Assessment Of Water Quality Of Some Private Boreholes In Housing Estates In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State

Project and Seminar Material for Urban and Regional Planning

Assessment Of Water Quality Of Some Private Boreholes In Housing Estates In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State


Abstract


This study is on assessment of water quality of some private boreholes in housing estate in Uyo. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Uyo local government of Akwa Ibom. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up politicians, civil servants, youths and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water is an important component of the earth covering about three quarters (3/4) of the earth’s surface and occurs on land, underground and in space. Without water life on earth would be impossible. It is often referred to as the “Liquid of life” because it constitutes up to ninety percent (90%) of the cell and serves as medium for the dissolution and transportation of body nutrients and other essential molecules. Without its availability for human use (through drinking) within a maximum of fourteen days, the body becomes dehydrated and life is endangered. In addition, about two thirds (2/3) of our body is made up of water, about 45 litres in the average adult.

The brain is 5 percent water, the muscles 77 percent and the bones 33 percent (Akpan, 1998). According to him, we need to drink about two liters a day to stay healthy. The human body uses water to cleanse the blood as it passes through the kidney, bathes cells and tissues, regulates body temperature, carries oxygen around the body, transports food to the body organs, helps in food digestion, prevents a build-up of salts, and helps in removing carbon dioxide and waste products. Similarly, it is essential to terrestrial plant life and marine/aquatic flora and fauna. More so, in the life of human communities and economic activities, water is useful for sanitation, agriculture and fishery. In developing countries, thousands of children under five years die every day due to drinking contaminating water (WHO, 2004). Thus lack of safe drinking water supply, basic sanitation and hygienic practices is associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases.

Water-borne pathogens infect around 250 million people each year resulting in 10 to 20 million deaths world-wide. An estimated 80% of all illness in developing countries is related to water and sanitation and 15% of all child deaths under the age of five years in developing countries result from diarrhea diseases (WHO, 2004; Thompson and Khan,2000).

According to Ayeni (2014), no fewer than seven million people across the world die of water borne diseases each year. Polluted water killed at least a child every 10 seconds and identified lack of potable water and poor hygiene as major causes of the high rate in child mortality in the world according to him. That, over 2.4 billion people across the world were without sanitation facilities, saying this had also contributed to the untimely death in most countries of the world including Nigeria. Also reported by Punch News Thursday, 2nd October, 2014, that more than 80 Nigerian refugees, fleeing from the Boko Haram insurgency are known to have died from cholera in refugee camps in Cameroon due to lack of adequate water supply and sanitation problems.

The lack of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation measures could also lead to a number of diseases such as dysentery, salmonellosis, shigellosis and typhoid, and every year millions of lives are claimed in developing countries. The evaluation of potable water supplies for coliform bacteria is important in determining the quality level of drinking water. High levels of coliform counts indicate a contaminated source, inadequate treatment or post-treatment deficiencies (Mathew; Lechevallier; Cameron and Fetens, 1984). Many developing countries suffer from either chronic shortages of freshwater or the readily accessible water resources are heavily polluted (Lehloesa and Muyima, 2000).


