Assessment Of Time Management At Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba State

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Assessment Of Time Management At Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba State


Abstract


This study assesseded time management in various activities at the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state. The objectives of the study were to examine the benefits of time management and the consequences of poor time management, to identify the factors associated with poor time management and strategies for achieving organizational goals, and to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and institutional variables on achieving overall organizational goals through time management in Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state. A questionnaire survey was adopted for the study; a structured Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ) was developed and administered to 292 hospital workers randomly selected from a population of 1084 staffs in the hospital. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, Likert scale tests and regression analysis. Findings indicated that 77% of the respondents interviewed had years of experience in excess of five years. In addition, time management allows for scheduling of work plans, dealing with interruption and categorizing tasks.

However, poor time management leads to distractions from working on critical tasks, procrastination, disorganization and delay in information circulation. In addition, time management allows for planning daily targets, setting deadlines and organizing tasks. However, the respondents indicated steps adopted by the management of Federal Medical Center to mitigate consequences of poor time management. These are organizing time management seminars and reduce bureaucracy in all activities. The length of time (years) in service at Federal Medical Center significantly contributed to effective time management and achieving overall management objectives. Based on findings, the study recommends staff training on systematic time management, time management practices and principles. Time management tools such as; time log, schedule and Gantt chart should be put in place, this will help employees to manage their time effectively. The management should pronounce clear policies, rules and regulations for employees to save time.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval Page
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 The Background of the Study
  • 1.3 The Statement of the Problem
  • 1.4 The Research Questions
  • 1.5 The Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 The Purpose of the Study
  • 1.7 The Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Justification of the Study
  • 1.9 The Scope of the Study
  • 1.10 The Limitations of the Study
  • 1.11 The Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Meaning of Time
  • 2.3 Characteristics of Time
  • 2.4 Various Definitions of Time Management
  • 2.5 Components of Effective Time Management
  • 2.6 Reasons for Poor Time Management
  • 2.7 Goals of Time Management
  • 2.8 Where to Start with Time Management
  • 2.9 Benefits of Time Management
  • 2.10 Symptoms of Poor Time Management
  • 2.11 Time Management Wisdoms
  • 2.12 Principles For Effective Time Management
  • 2.13 Time Waster Analyses
  • 2.14 Types of Time Managers

Chapter Three

Materials and Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The Study Population
  • 3.3 The Sampling Size and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.4 Sources and Methods of Data Collection
  • 3.5 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.7 The Validity and Reliability
  • 3.8 Research Hypotheses

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Personal Information
  • 4.3 Research Questions
  • 4.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Consequences of Socio Economic and Demographic Variables on Achieving Organizational Goals Through Time Management

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References

Lists of Tables


  1. Breakdown of 250 Bed Space
  2. Stephen Covey Habits of Highly Effective People
  3. The Population and Sample Size of the Study of Population Sample Size
  4. Distribution Showing Employee Working Experience
  5. Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations on the importance of time management in organization (N = 292)
  6. Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations on the consequences of poor time management in organization (N = 292)
  7. Frequency Distribution of the Problems Associated With Poor Time Managements
  8. Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations on how effective time management facilitate the maximum achievement of organizational goal (N = 292)
  9. Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations on the practical steps organizations adopts to eliminate problems militating effective time management (N = 292)
  10. Mean Ratings and Standard Deviations on the impact of effective time management in the overall achievement of organization goals (N = 292)
  11. The Test Statistics of the Response on the effect in facilitating maximum achievement in organizational goal
  12. The Test Statistics of the Response on the impact in the overall achievement of organizational goals
  13. Regression of socioeconomic and institutional variables on achieving organizational goals through time management

Lists of Appendices


  • A Letter of Introduction
  • B Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ)
  • C Minitab Analytical Result
  • D SPSS Regression Analysis

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Introduction

All organizations, however big or small need to manage time effectively, to be able to achieve both employees and organizational goals and objectives. The decisions and the future of the organizations rely at management level, but ensuring that decision are made correctly and that employees carry out their responsibilities properly relies on time management.

