Assessment Of The State Of Ground Water (Borehole And Well Water) And It’s Health Implications
The quality of water sources and its potential health implications to health populations of respective major communities in Warri metropolis was assessed. Water samples (n D 10/water source/site) were collected from three (Uvwie, Udu and Effurun) communities and heavy metal concentrations (Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), and Zinc (Zn)) were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Overall, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Co was higher than drinking water guidelines, while only Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn were within the permissible limits. The estimated average daily intake (EADI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) were used to determine risk implications for adult and children consumer populations. The EADI for Pb in adults for borehole water, Pb and Cr by child consumer population for borehole and shallow well water exceeded the reference dose (RfD) by USEPA. The THQ for adult population were >1 for Pb in borehole water and >1 for Pb and Cr across all sites for the child consumer population. Overall, our findings indicate toxicity and higher hazard risk for both adult (Pb) and children (Pb and Cr) populations that source drinking water from borehole and shallow well water in these communities.
Table Of Content
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Groundwater
- 2.3 Impacts Of Consuming Contaminated Water
3.0 Materials And Methods
- 3.1 Sample-Site Description
- 3.2 Sample Collection And Analysis
- 3.3 Sample Analysis
- 3.4 Risk Assessment
- 3.5 Target Hazard Quotient
- 3.6 Statistical Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussions
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
The availability of wholesome and safe sources of drinking water currently constitutes one of the major challenges faced by developing countries, and could largely be attributed to the inability of governments to provide sufficient sources of pipe-borne water for poor and rural communities (Conway et al. 2009; Ngoran et al. 2015; Bain et al. 2012; Hutton and Bartram 2008). In the event of government failure to provide infrastructure, most affected communities have resorted to the indiscriminate exploitation of ground water through water wells created by both artisanal and mechanized means (Barrow 2016; Omole 2013). Shallow water wells which are broadly described as man-made excavations constructed for the purpose of sourcing water from, or monitoring the underground water system (Gronwall et al. 2010), could either be shallow-type or borehole (deep) type. Shallow wells which are hand-dug and are only a few meters deep (between 5 and 30 m depending on soil type) are common in the slums areas, and water is hand-drawn from the vast majority of them. They are the open type, lacking brick or stone walls at the sides, with others having a lining and a covered construction (Gronwall et al. 2010). On the other hand, boreholes are deep type of well (between 40 and 400 m deep depending on soil type), constructed by a drilling machine, and are characterized by a narrow hole in the ground to gain access to the ground water system (Gronwall et al. 2010).
More than 300 million sub-Saharan Africans lack access to improved water for domestic use, and approximately 550 million lack accesses to improved sanitation (Bain et al. 2012; Hutton and Bartram 2008). This amounts to 40% and 70%, respectively, of the total population and the lack of access among rural populations is considerably higher, exacerbating the public health crisis. Other reports have also attributed this enormous pressure and demand for safe drinking water in developing countries to the alarming rate of population explosion (Dom`enech and Saur´ı 2011; McClain 2013). Although natural phenomena like global climate change, and geological profile have contributed to the reduced quality and quantity of exploitable water resources (Turner 2004; Ngaira 2009; Ngoran et al. 2015), increased industrial activity and unabated incidences of water pollution have significantly contributed to the unwholesomeness of available water resources (Adeogun et al. 2011, 2012; Ngaira 2009). Documentary evidence has shown that not only do a large proportion of the urban poor depend directly on groundwater, but this option has become essential for those who are not served by the public utility, and for those who need to complement an inadequate supply received via the household connection (Gr€onwall et al. 2010). As such, sourcing water from aquifers via different kinds of wells is a local, small-scale method used and have become widespread where hydrogeological and other factors allow (Gr€onwall et al. 2010). Unfortunately, shallow wells have also been demonstrated to be susceptible to contamination via direct leaching of pollutants into underground water or via the hydrological cycle through connectivity with contaminated surface water (Gilliom et al. 2006; Obiri-Danso et al. 2009; Ukpong and Okon 2013).
The concept of groundwater vulnerability which infers that some land areas are more vulnerable to groundwater contamination than others, is based on the assumption that a num- ber of factors including higher inﬁltration amount of precipitation, highly depleted protective cover, complex land use activity, poor water abundance and extensive groundwater exploitation (Gilliom et al. 2006; Hamilton et al. 2004; Guo et al. 2016). Other reports also document that lithological factors, i.e., soil proﬁle and geological proﬁle if present may provide some degree of protection (referred to as the barrier zone) with regard to contami- nants entering the subsurface water (groundwater resource) (Guo et al. 2016). As such, groundwater could become unsafe and unﬁt for human use, thus constituting a serious health risks to unsuspecting consumer communities (Taylor et al. 2009).
