result of the poor academic achievements of the students observed, Nwadiani (2012) maintain that the overall poor performance at public examinations in Nigeria particularly at the secondary school level reveal the rising low quality of education being provided against planned expectations. One therefore wonders the extent business teachers who were seen by Medley and Coker (2007) as professionals trained to impact business knowledge and skills in the students have been able to achieve their mandate, in view of the students’ poor academic achievements in both internal and external examinations. Chigozie (2011) in Nwadiani (2012) lamented over poor quality of graduates of educational system in Nigeria which is challenged by instability, corruption, indiscipline among staff and students, inadequate funding, dearth of essential infrastructure, facilities and poor service delivery.
Student’s failure in business studies examination is among other disturbing development- to education sector in recent times. Hence, there are students failures in public secondary schools and the failure may be as a result of inadequate qualified teachers, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, inadequate infrastructure, and poor method of teaching, non- completion of syllabus before examination and lack of confidence on the part of teachers and students. Thus, there is the need to address this problem on what can be done to halt the situation which if care is It is true that many public secondary schools have not been given much attention to the business subjects compared with the emphasis on science and vocational subjects. Thus, with reference to Lagos state, this study seeks to assess the attitude of business education teachers towards students’ academic performance in business studies in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of the study is to assess the attitude of business education teachers towards students’ academic performance in business studies in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought to:
- To evaluate the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness in class management and students’ academic performance in business studies
- To assess the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness on Time Management and students’ academic performance in business studies
- To ascertain the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness in the use of Lesson Notes and students’ academic performance in business studies
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were used to guide the study:
- What is the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness in class management and students’ academic performance in business studies?
- What is the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness on Time Management and students’ academic performance in business studies?
- What is the attitude of business education teachers towards effectiveness in the use of Lesson Notes and students’ academic performance in business studies?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between business education teachers’ effectiveness in class management and students’ academic performance in business studies
- HO2: There is no significant relationship between business education teachers’ effectiveness on Time Management and students’ academic performance in business studies
- HO3: There is no significant relationship between business education teachers’ effectiveness in the use of Lesson Notes and students’ academic performance in business studies
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The findings would be significant to student teachers, parents, school administrators, ministry of education as well as the at large. The result of this research would help the students in advancement of their knowledge as well as increase their awareness and understanding of the subject. The result would also help teachers to understand the effects of certain processes and at the same time increase their understanding at the appropriate skills, method and specific teaching behavior. Similarly, the result of this research would help in increasing and understanding the awareness of parents as to the importance of business studies in the overall development of the economy of the nation in general, as well as know the remedies to their children’s failure in business studies examination. The outcome of this research would also make the school administrators, ministry of education and the government to bring about better and improved practice in business studies remedy the problems of teaching and learning business studies in secondary schools. However, this study would serve as insight to general public particularly for further study by researchers in this field.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study is delimited to the junior secondary schools in Lagos state.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
It is indisputable that teachers are the bedrock of students for academic performance, national growth and development. Teachers are the producers of individuals with critical skills for socio-economic development. They need to be effective in order to produce competitive knowledge workers for the global knowledge based economy. One important way of improving classroom teaching and learning in educational system is through giving support to teachers and business teachers in particular by encouraging and motivating them through proper provision of needed teaching materials required for effective impartation of knowledge to the students. Teachers should monitor the implementation of teachers’ instructional roles to ensure that they prepare their lesson notes in line with the curriculum objectives and deliver them in conformity with the allotted time range, since it is a known fact that when teachers perform well in the classroom, students will likely perform better academically. Teachers should strive to be effective in their teaching roles bearing in mind the challenges facing Nigeria education system in the last three years due to poor performance of secondary school students in WASSC and NECO examinations.
- The education sector should be transformed by re-enforcing our teaching force. Qualified and dedicated teachers should be employed without being biased. This should be done by requesting the institution that graduate students to make input during teachers’ selection stage.
- Principals should devote more time to their instructional leadership functions by supervising and monitoring teachers’ instructional preparation and delivery closely. They should encourage teachers to discharge their instructional roles better by rewarding high performers with double promotion recommended to the appropriate authority. This will help to motivate others.
- Corruption and insincerity in Nigeria need to be tackled since they constitute problems to teaching effectiveness especially when dedicated, deserved and merited teachers are not motivated, promoted or encourage. This attitude dampens ones’ morale and paves way for ineffectiveness among public officers.
- Enough funds should be budgeted for education and utilized judiciously without diverting it for selfish interest. Fund is essential for performing administrative roles, staff welfare, procurement of instructional materials and laboratory equipment and facilities for teaching practical and effective demonstration.
- Teachers’ welfare need to be taken seriously by providing well equipped relaxation centres for stress management, paying them uniform salary in line with their counterparts in other ministries in order to boost morale and image of the profession and releasing promotions promptly.
- Environment for instructional delivery should be conducive for learning with necessary teaching learning facilities put in place for effective learning to occur since poor academic environment leads to distractions, lack of interest and low morale for effective teaching and learning encounter to prevail.
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