Assessment Of Science Teachers’ Level Of Use Of ICT In Some Selected Secondary School In Osun West Educational District Office
Background to the Study
Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community (Wikipedia, 2013). Science education in Nigeria concentrates on the teaching of science concepts, method of teaching and addressing misconceptions held by learners regarding science concepts (Aina, 2013). Science education is very important to the development of any nation that is why every nation take it very serious in all institutions of learning. Many of the developed worlds were able to achieve so much in science and technology because of science education. Science education comprises three subjects namely Biology, Chemistry and Physics which are combined with education and over the year (American Journal of Educational Research, 2013).
Effective education in science disciplines can be achieved through proper teaching and learning with adequate relevant and effective instructional materials such as the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices (Jongur, Mahammed &Abba 2008). The full meaning of ICT is Information and Communication Technologies. ICT is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store and manage information. These technologies include computer, the internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television) and telephone Adamu (2004).
Agommuoh (2015) further observed that the use of ICT in teaching science will make learning more real, relevant and experimental as large amount of data and materials on any topic can be brought to the classroom from all over the world thereby, greatly facilitating the acquisition and absorption of knowledge and offering science teachers’ unprecedented opportunities to enhance their teaching. From the foregoing, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is rapidly transforming the world into a global village and science education is one of the beneficiaries of this global revolution in teaching and learning process using Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the process of utilizing information and data dissemination through electronic facilities such as computers, videos, radios and phones. It has become one of the basic innovations of modern society. Many countries now regard its scope and concept as very crucial in education. This is because it adds value to the process of the learning and to the organization and administration of learning institutions. It encompasses different types of technologies, which are utilized for capturing, processing and transmitting data and information using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) gadgets. It is an umbrella term that include communication devices or applications encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer system networks, hardware and software, satellite system and as well as the various service and application associated with them (Kumar, 2016). Thus, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) focuses generally in the application of these new technologies: in an educational context, environment and service as a tool for supporting the various components of education. Such components includes among other, teaching and learning, resources management (human materials, financial resources), admission and examination process and learning assessment.
Gender disparity can also be seen in the area of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Wajcman (2006) observed that many feminists believe that western technology embodies patriarchal values. Wajcman(2006) further argued that most women are reluctant to go into technology because of the sex-stereotyped definition of technology as an activity appropriate for men. In her words: As with science, the very language of technology, its symbolism, is masculine. It is not simply a question of acquiring skills, because these skills are embedded in a culture of masculinity that is largely coterminous with the culture of technology therefore, to enter this world, women have to first forsake their femininity.
The digital divide is actually several gaps. There is a gender divide, with women and girls enjoying less access to information technology (ICT) than men and boys (Kofi, 2013). Sanda and Kurfi (2015) also reiterated that despite the much emphasis placed on the use of ICTs in Nigeria, women are usually under represented in terms of access and use to Information and Communication Technology (ICT). They also observed that though women play a pivotal role in the development of their societies, yet their impact has been silenced in this new technology due to lack of access and the necessary skills for the operation. Fenwick (2014) in Mahmood and Bokhari (2012) showed that gender inequity persists both in access to and experience of learning opportunities with ICT. Ware and Stuck (2013) cited in Mahmood and Bokhari (2012) are of the opinion that stereotypical male images found in computing magazines acted as deterrents for female involvement in technologies. Similarly, Withers (2016) cited in Mahmood and Bokhari (2012) believes that gender and ICT interact in complex ways but in the aggregate, females are much less likely to participate in ICT courses, careers and leadership. Since ICT in recent times is gradually replacing the traditional teacher- centered teaching and learning environment in education; and emphasis has shifted from the teacher to the learner, it becomes imperative that both male and female teachers adopt the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in facilitating learning.
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)in education in most countries concentrates on routine type tasks, like sporadic and mechanical information retrieval from the internet. Teachers have high expectation for using computers in their classrooms, this is because Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can make science teaching and learning more versatile, promote co-operation, study in authentic contexts and creativity in learning (Knezek & Meisalo, 2006). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be used as an effective strategy in the process of teaching and learning. Science teachers with more experience in computers have greater confidence in their ability to use computer effectively. Teachers competence relate directly to confidence. Teachers’ confidence also relate to the perceptions of their ability to use computers in the classroom, particularly in relation to their student’s perceived competence. Many teachers who do not consider themselves to be well skilled in using ICT feel anxious about using it in front of a class of students. On the other hand, teachers who confidently use computers in the classrooms understand the usefulness of ICT (Balanskat, 2016).
Statement of the Problem
The problems of the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices in teaching and learning process in Nigeria hinge around a number of factors. It includes: non-availability of fund, materials, among others. These can be further described as problems of acquisition or supply of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) instructional materials and equipment, irresponsible and lip-service attitudes of government and the general society towards science education, problems arising from the technical and abstract nature of science teaching and learning concepts, epileptic power supply, inadequate financing of science/technology education, shortage of teachers in quality and quantity, inadequate textbooks, insufficient time in the school timetable due to other competing subjects as well as family background and gender issues.