Heavy metals constitute a class of contaminants of concern released from different natu- ral and anthropogenic sources, and can inﬁltrate interfaces and matrices in the environment (Davutluoglu et al. 2011; Don-Pedro et al. 2004). Therefore, human health risks associated with heavy-metals contamination and their increased levels in the environment, has informed various research efforts into the health implications associated with increasing heavy metal levels in potential drinking water sources (Ab Razak et al. 2015; Duan et al. 2011; Maigari et al. 2016). Several methods which demonstrate the potential risks of contaminated food and water to human health via oral route, have been based on estimated average daily intake (EADI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) (Jerome and Chukwuka 2016; Moses and Etuk 2015; Muhammad et al. 2011). The THQ-based risk assessment method provides a valid and useful indication of the risk level associated with pollutant exposure (Jerome and Chukwuka 2016; Wang et al. 2012).
Like many suburban and rural communities in Nigeria, communities in Delta state are devoid of pipe-borne water supply. As such the increased direct exploitation of ground water in addition to other factors (e.g., land use activity in the study area, increased precipitation, evolution of Precambrian basement complex of the southern area of Nigeria into fractured and more permeable rocks), which increase groundwater vulnerability to contaminants (Piscopo 2001; Ekwueme 2003; Guo et al. 2016), are potent reasons to be concerned about the state of ground water in the area. The limited available information on the quality of alternative water sources currently being harnessed for drinking and domestic use in the area, highlights global concerns on the quality of water available to vulnerable populations including children.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Water indeed is an essential component of life (Osunkiyesi, 2012). The need for water in the day to day activities of man include for cooking, washing, drinking and for industrial activities (Akpoborie et al, 2008). For the chemist therefore the quality of water is very important to ensure that it is potable for drinking (Agbazue, 2008). Two major sources of water whose quality are assessed by chemists are the surface (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes) and ground waters (wells, boreholes). The reason is that surface waters are prone to contamination because it was reported that surface waters are generally poor in quality (Okeola et. al, 2010). Ground waters on the other hand are more reliable for domestic and agricultural irrigation needs (Okeola et al, 2010; Haruna et al, 2008 and Shymala et al, 2008). In fact a study revealed that well waters are the main source of water in Akure, Ondo state (Ogundele, 2010), an indication of how people generally desire this kind of water source for use in their daily activities especially as surface water is not accessible to some communities. Due to run offs into groundwater, they also tend to experience some level of contamination owing to leaching from waste dumps and industries (Mahananda et al , 2010).
Owing to lack of potable water in most rural areas in Nigeria, the people tend to depend on streams and river water for domestic use and other activities (Shittu et al, 2008).
The contamination of these water sources comes from different sources in the environment. They include effluents from industries, abattoir activities and pesticides (Iornumbe and Onah , 2008) and from animal faecal discharges into surface and ground waters due to washing by rain falls (Oko, 2008). One sure way by which information on the quality of water could be conveyed to those concerned is by using suitable indices (Dwivedi and Pathak, 2007).The water quality index is a single value obtained from large number of variables in a sample (Shultz, 2001). It summarizes data into terms that can be described as excellent, good, bad and so on for the purpose of reporting to recognized bodies or organizations and to the public on the state of water in a place (Barti and Kartyal, 2011). Various methods have been employed to determine the water quality index but the most commonly employed is the Weighted Arithmetic Index (WAI) method.
Dug wells (46.6%), streams (1.80%) and water vending (37%) (Ishaku et al, 2010).The level of adequacy of the water was rated 28.38% as against 71.64% inadequacy. Inhabitants rely mostly on boreholes, vended water and hand-dug wells as sources for drinking water and for other domestic activities and because of this inadequacy, households are necessitated to collect waters in plastic containers or metal tanks for storage so they can use when the need arises. Against this background this study is aimed at assessing the state of ground water (borehole and well water) and its health implications in Warri metropolis using Uvwie, Udu and Effurun Local Government Area.
1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
This study is aimed at assessing the state of ground water (borehole and well water) and potential human health implications to selected communities (Uvwie, Udu and Effurun Local Government Area) in Warri metropolis, Delta.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
This study has demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, and Co) in well and borehole water samples commonly consumed in Udu, Ugaga, and Okpoma exceeded the National and international drinking water guidelines suggesting that this water sources are contaminated and considered unsafe for human consumption. The potential human health risk assessment by evaluating the estimated average daily intake (EADI) and the targeted hazard quotient (THQ) for the child and adult populations indicated that adult population at Udu consuming borehole water are at risk of Pb toxicity, while the child population at Udu, Uvwie, and Effurun consuming borehole and shallow well water are at risk of Pb and Cr toxicity. It is also worthy of note that in spite of the relative safety alluded to boreholes due to their relative depth, this study also demonstrated significant metal concentrations in water samples from shallow wells and boreholes.
Since ground water quality issues are receiving widespread attention, in-depth and more extensive studies that provide information on groundwater vulnerability is recommended for the effective protection and management of groundwater quality.
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