An Assessment Of Women Participation In Politics In Kogi State 2015-2019

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

An Assessment Of Women Participation In Politics In Kogi State 2015-2019


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019.The study was carried out to examine the factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019, identify the level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019, and evaluate the impact of women participation in politics inKogi State 2015-2019. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of selected women from Kogi metropolis. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019 includes: women abstain from politics because they do not have enough resources to enable them participate effectively in politics in Nigeria, lack of finance is major constrain militating against women participation in politics in Nigeria, cultural and religion beliefs deprive women from active participation in politics in Nigeria, family responsibilities and child bearing hinder women from participating effectively in political activities, women are not given equal opportunity like the men to participate actively in politics in Nigeria, lack of family support is a critical challenge to women active participation in politics in Nigeria,. Furthermore, the study revealed that the level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019 is low.Therefore, it is recommended that there should be the inclusion of gender-sensitive provisions in the constitutions and manifestoes of parties. This will serve the purpose of mainstreaming gender into their activities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Under international standards, both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities to everything worldwide, most especially to participate fully in all aspects and at all levels of political processes. Globally, women constitute over half of the world’s population and contribute in vital ways to societal development generally. In most societies, women assume some key roles, which are: mother, producer, home-manager, and community organizer, sociocultural and political activists. Of these many roles mentioned, the last has been engendered by women movement. In line with global trend, Nigerian women constitute nearly half of the population of the country. But despite the major roles they play with their population, women roles in the society are yet to be given recognition. This is due to some cultural stereotypes, abuse of religion, traditional practices and patriarchal societal structures.

In Nigeria the awareness about the role of women in development of a nation came up in 1980s. The International Conference on women in Beijing in 1995 enhanced the effective participation of women in politics in Nigeria. In Nigeria, about 51 percent of women are involved in voting during elections. Despite these, women are still under represented in both elective and appointive positions. Available statistics revealed that overall political representation in government of Nigeria is less than 7 percent (Agbalajobi, 2010). This shows that Nigeria has not attained 30 percent affirmative as prescribed by the Beijing Platform of Action. Nigeria has been recording low participation of women in both elective and appointive positions this is a growing concern to many Nigerians. However, concerted efforts have been made by government and non-governmental organizations to increase the level of participation of women in politics, in line, with the declaration made at the fourth World Conference on women in Beijing, which advocated 30% affirmative action. However, in Nigeria, the extant National Gender Policy (NGP) recommended 35% affirmative action instead and sought for a more inclusive representation of women with at least 35% of both elective political and appointive public service positions respectively. The under representation of women in political participation gained root due to the patriarchal practice inherent in our society, much of which were obvious from pre-colonial era till date. However, the re-introduction of democraticgovernance has witnessed once again an increase in women political participation both in elective and appointive offices in Nigeria.This study therefore focuses on an assessment of women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019


1.1 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria women participation in politics is weak, the Kogi situation is even worst due to the following factors: The literacy levels for women in Kogi state is very low which affect their participation in politics. Women enrolment in education is poor; this limits women from contesting for some leadership positions where there is a set academic level requirement (Deborah, 2016). According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2010) states that the percentage of women literacy in the North West is 23.2%.

Another factor negating women participation in politics is lack of finance, women in Kogi are sometimes not able to raise the required funds for nomination fees and money to run an effective campaign. Elections by design need money for one to set up the required structures to manage a campaign create visibility and network with colleagues which are key elements for success of any campaign (Ayevbuomwan, Popuola & Adeoti, 2016). Other factors include lack of support from family members including the spouse for women intending to participate in elections demotivate some women from standing for positions. In patriarchal societies men still exertlot of influence on their wives and in extreme cases they are refused to contest for elective positions because is perceived as challenging the power of the man in the home. Sometimes their movement is controlled with claims that women might become promiscuous once they are given liberty to move out of the home and in such a situation they cannot effectively participate in decision making bodies (Arowolo & Aluko, 2010). Negative cultural perceptions and attitudes about women in leadership. In patriarchal societies there is always a belief that public space is not meant for women and that by nature they cannot make good leaders. These perceptions are stronger at the lower levels making it very hard for women to contest and take up leadership at these levels (Asiju & Adagba, 2013). Finally, lack of political empowerment constitute problem to women participation in politics, the few one that are willing to contest are not giving opportunity by the political party in Zamfara state which affect their participation.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general object of this study is to evaluate on women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019.

Specifically, the study is aimed at;

  1. Examine the factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019.
  2. Identify the level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019.
  3. Evaluate the impact of women participation in politics inKogi State 2015-2019.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions will guide this study.

  1. What are the factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019?
  2. What is the level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019?
  3. What is the impact of women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ha: The level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019 is high.
  • Ho: The level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019 is low.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Marginalization of women in local governance is nothing but an elongation of male dominance in virtually all political affairs. As such, historical fact of this nature is strongly associated with the attitudinal views which had often impede the chances of women to having more political representatives at the various local government levels in Nigeria.This therefore makes the study both timely and significant. A detailed analysis of this phenomenon will help contribute to the sparse knowledge in this area. The research will equally be beneficial to NGOs, scholars and government agencies on gender related issues such as Inter-parliamentary Union, United Nations’ Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) Committee for the Elimination of all form of Discriminations against Women (CEDAW) as it will aid them in their search for gender equality. In addition, the suggestions and recommendations that will be proffered in this study will help improve the level of political participation of women in Nigeria particularly Kogi States.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on an assessment of women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019. however this study will cover a period of 5 years.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. Despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Politics:

Politics is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status.

Political Participation:

Political participation includes a broad range of activities through which people develop and express their opinions on the world and how it is governed, and try to take part in and shape the decisions that affect their lives.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019.The study specifically was aimed to examine the factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019, identify the level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019, and evaluate the impact of women participation in politics inKogi State 2015-2019.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areselected women from Kogi metropolis.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The factors militating against women participation in politics of Kogi State 2015-2019 includes: women abstain from politics because they do not have enough resources to enable them participate effectively in politics in Nigeria, lack of finance is major constrain militating against women participation in politics in Nigeria, cultural and religion beliefs deprive women from active participation in politics in Nigeria, family responsibilities and child bearing hinder women from participating effectively in political activities, women are not given equal opportunity like the men to participate actively in politics in Nigeria, and lack of family support is a critical challenge to women active participation in politics in Nigeria.
  2. The level of women involvement in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019 is low.
  3. The impact of women participation in politics in Kogi State 2015-2019 will bring development to their various communities, increased women education has led to their participation in politics, women in elective or appointment political positions have contributed immensely to democratic consolidation, and empowerment of women would create room for their active participation in politics.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Women should be given equal access to credit facilities and factors of production like land, capital and labour just like men to enhance their output and income generation.
  2. Since poverty is a factor to women participation in the politics, economic empowerment could be a better way of enhancing women participation in politics.
  3. Government, NGOs and other stakeholders should engage in programmes and policies that would empower women politically, socially and economically.
  4. There should be the inclusion of gender-sensitive provisions in the constitutions and manifestoes of parties. This will serve the purpose of mainstreaming gender into their activities (Okafor and Akokuwebe, 2015).
  5. There should be equal representation of Nigerian men and women in governance to ensure that enacting laws of the land and making policies particularly those affecting gender issues will always remain equitable.
  6. Family members (especially husbands of married women) should give women political aspirants the relevant consent and support to venture into politics and governance.
  7. There should be enabling constitutional amendment to ensure equitable appointive and elective positions in governance for meaningful national development.
  8. Nigerian women should develop positive attitude to politics no matter the hurdles.

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