According to Philpot (2011), time management is all about planning the day in order to make the best use of time. Time management started with industrial Revolution. The concept has evolved slowly but steadily to the modern nation of time management, such as doing things effectively to enable to record successes both in individual lives and in organizations.

Therefore, business managers and employees need to realize that time is one of the most easily elusive resources available to man, and unless, it is properly managed, many opportunities are lost, as a result of its poor management. Time is a myth; one cannot create, store or save to another day. A delay in making a decision or reacting to a problem can be a costly business mistake.

Being prepared will ensure you do not waste any valuable time. Good time management will help organizations in being more productive, more creative, save money and avoid working ridiculous hours and to greatly increase organizations achievement.


1.2 The Background of the Study

The Federal Medical Centre started in November 1999 on rented temporary structure, because of non-release of the hospital to the Federal Medical Centre by the Taraba state specialist Hospital, by Dr. D. N Bobzom. There was a limitation in the service delivery because of the limited size of the structure. Even offices for staff were a major challenge.

However, on the 2nd February 2004, The Taraba State Government finally handed over the state Specialist Hospital, which is a bigger space to the centre, as the permanent site. Again, the new site had no Specialist Clinics, offices for doctors, and consultants, administration building to carter for a Tertiary Health Institution. These were the major shortcomings the hospital experienced.

When the capital budget was allocated to the hospital, the management of the Federal Medical Centre under Dr. Idris Balasa was able to put up some structures, wiz:- Medical Directors Office Complex, ten block offices for consultants, Theatre and Radiology Departments and administrative block etc. Dr. Inusa Wiza, who succeeded Dr. Idris Balasa as the third Medical Director in June 2011 continued to pursue with vigour to the transformation agenda of his predecessors amongst his achievements are:

The tremendous upgrading of facilities, better road network, initiation and completion of new maternity and Amenity wards. Presently, the hospital is Operating a two hundred and fifty-bed space facility with the following breakdown .

Table 1: Breakdown of 250 Bed Space

S/NO WARD NO OF BED

  1. Male Medical Ward 32
  2. Female Medical Ward 33
  3. Male Surgical Ward 34
  4. Female Surgical Ward 24
  5. Gynae Ward 24
  6. Maternity Ward 28
  7. Labour Ward 7
  8. Nursing Ward 10
  9. Paediatric Ward 10
  10. E.P.U 20
  11. Surgical (A/E) 10

TOTAL 250

Therefore, for a continuous pursuit of the transformation agenda by The Management of the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, time management is a crucial factor in carrying out service delivery in the centre. And, it is against this backdrop that the researcher chose the topic: Time Management in organizations, with a Case Study of the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo.

This means that effective and efficient time management is needed by the employees in the various departments and units, to carry out their responsibilities. Time management is a product of the fast-paced world , that is growing smaller and smaller in terms of distance and time taken to communicate or work; time, therefore, is of visible importance to any organization and most people in the world.

Application of effective time management is necessary for Administration Department which runs supportive services at Federal Medical Centre Jalingo.

The Open Registry, receive mails, records mails, classifies mails, despatches mails, runs ‘morning list’ of files, traces the destination of files. Similarly, the Secret Registry staff work on staff secret files. They shortlist staff and write brief on the staff files for promotion purposes. While the administration officers convey approvals on annual leave, workshops, conferences, meetings, short courses, long courses both part time and full time; raise salary variation order; among other things. For the above responsibilities to be carried out, specific time frames are given to meet specific targets for better utilization of time, and this will have a great impact on employee’s productivity. In a similar way, in the service department, the consultants, doctors, Medical Rec ord staff, dental, and radiography staffs, laboratory scientists, nurses, theatre staff, try to meet the target in other to attend to patients.