There are many new changes and challenges that science teachers’ face, and are required to adapt to. Included in this are modern and westernized approach from schools; new methods of teaching and learning, an increase in student numbers, and most importantly an explosion in the development of teaching with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). There is substantially less research which focuses on the role which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays in creating and promoting a more interactive educational environment, as part of teaching and learning.
Many researches have been carried out on assessment of science teachers’ level of use of ICT in some selected secondary school in Osun West educational district office of Osun State, Nigeria. This includes Aberdeen (2014) wrote on science teachers’ ICT skills and knowledge need in Scotland reported that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is relatively low and is focused on a fairly narrow range of ICT. The use of ICT and Word-processing is predominantly in primary and secondary schools. There is very little use of the Internet and WWW or e-mail by either primary or secondary teachers. Resources such as video conferencing and network computer conferencing are rarely used. The study further revealed that primary teachers use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) primarily to support classroom practice; secondary teachers use it as much or more for professional development and personal use as in the classroom. Regarding the use of ICT in specific subjects, Primary school teachers used ICT for about 2 hours a week on average, in language, science, Mathematics, and Arts. Secondary school teachers, however, used ICT less frequently in Mathematics (about 1 hour a week on average).
Ong and Lai (2014) carried out research on the differences across genders in the perception and relationships toward acceptance of e-learning control. Their results indicated that male teachers surpassed female teachers in the use of ICT gadgets in the teaching science subjects. Moreover, females were more influenced in their perceptions towards implementing ICT, while the decisions of implementing ICT among males were more influenced by self-perception regarding the usefulness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study suggested that researchers should take into account the factors of gender in developing and examining ICT. In addition, it addresses the effect of gender on perceiving ICT in particular.
Also, Murphy (2015) carried out research on the role of ICT in teaching and learning. Murphy reported that using technology in the classroom motivates students, encourages them to become problem solvers, and creates new avenues to explore information. Technologies that provide interactivity, learner control, and teachers engagement are a natural choice for improving. When used properly, technology is extremely beneficial in the learning process.
To the best knowledge of these researchers, no study have been carried out on the assessment of science teachers’ level of use of ICT in some selected secondary school in Osun West educational district office of Osun State, Nigeria. This is the gap that this study intends to fill.
Purpose of the Study
The present study focused on the assessment of science teachers’ level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in some selected secondary school in Osun west Educational district office of Osun State. Specifically, the study determined:
- Science teachers level of use of ICT in teaching science.
- Influence of gender on science teachers level of use of ICT in teaching science.
- Influence of teaching experience on science teachers level of use of ICT in teaching
- What are the science teachers’ levels of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching science?
- What is the influence of gender on the science teachers’ level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)?
- What is the influence of teaching experience on the science teachers’ level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)?
To guide the study, two null hypotheses were formulated and were be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
- H01: There is no significant difference in male and female science teachers’ level of use of ICT in teaching science subjects.
- H02: There is no significant difference in the level of use of ICT in teaching science subjects by experienced and less experienced teachers
Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the level of use of ICT by male and female science teachers’ in Osun west educational district. The study was be limited to secondary schools in ten local Government of Osun west educational district. Which were selected through random sampling technique.
Significance of the Study
It is considered that the research is potentially of considerable importance to the, administrators, government, teachers, students and parents.
ICT play the role of diminishing of burden of the administration of the school, hence there will be the prevalence of a more effective as well as interacted flow of information among teacher, students and non-teaching staff. ICT is also considered vital to the success and improvement of the school. It is facilitating administration activities from data storage to knowledge management and decision making.
The State Government will be able to device a means of helping the science teachers to improve in their academic achievement by organizing individual instructions to improve the teaching and learning in the classroom. ICT tools can be very useful in promoting greater government transparency and citizen participation in education.
The study is expected to help science teachers’ to develop new thinking skills which may transfer to different situations that require analysis and comprehension skills. ICT serves important tools to help meet such increased needs, by helping to provide access to more and better educational content. It also provide models and simulations of effective teaching.
The study serves as benefit for the students by encouraging them to become problem solvers, and creates new avenues to explore information. To the students when ICT tools is integrated with lessons, students are expected to more interested in the subjects they are studying. It provides different opportunities to make learning more fun and enjoyable in terms of teaching same things in new ways. It encourage a more active participation in the learning process which can be hard to achieve through a traditional lecture environment.
ICT tools create reliable communication channel between school and home to communicate with families about school programme and students progress.
Clarification of Terms and Variables
A person trained to teach science subjects. E.g Biology, Chemistry, Physics e.t.c.
