An Assessment Of Teachers Motivation And Attitude To Work Among Secondary School Teachers
Motivation represents an employee’s desire and commitment, which is manifested as job performance. That is, job in high motivation (intrinsic) and hygiene (extrinsic) factors leads to high performance and few complaints among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers motivation and their attitude to work in secondary schools; A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Yobe state. A descriptive research design which incorporated quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted to investigate motivation factors that influence teacher’s performance. A survey was carried out with 148 respondents including ordinary teachers, department teachers and head teachers in public secondary schools in Yobe state. In addition, in depth interviews were carried out with head teachers. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics of SPSS package. The study revealed that the motivation for persons to join the teaching profession was job security and absence of job alternatives but salary was a low consideration. The study further revealed that the majority of teachers were motivated by intrinsic factors, while a small percentage by extrinsic factors despite the fact that salary was inadequate. Furthermore, although not all extrinsic motivation factors (such as free meals, regular salary payment, leave of absence, free accommodation and weekly allowances) were available to teachers, the majority of teachers were concerned more about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs. The study recommends immediate increase the salary of secondary school teachers to match increases in the cost of living, provision of accommodation to teachers and strengthening of supervision. The study also suggests areas for research and these included but not limiting to investigation of innovative teachers’ motivation strategies, students’ satisfaction with relation to teachers’ performance and extension of the same study of other regions in Nigeria before generalization of results.
1.1 Background of Study
Teachers are very important in the developing the future of student and the academic sector in Nigeria. The teaching profession is one of the least respected professions in Nigeria today as it is the case in most developing countries of the world. Teachers from all ramifications are the builder of a nation hence they educate the youth that will later sustain the growth or the nation. This important role which the teachers play is not adequately compensated. If not for recently when the federal government had introduced some fringe benefits or remunerations such as the new salary structure called “elongated salary”, housing and transport, utility.
Rent and leave allowances for all workers in the country, teachers would have remained very poor. These remunerations are added incentives to motivate and encourage teachers to put in their best for a better attitude to work, which will lead to high productivity and efficiency. Unfortunately, these remunerations arc not so regularly paid to teachers as their counterparts in other employments. This usually leads to incessant strikes in the school system. According to Mbipom (2000:115), both staff and students have lost much time due to strikes for better conditions of service. Accordingly, as long as the hydra headed examination malpractice is around nobody seems to mind. The resultant effects arc found in the half-baked and ill-equipped product turn out from the school system annually.
On the other hand many teachers do not accept best attitude to work to enable them.
Teachers have little or no interest in their jobs and are not dedicated to their work anymore. This deteriorating trend in all work of human life is observed more in urban areas where the degree of sophistication seems to dedicate the evil pace.
Shagari (2002) observed that the attitude of Nigeria to work is the worst in the world and that if only every Nigerian is prepared to do an honest day’s work for an honest day’s pay, Nigeria would achieve wonders in every sphere of human endeavour.
Teaching which everybody recognizes as a noble profession since ages, has been the talk of the town, the average man in the street presently laments over apparent fall in standard of education in the our society which they usually attribute to the teachers attitude to work; because to poor attitude to work by teachers the standard of education is falling daily.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers are essential for developing the future of students. Achievement level of students is directly related with the effectiveness of teachers. But a main problem exists in the Public schools in Nigeria, due to which performance of students is declining. A large number of teachers are incoming and leaving in the Public schools. Due to this reason, teaching has become a revolving door occupation. Moreover, a large number of teachers are switching to other non-teaching jobs.
Due to this, shortage of competent teachers is happening. Schools are fulfilling these positions with ineffective teachers. This turnover of competent teachers and fulfilling of these vacant positions with inefficient teachers decrease the standard of instruction & due to low quality of instruction, student’s performance is declined. Excessive teacher’s turnover has a deep impact on the achievement level of students. This excessive turnover is capturing the attention of education research and development.
The main goal of educationalists is to know about the reasons of excessive teacher’s turnover. This problem is not only prevailing in Yobe State but also the same situation is prevailing in the other cities of Pakistan as well as in other countries. It is to this regard that the research desires to carry out an assessment of teachers’ motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers in Yobe State
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the research work is to carry out an assessment of teachers’ motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers in Yobe State.
The specific objectives of the study are:
- To determine the relationship between teacher’s motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers in Yobe State
- To find out whether the teachers in most public secondary schools in Yobe State are motivated
- To examine the whether the teachers in public secondary schools in Yobe State are satisfied with the type of motivation system used by the school
- Identify the type of intrinsic motivation available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary school in Yobe State.
1.4 Research Questions
From the objectives of the study, the following research questions shall guide the study:
- What is the relationship between teacher’s motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers in Yobe State?
- Are the teachers in most public secondary schools in Yobe State motivated?
- Are the teachers in public secondary schools in Yobe State satisfied with the type of motivation system used by the school?
- What are the intrinsic motivations available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary school in Yobe?