Also, cleaners, security, and labourers are expected to work within specific time frame. Even the accounts department whose duty it is to prepare salaries of workers, make payments to contractors, balances account need to work within the allowed time frame. Audit department also works within the given time, to less delay in account department.

Challenges to Effective Time Management in the Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo

However, there are a lot of challenges for effective time management in the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo. These are viz.

  1. Ineffective works flow; jobs are fragmented and left unfinished.
  2. Wasted time: Distractions prevent come employees from completing important tasks. Examples non-essential contact with friends and family during working hours might cause the employees to lose focus or procrastinate when they are busy.
  3. Mixed deadline: deadlines are missed because some employees in the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo do not organize their workload and set up prioritized schedule. They scramble to finish the task at the last minute.
  4. Poor work quality: some workers in the centre do not manage their time well instead, they try to complete the task at the last minute.
  5. Less leisure time: sometimes some supervisors do not allow enough leisure time.
  6. Stress is another factor that affects effective time management in the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo. Stress is part of life and some employees do not manage it very we ll. They allow stress to interfere so much in their work.
  7. Living in the present, rather than the future: some staff neglects the future and potential problems remain undetected.
Solutions to the Challenges: mentioned above
  1. Effective plan of attack is needed by employees is to complete a similar task at the same time. This optimizes workflow.
  2. Employees should allow their calls to go to an answering machines or voice mail, and return the calls during their free time.
  3. Staff should set a deadline for themselves and strive hard to complete tasks ahead of deadlines. They do not have to wait for their superior to ask them everything; instead, they should learn to take ownership of their work. Employees also should endeavour to make the important dates against the set deadlines.
  4. Employees should endeavour not to complete the task at the last minute, in order not sacrifice good work quality.
  5. Appropriate leisure time should be provided to the employees for them to recreate themselves as recreation relaxes the muscle for better productivity.
  6. Stress is part of life. However, employees should try to manage stress very well, so that it will not interfere with work. This is because; the stress is harmful to employees, families, individual, organization and society. It drains energy, lowers resistance to illness, impairs our judgment on performance, makes employees less confident and ultimately will lead to low productivity.
  7. The employees should be proactive enough to detect potential problems.

1.3 The Statement of the Problem

In organisation, time is considered as the hall mark of success in organisations. In other words, organisations believe that better time management will lead to more productive outcomes, both, in the monetary and non-monetary terms, and in good service delivery. As a result, effective time management is considered as a critical factor for both employees and organisational productivity. Time management concept is further enhanced with the concept of employees’ time management, where employees are expected to superbly manage their time at work.

Despite, the significance, time management, has acquired, organisations have encountered various problems pertaining to in efficiency in managing time and performing job effectively.

These include:

  1. Time management has become a challenge for technical staff who work on shift timings and they have to respond timely to the client queries.
  2. Less maintenance of self- discipline.
  3. Issues pertaining to team building.
  4. Random and unscheduled visits by different people who look for consideration of the chief or different representations.
  5. Ignorance: Many people fail to see how intimately time is connected with life and other aspects of what we do.
  6. Love for pleasure: Sound management techniques take effort and application which are not always associated with pleasure.
  7. Absentmindedness.
  8. Procrastination.
  9. In effective delegation.
  10. Being active, rather than proactive (creating or controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than responding to it after it has happened.)
  11. Failing to focus on the first things- priorities.
  12. Failing to begin with a vision/plan and communicating it to others.
  13. Over confidence: Techniques that worked very well in smaller projects may be of value to bigger ones, but some managers may not see it this way.
  14. People’s attitude towards time is also a factor. People think that time is free and that one does not have to buy it, it can slip away if not used.

1.4 The Research Questions

  1. What are the important of time management in organization?
  2. What are the consequences of poor time management in organization?
  3. How does effective time management facilitate employees’ maximum achievement in the organization?
  4. What practical steps will organizations adopt to eliminate problems militating effective time management?
  5. What is the impact of effective time management in the overall achievement of organization goals?

