Assessment Of Sexual Risk Behavior On Academic Performance Among Senior Secondary School Students In Ikpoba Okha LGA

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Assessment Of Sexual Risk Behavior On Academic Performance Among Senior Secondary School Students In Ikpoba Okha LGA


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine sexual risk behavior on academic performance among senior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha LGA, Edo State.The study was specifically set to determine the level of students involvement in sexual risk behavior, ascertain the forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students, determine whether there is a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance and determine the consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some selected senior secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that the level of students’ involvement in sexual risk behavior is high.Furthermore the result of the findings reveals thatthe forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students in Indiscriminate sexual intercourse includes: Unprotected sex, Multiple sex partners, Anal Sex and Oral sex. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should ensure effective implementation of the sex education policy in all learning institutions to enable learners cope with their reproductivehealth issues effectively without compromising their academic performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Teenage sexual behavior is a major concern; this is not only to the African government, but across the world. Parents, religious leaders and society in general are equally concerned about this phenomenon. This is because of the implications of young learners sexual behaviour on education and the health of teenagers. The adolescent stage among teenagers is a period of turmoil marked with enormous vibrancy, discovery, innovation and hope and also the time when many of them initiate sexual relationships and involvement (Kirby, 2012). This can be a challenging time for young people (Kim, Sheridan & Holcomb, 2009) who often engage in risky sexual behaviours (Linbee, 2000). According to (Neman 2014), student sexual behavior evinced by the disquieting statistics indicated massive school drop outs resulting from teenage pregnancies, abortions, HIV/AIDS infections, STI transmissions and death. These consequently resulted in a myriad of social, health and academic problems, low education attainment or dropping out of school. Several studies in Sub-Saharan Africa have also documented high and increasing premarital sexual activities among adolescents (Ochieng‘, 2013). In the last three decades, a substantialincrease has been observed in the proportion of adolescents who engaged in sexual activity while at school (Kirby, 2012).

Studies however have found negative associations between teenage sexual activity with academic outcomes at secondary school that are not explained by prior confounding influences. A few studies found longitudinal associations between sexual debut and declined academic performance in US secondary school students (Sprigs & Halpern, 2008). Sexual debut before age 16 was associated with decreased early adulthood participation in tertiary education (sprigs & Halpern, 2008). Madkour, (2010), conducted a comparative study of five countries (Scotland, Finland, France, Poland and United States). They asserted that sexual activities among adolescents have been reported to be increasing worldwide. They concluded that early sexual activity is a risk behavior that is inversely associated to school attachment and academic performance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Social scientists have extensively examined the relationships between adolescents’ sexual behaviour and educational attainment. There are a number of reasons why early initiation of sexual activity might lead directly to lower levels of academic achievements. Evidence suggests that the typical teenager spends a bulk of time thinking about or in the company of the opposite sex (Richards et al. 1998) and he/she is subjected to emotional turmoil, possibly subtracting time from academic pursuits (Rector and Johnson 2005). Moreover, sexual intercourse at young age can distract adolescents to school achievements through unintended health consequences of becoming sexually active, such as the higher risk of unplanned pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases (Rector et al. 2003). Other risk behaviours associated with early sexual intercourse are substance use and greater affiliation with deviant peers, which could lead to develop minor deviance (Bingham and Crockett 1996; Rees et al. 2001). Research on adolescent sexual activity found that teenagers involved in romantic relationships were more likely to experience depression than those who did not become romantically involved.

A possible explanation of the link between poor mental health and young age at first sexual intercourse may rely on the fact that individuals who initiate early may not be adequately prepared for negative health potential consequences, such as unintended pregnancies or sexually transmitted diseases, and neither have the emotional skills and maturity to cope with romantic relationship breakup (Larson et al. 1999; O’Donnell et al. 2001; Meier 2003). The observed associations suggest that adolescents who engage in sexual intercourse at young ages and have multiple partners might undergo negative social and health changes which, in turn, may lead to reduced interest in academic achievement.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study seek to assess sexual risk behavior on academic performance among senior secondary school students. The study will specifically;

  1. Determine the level of students involvement in sexual risk behavior.
  2. Ascertain the forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students.
  3. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance.
  4. Determine the consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the level of students’ involvement in sexual risk behavior?
  2. What are the forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance?
  4. What are the consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Teenage sexual behavior has been a major concern to Ministries of Education and Health on cases related to pregnancies, STI and HIV and AIDS leading to poor academic performance. The findings of the study will be used by the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health teachers and parents to be more sensitive and supportive to teenagers in the approach of providing relevant information on human sexuality, abstinence and contraceptive use and risks or irresponsible sexual behaviuor. Further the Ministry of Education may use findings from this study to strengthen policies on sex education among teenagers in both primary and secondary schools.

