Assessment Of Teaching Method In Junior Secondary Schools
This research study aimed at assessing teaching methods in junior secondary schools in Ika south local government of Delta state. The study was undertaken to address the problem of poor performance by students in the junior secondary exams (Junior WAEC). Hence, there is need to identify and validate the strategies for improving the teaching in junior secondary schools. The instrument used was the questionnaire and the population comprised 150 staff and 50 junior secondary school students of 10 selected junior secondary schools. Data collected were analysed using frequencies and percentages. The major findings include: use of appropriate teaching aids; showing concern for students’ ability; use of demonstration; and individualizing instruction. Problems encountered by teachers include: inadequate provision of equipment and facilities; inadequate equipment for participation; not acquiring appropriate study materials. The following recommendations are made based on the findings: The government, schools and ministries should provide facilities, equipment and machines to aid in teaching and learning of business studies.
1.1 Background of the Study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According toAyeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.
The Federal Government of Nigeria since independence has been coming up with laudable educational policies, for instance, the 6-5-4 system of education, the Universal Primary Education (UPE), the Universal Basic Education (URE), the 6-3-3- 4 system of Education and others. Educational Policies were formulated to ensure that what is taught in schools relatcs to the national manpower needs of society. However, it was not until 1981 in the National Policy on Education (NPE) that pre-vocational subjects were included in the secondary school curriculum. The Natiunal Policy on Education (NPE) which established the 6-3-3-4 system of education states that after the first tier of secondary education which has two tiers – 3 years of junior and 3 years of senior secondary (3-3) that school leavers should acquire enough skills to make them easily employable after the first tier.
Akpan (199 1) defined teaching (strategies) techniques as the practice and rrfinement of presentation which a teacher uses to make his teaching more (effective) interesting when raising a specific method or teaching aid. According to Ukoha and Eneogwe (1996), strategies are processes adopted by veteran teachers to inject variety in their teaching, stimulate it and maintain the students’ interest in it. Therefore in order to avoid student’s lack of interest in business studies, they need to be well taught and motivated by using different strategies. Mornby (1998) defined strategy as a plan designed for particular purposes or the process of planning something or carrying out a plan in a skillful way. Nwachulwu (200 1)’ described teaching strategies as decisions about organizing students, materials and ideas to provide learning. That is, nays of approaching thestudents to get them interested and understand the subject. Therefore every teacher must devise a means or develop strategies with which he can reach out to students to learn and be interested in business studies. This also means that inany techniques should be employed for effectiveness of the lesson. Nwachukwu further states that teachers need to vary their teaching strategies in different classroom situations. Etuk (2000) asserted that use of a single approach causes boredom and discipline problems in the classroom. Offorlna (1994) maintained that teachers have to use different resources and teaching strategies to teach students of different abilities and interests. The teachers of business studies should try to make class activities interesting to the students. This can be done by identifying the needs and interests of the students and thereby incorporates them into the class activities.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been observed over the years that, despite the efforts of the government to revamp the educational sector and lay good foundations for junior secondary school students to have a smooth transition from the junior class into their chosen areas of interests in the senior class, students still perform below the expected threshold. This poor performance of students could be caused by various factors, however, the researcher intends to assess the various teaching methods adopted by junior secondary school teachers, to ascertain the impact of these methods on the ability of students to understand and invariably perform well in examinations.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The specific objective of this course is to assess teaching methods in junior schools. The general objectives are;
- To find out the various teaching methods adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools
- To ascertain the impact of teaching method on students’ academic performance.
- To find out the relationship between availability of teaching material and the teaching method adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: there is no relationship between availability of material and teaching methods adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools.
- Hi: there is a relationship between availability of material and teaching methods adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools.
- Ho: Teaching method does not affect students’ academic performance.
- Hi: Teaching method affects students’ academic performance.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to the government in planning and decision making. It will help in policy formulation, formulation and re-evaluation in the educational sector.
It will be useful to teachers as it will reveal more appropriate ways of teaching junior secondary school students.
It will also serve as a reference material to other researchers who intend to embark on this or similar topics.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is primarily concerned with assessment of teaching method in junior secondary schools. This study covers selected junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered.
Junior Secondary Schools:
Junior Secondary is a phase of education in state secondary schools for Years 7, 8 and 9, which helps to ensure the bridge between primary and secondary school is safe, strong and consistent for all students
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to have a critical analysis of teaching methods in junior secondary schools.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of poor academic performance of junior secondary school students.
This study aimed at having a critical analysis of teaching methods in junior secondary schools. Three objectives were raised to guide this study. These objectives include: To find out the various teaching methods adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools, to ascertain the impact of teaching method on students’ academic performance, to find out the relationship between availability of teaching material and the teaching method adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools.
Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn:
- Teaching method affects students’ academic performance.
- There is a relationship between availability of material and teaching methods adopted by teachers in junior secondary schools.
Based on the above findings, the student makes the following recommendations:
- Teachers should adopt simpler and easy methods to communicate their teachings to the students to enhance understanding.
- Teachers’ method of teaching should be flexible enough to accommodate various intelligence quotients of students from different backgrounds.
- Educational authorities should make policies and develop strategies that will enhance effective and efficient teaching in junior secondary schools.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is assessment in teaching?
Advice and tools for teachers to assess the progress of all learners and support more targeted teaching practices. Assessment is the ongoing process of: gathering, analysing and interpreting evidence making informed and consistent judgements to improve student learning.
How to design an effective school assessment?
The assessment methods should be designed in order to enable each student as self-evaluator by using methods and tools like self and peer evaluation methods. The ideal school assessment should not be narrowed in labelling students by giving those grades. The assessment should be a clear picture of the student achievement.
What are the assessment tools/methods applied?
The assessment tools/methods applied are described in the pedagogical programme of the school. The most frequently used tools of formative assessment are short oral tests, short written tests (taking 5-20 minutes) and the checking of written homework.
How can the teacher use self-assessment and peer assessment in teaching?
The teacher can use may be making also test the values and attitudes of the self-assessment and peer assessment to concept map, the children towards the given evaluate the works.