1.5 The Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated to test the research objectives:

  • H01: Time management has no significant effect in facilitating employees’ maximum achievement in the organization
  • H01: Time management has no significant impact in the overall achievement of organizational goals

1.6 The Purpose of the Study

  1. To examine the benefits of time management and the consequences of poor time management.
  2. Identify the factors associated with poor time management and strategies for achieving organizational goals.
  3. Evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and institutional variables on achieving overall organizational goals through time management.

1.7 The Significance of the Study

The focus of the research study is to examine time management in Departments in The Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, in the course of effective and efficient service delivery; which is the main focus and mission of the centre.

The study will provide better time management strategies so as to enhance their job performance. Additionally, the study gives the reference to managerial incumbents when monitoring or guiding their subordinates for time administration abilities. In the context of the inconvenience in dealing with their time and organising work, this study will provide ideas to push ahead by giving them more prominent clarity on what is truly essential.

The study essentially illuminates on the effective, efficient and economical way of achieving important organisational goals. It is concerned with how to make the most of the various units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days etc.) that are available to us in a way that will facilitate the maximum achievement of organisational goals.

An organisation which manages time well will finish task ahead of deadlines, identify any bad habits or recurring distractions that thrown the organisation off the track. The study therefore takes appropriate steps to eliminate those problems.


1.8 Justification of the Study

Time Management in Organizations is timely, especially in the era in which we are in. If time is not effectively and adequately managed very well in organization s, employees’ productivity will be very low. Time management is a ‘Sine qua non’ just we have power is in the operation of an industry. Time management tells you ‘what has to do?’ How much of it has to be done? ‘’How much does it cost to do it?

At the Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo, service delivery is slow and time consuming. There are lots of time wasting in documentation of patients, wherein patients waste enormous time before services are provided. During peak period in the hospital, there are no palliatives or quick fix approaches to help reduce time wasting in paper work. In addition the absence of modern medical facilities, long queues are common in the hospitals this investigation will help reduce the amount of time hospital spent in the hospital.

The investigation intend to ensure a situation wherein the Medical Record Department traces the patient’s folder in five minutes, the laboratory department runs a test in thirty minutes, the revenue collector collects money and issues receipt immediately to the patient, and the doctor sees the patient within thirty minutes, and if there is need to admit the patient and nurses, nurse the patient to life, mortality rate of patients will greatly be minimized.
Therefore, effective time management is a guide for management staff, senior staff, junior staff and even manipulative staff. It eliminates malingering and Loitering of staff. With effective time management, staffs show interest in their study posts.


1.9 The Scope of the Study

The Scope of this research explores effective time management which facilitates timely and efficient health care delivery.


1.10 The Limitations of the Study

Time limitation:

Federal Medical Centre is essentially for service delivery, so there is a limitation of a time constraint because most staff in the clinical areas like the laboratory, Medicine, Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Medical Records e.t.c are too busy to give attention to research questions.

Financial Limitation:

There is a challenge of finance because the research is self-sponsored and there is no other assistance.

Material Limitation:

Another limitation is material – There are no books or literature on time management.

The researcher relies on workshop materials, Internet, Newspapers, and Journals.


1.11 The Definition of Terms

Time:

Time is a period considered as a resource under your control and sufficient to accomplish something. It is an indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession, from the past through the present to the future.

Time Management:

This efficient use of time in such a way that, we are effective, efficient and economical, in achieving important personal or organization goals. It is concerned on how to make the most of various units of time that are available to us in a way that will facilitate maximum achievement of organizations.

Organization:

It is a group of people who work together for a common goal. It also the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.

Sine qua non:

Is an essential condition, a thing that is absolutely necessary.

Patient:

This is a person who requires medical care.

Department:

This is a specialized division of a large organization, headed by Heads of departments.