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water is an important component of the earth covering about three quarters (3/4) of the earth’s surface and occurs on land, underground and in space. Without water life on earth would be impossible. It is often referred to as the “Liquid of life” because it constitutes up to ninety percent (90%) of the cell and serves as medium for the dissolution and transportation of body nutrients and other essential molecules. Without its availability for human use (through drinking) within a maximum of fourteen days, the body becomes dehydrated and life is endangered. In addition, about two thirds (2/3) of our body is made up of water, about 45 litres in the average adult. The brain is 5 percent water, the muscles 77 percent and the bones 33 percent (Akpan, 1998). According to him, we need to drink about two liters a day to stay healthy. The human body uses water to cleanse the blood as it passes through the kidney, bathes cells and tissues, regulates body temperature, carries oxygen around the body, transports food to the body organs, helps in food digestion, prevents a build-up of salts, and helps in removing carbon dioxide and waste products. Similarly, it is essential to terrestrial plant life and marine/aquatic flora and fauna. More so, in the life of human communities and economic activities, water is useful for sanitation, agriculture and fishery. In developing countries, thousands of children under five years die every day due to drinking contaminating water (WHO, 2004). Thus lack of safe drinking water supply, basic sanitation and hygienic practices is associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. Water-borne pathogens infect around 250 million people each year resulting in 10 to 20 million deaths world-wide. An estimated 80% of all illness in developing countries is related to water and sanitation and 15% of all child deaths under the age of five years in developing countries result from diarrhea diseases (WHO, 2004; Thompson and Khan,2000). According to Ayeni (2014), no fewer than seven million people across the world die of water borne diseases each year. Polluted water killed at least a child every 10 seconds and identified lack of potable water and poor hygiene as major causes of the high rate in child mortality in the world according to him. That, over 2.4 billion people across the world were without sanitation facilities, saying this had also contributed to the untimely death in most countries of the world including Nigeria. Also reported by Punch News Thursday, 2nd October, 2014, that more than 80 Nigerian refugees, fleeing from the Boko Haram insurgency are known to have died from cholera in refugee camps in Cameroon due to lack of adequate water supply and sanitation problems. The lack of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation measures could also lead to a number of diseases such as dysentery, salmonellosis, shigellosis and typhoid, and every year millions of lives are claimed in developing countries. The evaluation of potable water supplies for coliform bacteria is important in determining the quality level of drinking water. High levels of coliform counts indicate a contaminated source, inadequate treatment or post-treatment deficiencies (Mathew; Lechevallier; Cameron and Fetens, 1984). Many developing countries suffer from either chronic shortages of freshwater or the readily accessible water resources are heavily polluted (Lehloesa and Muyima, 2000).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Groundwater sources are being increasingly used as drinking water yet, testing to see whether the water is of’ good quality is almost non-existent. Although, it is true that soils generally function to reduce the effect of microorganisms by a simple filtration mechanism, especially larger bacterial and protozoa, pollution of groundwater by micro-organisms, especially the located near septic tanks or landfills significantly do occur


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To identify and locate the sites of public and private borehole water supply sources in Uyo
  2. To compare the quality of public and private borehole water supply sources with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv.) drinking water standards.
  3. To examine the levels of variations in water quality between the two sources of water supply in the study area
  4. To suggest measures for maintaining acceptable quality of portable water supply in the area under study

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The hypotheses stated below are raised in order to actualize the objectives of this study.

Hypothesis One
  • HO: there are no the levels of variations in water quality between the two sources of water supply in the study area
  • HI: there are levels of variations in water quality between the two sources of water supply in the study area
Hypothesis Two
  • HO: there are no measures for maintaining acceptable quality of portable water supply in the area under study
  • HI: there are measures for maintaining acceptable quality of portable water supply in the area under study

1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is to identify the groundwater quality conditions from various sources in Uyo metropolis. The study will be beneficial to students, people of Uyo and the general public. It will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers assessment of water quality of some private boreholes in housing estate in Uyo.

Limitation of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Water Quality:

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.

Borehole:

A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally. A borehole may be constructed for many different purposes, including the extraction of water, other liquids or gases

Housing Estate:

A housing estate is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Accordingly, a housing estate is usually built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain assessment of water quality of some private boreholes in housing estate in uyo

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of water quality of some private boreholes in housing estate in uyo


5.2 Summary

This study was on assessment of water quality of some private boreholes in housing estate in uyo. Four objectives were raised which included: To identify and locate the sites of public and private borehole water supply sources in Uyo, to compare the quality of public and private borehole water supply sources with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv.) drinking water standards, to examine the levels of variations in water quality between the two sources of water supply in the study area, to suggest measures for maintaining acceptable quality of portable water supply in the area under study. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Uyo local government of Akwa Ibom. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up politicians, civil servants, youths and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The physicochemical parameters of the selected private and public borehole water samples in the study area were within the acceptable limits by WHO and FMEnv. Standards for drinking water except the pH value which was comparatively low in private borehole water samples. Although some of the chemical parameters fell below the approved standards, they were judged to be acceptable since they were not above the required maximum permissible limits which could have been more riskful and dangerous to health.


5.4 Recommendation

It is therefore recommended that standard measures be taken by the appropriate authorities to ensure proper treatment of the waters to safeguard the health of the innocent consumers with regard to pH, total coliforms, and lead in the affected sites. Analysis of this nature should be carried out on regular basis. Hygienically approved methods for waste disposal (both solid and liquid) should be explored and adopted to check the possibilities of indiscriminate land-dumping of potentially hazardous waste materials. Water users should also be on watch and to report every high level of any physical or chemical properties to the appropriate authorities in order to sustain water quality for consumption


Assessment Of Water Quality Of Some Private Boreholes In Housing Estates In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State


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Assessment Of Water Quality Of Some Private Boreholes In Housing Estates In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State


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