An Assessment Of Work Place Performance Of Graduates Of Technical And Vocational Education
The purpose of the study was to explore and assessment of work place performance of graduates of technical and vocational education. The descriptive survey was used for the study. Four research questions guided the study. The simple random and purposive sampling technique was used. A sample size of 133 was drawn from the two municipalities where the technical institutes are located. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire. Simple percentage and chi-square statistics were the method of data analysis used.
1.1 Background of the Study
In Africa and in Nigeria in particular, governments are making efforts to promote technical and vocational education in institutions with the belief that skills acquired through vocational and technical training enhances productivity in work environment.
Abban and Quarchie (1996) pointed out that a shift towards practical skills training with technical and vocational education in Africa is increasingly under reform to make it more attractive, effective and efficient.
One of the most important features of technical and vocational education, as recognized by African governments, is its orientation towards the world of work with the curriculum emphasizing the performance of technical and vocational trainees in the work environment.
African Union (2007) report also highlighted the current vision of African countries in developing a new strategy to revitalize technical and vocational education will promote skills acquisition through competency-based training. If this vision should materialize, it will require ability testing for employment in order to promote sustainable livelihoods and responsible citizenship.
In achieving the goal of work place performance of technical and vocational graduates, Roeske (2003) explained, the Nigerian Industrial Skills Development Center was established in 2002. This center, working in close collaboration with the Association of Nigerian Industries and the Nigerian Employers Association, was tasked to harness the financial and material resources required for achieving and promoting excellence in skills training.
A number of other institutions like Integrated Community Center for Employable Skills, the Opportunities Industrialization Center and the Department of Social Welfare’s Vocational Centers are parts of government effort to produce skillful technical and vocational personnel. Other innovative programmes like the Skills Training and Employment Placement (STEP) and the Vocational Skills Project were also kept in place to bring out the talented and skillful technical and vocational personnel for the job market (Roeske, 2003). The Nigeria Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service and the Intermediate Technology Transfers Units are also providing technical and vocational education graduates with additional and enriched practical skills to enable them set up their own enterprises. All these interventions have not yielded the expected result.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor performance of graduates in other disciplines has become a menace in that it has grossly affected the economic output as a nation. Regardless of the various interventions to ensure that technical institute graduates are well equipped with the required practical skills for the job/labour market and the campaign about the benefits of technical and vocational education, it has not attracted the youth in the southern Nigerian region to move into technical and vocational training at all because most technical graduates have not been able to enter into employment in their respective fields of training.
The poor transition from school to the labour market by graduates has an appreciable amount of technical and vocational education graduates, who are mostly young people, leave to the southern part of the country for menial jobs. This trend of affairs may suggest that technical vocational training programs offered by technical institutes probably fail to develop the skills required for employment within the southern Nigerian region and beyond and this has significantly contributed to the poor socio economic development of Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study sought to discover the views of students, and technical and vocational education teachers on the state of practical skills training to meeting the socio-economic needs of the region.
Specifically, the study sought to;
- Know the challenges facing the effective preparation of technical students for employment and work output.
Determine the extent to which teachers’ qualifications and quality of teaching affect technical vocational graduates work place performance.
- To examine the performances of technical vocational education graduates in the labour market.
- Know how relevant technical and vocational skills are to graduates in the work place environment.
- To examine the performance of technical and vocational education graduates in delta state.
1.4 Research Questions
The research investigated the answers to the following questions;
- What are the challenges facing the effective preparation of technical and vocational students for employment?
- To what extent do the teachers’ qualifications and quality of teaching affect technical vocational graduates’ work place performance?
- How far have these challenges affected performance of graduates in the work place?
- How relevant is technical and vocational skills to the labour market?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H0: There are no significant challenges facing the preparation of technical and vocational graduate for employment and work output.
H1: There are significant challenges facing the preparation of technical and vocational graduate for employment and work output.
H02: Teacher’s qualification and quality of teaching does not affect technical and vocational graduate work place performance
H2: Teacher’s qualification and quality of teaching does affect technical and vocational graduate work place performance
1.6 Significance / Importance of the Study
The outcome of the work would be of immense benefit to researchers and scholars who are interested in work place performance of graduates of technical and vocational education. This study would also benefit captains of industries and human resource consultants in assessing the work performance of graduates of vocational technical education.
1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study
This study is based on the assessment of work place performance of graduates of technical and vocational education with Delta State been used as the case study.
Limitations of the Study
The study was limited basically by two factors;
Insufficient fund tends to restrict the ability of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant research materials both online, through libraries and data collection through questionnaire or interview.
The researcher simultaneously engaged in this with other academic work. This constantly limited the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Is the physical location where someone works. Such a place can range from a home office to a large office building or factory.
The accomplishment of a given task measured against present know standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
Vocational Technical Education:
This is an aspect of education designed to prepare students for industry, agriculture, commerce, home economics which is usually provided at the senior secondary or lower tertiary level.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine work place performance of graduates of technical and vocational education.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges encountered by management on the employability and job proficiency of technical and vocational education graduate in Nigeria.
It is important for our TVET institution to develop and enhance graduates’ employability skills to meet the demand by employers. In order to reach stated development goals and become recognized as an industrialized nation by 2020, Nigeria must ensure that technical students have high employability skills. Having employability skills will ease the transition from school to work, thus reducing the unemployment rate among high school graduates. Due to the importance of these skills, students should be given opportunities to acquire them, but not necessarily by developing a separate subject. Employability can be infused and integrated across curriculum using different teaching approaches. For example, project-based learning, case studies, problem-based learning, teamwork activities, and student leadership development activities can all be utilized to provide students with the necessary skills. Thus, we suggest that all TVET institutions should consider designing the curriculum with the objective of developing and enhancing students’ employability skills.
The linkage between the technical institutes on the one hand and the industry on the other is not strong enough. The technical institutes have not been able to access opportunities for industrial attachment for both teachers and students. As a result, the practical skill training is not closely related to the requirements at the world of work.
Technical institute graduates lacked the requisite skills for the job market, so had few chances of gaining employment. This situation left many of the technical graduates unemployed. There are four main conclusions based on the findings of the study.
There is generally inadequacy in the provision of instructional materials which leads to focusing more on theoretical teaching leading to trainees lacking proficiency in their chosen fields of specialization.
Large class sizes do not match with inadequate supply and provision of training resources. These inadequacies negatively affect the necessary skills for the world of work.
The importance of industrial attachment is relegated in priority. This seriously affects training with a resulting mismatch with job market expectations. There are inappropriate teaching methods used for practical teaching
In view of the findings and conclusions, five recommendations are made. To address the short supply of training materials and basic hand tools for skill training in the two technical institutes, all stakeholders should contribute in providing adequate training materials. Final year students and all females in the male-dominated programs should be encouraged to possess own basic hand tools.
Large class sizes should be discouraged in the technical institutes. Efforts should be made in securing more facilities to match the upsurge of student intake into the technical institutes.
The technical institutes should ensure that practical lessons are both effective and efficient to achieve the desired result of imparting the practical skills necessary for the world of work.
For the realization of quality in practical skill training, the technical institutes should vigorously promote industrial attachment programs for both staff and students.
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