Unit:

A Unit is smaller in size, and it is under department.

Management Staff:

This is the executive staff of an organization. They take leadership decisions.

Manipulative Staff:

Manipulative staff includes messengers, Cleaners, security workers, and workers from the horticultural unit. They are also known’s as miscellaneous staff.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This part is mainly concerned with the discussion of the findings of the analyzed data in chapter four. The discussion of the findings is organized and guided by five specific objectives such as to examine the benefits of time management and the consequences of poor time management, to identify the factors associated with poor time management and strategies for achieving organizational goals, and to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic and institutional variables on achieving overall organizational goals through time management in Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state.


5.2 Conclusion

This study assessed Time Management in at the Federal Medical Centre Jalingo, Taraba state. The researcher focused on the Federal Medical Centre as case study. The idea behind using the Centre is based on the fact they are dealing with patients with different kinds of diseases. Therefore, effective time management is necessary for promptly and timely service delivery. The researcher established a relationship between effective management and service delivery in the Centre.

During the study, the researcher deduced that effective service delivery is measured in relation to time management. Based on the summary of the major findings, it is appropriate to conclude that time is a valuable resource available to every organization and the challenge of time management seems to be a missing link in effective public service delivery in Nigeria. The findings of the study have revealed that management staff do not really appreciate the process of time management and consequently do not adopt its principles. It was also discovered that there are traces of time wastage by the staff in the study area during working hours. Government’s ministries, agencies, parastatals and offices should realize the importance of time management to their survival in this modern day of service delivery. In some organizations, especially large corporations, arrival time, services time and waiting time can be measured. This means that managing service delivery also means managing time, as effective time management reduces service failure. Therefore, employees should be encouraged and motivated to stick to their time management practices as a strategy for productivity and survival in a competitive environment.

The study has also revealed that time management behaviors were generally found to have a positive effect on perceived control of time, job satisfaction, stress reduction, job performance, employee productivity and health. All employees must treat time very carefully, because nothing affects the bottom-line of an organization more than time effectiveness of its people.

The benefits an organization will reap in future depend on what it does with its time now. Also, good leadership is the key to success, productivity and survival of any organization. The decisions and future of the organization lies at management level, but ensuring that decisions are made correctly and action is taken promptly lies on the individual’s time management (Adeojo, 2012). Better time management will improve employee productivity, make scheduling of jobs easier, make employee to perform tasks at their highest skill level, helping employee to prioritize and accomplish important task, recording and guiding the organization towards achieving its set goals.

The researcher therefore concludes that there is a link between time management and effective service delivery. The management of The Federal Medical Centre should realize the importance of time management for a better service delivery.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on findings, the following were recommended:

  1. Organizations such as the Federal Medical Centre should train their employees in systematic time management so that they can achieve productivity results in a progressive period of time. Staffs should be made to appreciate the process of time management practices and its principles through training and sensitization.
  2. Organizational records should be standardized formats to save time, and should include time management tools such as; time log, schedule and Gantt chart which help employees to manage their time effectively. There should be clear policies, rules and regulations for employees to save their time and prevent time WASTEDs. Employees at all levels should realize the time management practices and developed habits such as; setting goals, prioritized activities, using to do lists, delegation and avoid procrastination as a means of outperforming competitors.
  3. Proper time management also requires motivation in form of higher remuneration and conducive working environment. Motivation involves setting of time for the accomplishment of all activities by an organisation at all levels, adequate provisions for the attainment of the organizational goals, mechanism for monitoring the attainment of the time set, objective performance appraisal should be conducted at the expiration of the time, and a commensurate compensation and adequate sanction should be adopted for any employees that meet set target and those that failed.
  4. Leaders should also avoid procrastination because it is the most time killer. Whatever that needed to be done that will improve the performance of the organization should not be delayed. This will also reduce stress and last minute rush as people are judged with the manner they handle their services.

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