The study may also help teachers to establish a more conducive and understanding environment for teenagers to open up on challenges affecting them about their sexual behavior. This may also help teachers to approach students‘ problems with sobriety and steer affected students to excellence in academics. The study may prompt parents to be more keen and open to share vital information on sexual behavior with their teenagers. The extent of teenage sexual behavior and contraceptive use may also awaken parents and teachers to seriously and collectively work together on guidance and counseling of students. The study findings will also contribute to filling the gap in knowledge concerning the teenage sexuality and academic performance and contribute to the general pool of knowledge on this subject.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study is structured to focus on sexual risk behavior on academic performance among senior secondary school students. The study will also figure out the level of students involvement in sexual risk behavior, ascertain the forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students, and the consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Hence, this study will be carried out in some selected senior secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Students‘ fear of providing responses on their sexual activities limits their participation in the study. Since teenage sexual behaviors are sensitive issues, the researcher established good relationship with the students, assured them of confidentiality and that their opinion werebasically for academic research. Another limitation for this particular study was time. In addition to saving time and cost, this has the added benefit of reducing survey fatigue among respondents and give adequate time for report preparation. This issue was enhanced through use of an effective work plan of activities developed and strictly adhered to. Furthermore, the study required enormous finances in order to develop a good report since the researcher was self-sponsored. Data collection is typically one of the most expensive aspects of a research study. According to Bamberger et al., (2006), one of the best ways to lessen data collection costs are to reduce the amount of data collected therefore, this study collected only what was necessary for the study purpose and the information was limited to the stated objectives, indicators and assumptions in the log frame.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teenage Sexual Behavior

Refers to sexual expression and relationships of individuals aged between 13 to 19 years. It includes dating, committed relationships, intercourse, kissing, and petting.

Risky Sexual Behaviour

Risky sexual behaviour refers to the kind of behaviour that can result in negative consequences for a person’s health or a negative effect arising from one’s attitude towards sexual activities such risky behaviours include alcohol consumption (heavy drinking), smoking, illegal drug use, unsafe sexual practices, multiple sex partner, illegal behaviours and dangerous driving.

Academic Performance

Refers to the extent to which a student has achieved their educational goals. Students‘ performance is usually measured interms of grades/scores. The quality of grades such as A‘s and B‘s are indicator of good academic performance while lower grades signifies poor academic performance.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of sexual risk behavior on academic performance among senior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha LGA, Edo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine sexual risk behavior on academic performance among senior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha LGA, Edo State. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the level of students involvement in sexual risk behavior, ascertain the forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students, determine whether there is a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance and determine the consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents of some selected senior secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of students’ involvement in sexual risk behavior is high.
  2. The forms of sexual risk behavior common among secondary school students in
  3. Indiscriminate sexual intercourse includes: Unprotected sex, Multiple sex partners, Anal Sex and Oral sex.
  4. There is a significant relationship between sexual risk behaviors and students academic performance.
  5. The consequences of sexual risk behaviors that affects the academic performance of students in secondary schools includes: STDs, HIV, Unwanted pregnancy, Unsafe abortion and Death.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The Government should ensure effective implementation of the sex education policy in all learning institutions to enable learners cope with their reproductive health issues effectively without compromising their academic performance.
  2. The government should set up youth centers with afree environment where the teenagers can easily ask questions, gain information and easily access contraceptives from health providers away from adults.
  3. The sex crazed adolescents especially male folk (boys) require the assistance of wellmeaning adults, counseling psychologists, social workers, teachers, parents and stake holders who are genuinely committed to their successful development.
  4. There is urgent need for counseling services to be in secondary schools because adolescents attitude towards sex has a significant influence on the danger and spread of STIs especially HIV/AIDS.

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