1.5 Significance of Study
The study on an assessment of teachers’ motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers will be of immense benefit to the entire public secondary schools in Yobe State in such a way that it will determine the relationship between teachers’ motivation and attitude to work. It will provide for an opportunity for enhancing job performance by understanding motivation determinant and actions involved in them so as to improve performance. The study will also service as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the teachers’ motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study on an assessment of teachers’ motivation and attitude to work among secondary school teachers will consider three (3) public schools (Army secondary school, government Girls College and government secondary school) in Yobe State. The study will cover on the relationship between teachers’ motivation and attitude to work
1.7 Limitation of Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The process of including or causing someone to behave in the most desired way in the aid of certain incentives.
This is the way in which something react under certain condition of fulfils the purpose for which it was intended.
This is the monetary compensation an employee receives of work done, condition of service, this is both the monetary and non-monetary compensation given to an employee.
This is a feeling of happiness or pleasure because you have achieved something or get what you want.
Is the rate at which goods are produce and the amount produce compared with the work, time and money needed to produce them
Conclusion and Recommendations
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivation factors that influence teachers’ performance in public secondary schools.
It can be concluded that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are considered important by teachers. However, those motivators that are presently offered to teachers in secondary schools appear not to have impact on teachers’ motivation level. In particular, teachers indicated even the extrinsic motivators such as salary and weekly duty allowance are inadequate to meet their basic needs.
Also not all motivators were available to teachers in studying public secondary schools in Yobe. However, the majority of the respondents were concerned about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs.
Thus the study found that extrinsic motivators were present to a small extent increased teachers’ morale to perform their duties at school. Overall the results imply that Intrinsic is a motivator and Extrinsic is a maintainer both affects performance of teachers in school.
In this research several issues of concern about the motivation of teachers and their performance in public secondary schools were identified. The following are recommendations to address them singly or separately.
First, the study revealed that salary level for teachers in studied public secondary schools was regarded to be below average income earner in Nigeria. The majority of teachers complained about the inadequacy of their salary levels not able to meet their basic needs in the face of increasing cost of living in Yobe state. This in lots of ways de-motivated teachers. The EVT in consultation with Teachers Representatives (CWT) should negotiate and set up an appropriate salary scale that is in tune with the current economic environment. This will not only ensure teachers get an adequate salary to meet at the basic needs but will also in many ways provide one of the important extrinsic motivation factors for teachers to increase their performance at schools.
Furthermore, the findings revealed a lot of other extrinsic motivational factors such as free meals, free accommodation, weekly allowance and access to advance payment in case of urgent teachers’ requirements were not available to teachers in most secondary schools. These have resulted in high levels of de-motivation to teachers. The EVT should increase the current teacher’s allowances in school and make them available to every school so that teachers will get motivated to go the extra mile to work hard and improve students’ performance. Accommodation needs to be provided to teacher to enable them live near schools since most of them reported to be living far away from their schools as they search for cheap accommodation. This would reduce lateness and absenteeism at school. It will also enable teachers to stay extra hours after school to give extra coaching to weak students and/or complete the set syllabus on time.
The study further revealed that although extrinsic motivational factors were important, teachers emphasized intrinsic motivation such as recognition for achievement, being given more responsibility, work environment and personal growth in terms of training and development were what they needed for sustained motivation. Thus, the heads of school should incorporate these motivation practices/tools in school management to enable teachers to be sustainable motivated and keep their performance at a high level.
The research also noted there is poor or little internal and external supervision. Teachers do what they please and as a result the standard at school have dropped to an alarming low level.The supervision by MoEVT should strengthen and a circuit of supervisors be appointed to do a routine inspection in schools to stop teachers from participating in secondary employment or not taking their work seriously. This will motivate teachers to be more regular and arrive early at school and avoid divided attention of searching for side employment. Their performance will also improve.
The study also revealed that there is inadequate or absence of teaching materials for teachers as well as for student learning. This has resulted in teachers teaching outside the syllabus and thus not able to prepare students well for their national examination. The MoEVT in conjunction with Regional Education Authorities should supply each school with relevant and adequate study and teaching materials. This will ensure students across all schools in the country are taught what in the syllabus and get them better prepared for national examinations. This will also motivate teachers to teach students within the syllabus and complete the relevant materials on time.
Lastly, one of the key intrinsic motivation factors for teachers is professional training and development. This was noted to be lacking in studied public secondary schools and demotivated teachers who wanted to advance their career in education. MoEVT should develop a national training and development policy and award programs based on performance, to enable teachers to upgrade their knowledge and skills. This will encourage them not only national competition among teachers but will also motivate them for high performance.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does motivation influence teachers’ poor attitude to work?
All these poor attitude to work by teachers is a consequence of poor motivation from the government and educational managers. cannot be achieved in situations characterized by teachers’ poor attitude. This study has been taken to find out the influence of motivation on work performance.
What motivates teachers to become teachers?
Teacher motivation was as a result of the developmental factors. The study recommended that school managers to sponsor teachers to workshops and seminars in order to motivate them. Schools management should work towards improving the teaching and learning environment. from public secondary schools to more lucrative jobs.
What is the importance of job satisfaction and motivation to teachers?
The importance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the development of education and personnel’s in the educational industry. In line with this, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life (Ololube, 2005).
What are the implications of not motivating teachers in developing countries?
Some studies conducted in developing also showed that teachers were not properly paid, and consistently promoted. Some head teachers ignore their teachers during decision ma king. Some studies made efforts to reveal the implications of not motivating teachers. The main purpose of this chapter is to describe the design and methodology of the study.