Level of Use ICT: This is the degree of use of information and communication technology and can be categorized into three namely: frequently used, seldomly used and not used.
However, it is sometime refers to either masculine or feminine i.e male or female.
Teaching Experience: It has to do with the knowledge or skill acquired in teaching profession. It is determined by the number of years that the teachers spent in the teaching profession.
It has to do with the knowledge acquired by teachers who have spent 10 years and above in the teaching profession.
The knowledge or skill acquired by teachers who have spent a period of 5-10 years in the teaching profession.
It has to do with knowledge acquired by the teachers who have spent less than 5 years.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the discussion of the results, conclusions and recommendations based on the findings of the research.
This work focused on Assessment of Science Teachers’ Level of Use of ICT in Some Selected Secondary Schools in Osun West Educational District Office of Osun State, Nigeria. Based on the results of the findings, it was discovered that:
Table 4 revealed that internet service is frequently use with 146 respondents representing 91.25% indicated, 9 respondents representing 5.63% indicated that internet service is seldomly used for teaching science subjects while 5 respondents representing 3.12% observed that they do not use internet service for teaching science subjects. Also, computer is frequently used for teaching science subjects with 132 respondents representing 82.50%, 20 respondents representing 12.5% revealed that they do seldomly used computer for teaching science subjects while eight respondents representing 5% indicated that they do not used computer for teaching science subjects.
Furthermore, tablets is frequently use with 130 respondents representing 81.25% as being indicated by the respondents, 27 respondents representing 16.88% revealed that camera is seldomly use for teaching science subjects while 3 respondents representing 1.87% revealed that they do not used camera for the teaching science subject. Meanwhile, presentation clicker is frequently use with 24 respondents representing 15% for the teaching of science subjects, 30 respondents representing 18.75% indicated that presentation clicker is seldomly use while 22 respondents representing 66.25% revealed that presentation clicker were not used. Also, 22 respondents representing 13.75% indicated that close circuit television is frequently used, 28 respondents representing 17.5% revealed that close circuit television is seldomly use while 110 respondents representing 68.75% indicated that close circuit television is not used. Furthermore, interactive white boards is frequently use with 20 respondents representing 12.50% as being indicated by the respondents, 69 respondents representing 43.13% revealed that interactive white boards is seldomly use for teaching science subjects while 71 respondents representing 44.37% revealed that they do not used interactive white boards for the teaching science subject. This contradict with the findings by Adeyemi (2011) who posited that the level of ICT utilization in secondary schools is not frequently use because most of the schools were not adequately equipped with the modern information and communication technologies facilities that would aids effective teaching and learning by the teachers and students respectively. This finding is also similar to the finding of Olayemi and Omotayo (2012) and Lazarus (2013) who found out that ICT utilization are recognized to have impact on the activities of teaching and learning. Result on the level of use of information and communication technology in teaching science subjects is in strong conformity with the work of Afzaal (2012) who found out that ICTs utilization help administrators perform school duties effectively. According to Zain (2004), ICTs utilization helps school administrators perform school duties effectively. Information and communication technology can make the school more efficient and productive through effective management of manpower resources and adequate provision of conducive environment.
It was revealed among other that there is no significant difference in teachers’ level of use of ICT in teaching science subjects based on gender. Male teachers’ level of use of information and communication technologies in the teaching of science subjects cannot be differentiated because it has been established based on the outcome of this study that both teacher level of use of ICT in the teaching science subject are same but different using different methods of teaching. Daniels (2012) opined that male teacher level of ICTs usage has become a thing a worry to that of female teachers because male teachers uses the information and communication technology very well and effective than their female counterpart. UNESCO (2012) posited that information and communication technology (ICT) may be regarded as the combination of ‘Informatics technology’ with other related technology, specifically communication technology. Matz (2013) opined that information and communication technology (ICT) has become one of the basic building blocks of modern society irrespective of gender affiliation. The radical technological transformation in both developed and developing countries has made pervasive impacts on various segments. Abdulla (2012) observed that ICT has the potential to transform the nature of education: where and how learning takes place and the role of students and teachers in the learning process. Karim and Hassan (2010) opined that the exponential growth in digital information, which changes the way students perceive study and reading and in how printed materials are used to facilitate study.
Finally, Table 3 shows that there was significant difference in teachers’ level of use of ICT in teaching science subjects based on experience. The implication of the findings is that experience science teachers’ level of use of information and communication technology is greater than less experience science teachers. Information and communication technology (ICT) enables teachers to demonstrate understanding of the opportunities and implications of the uses for learning and teaching in the curriculum context, plan, implement, and manage learning and teaching in open and flexible learning environment irrespective of their experience. Information and communication technology also facilitates enhanced learning in subject areas and learning at home on one’s own, and these require the use of new tools like modelling, simulation, and use of database. Finding on teachers’ level of use of ICT in teaching science subjects based on experience confirmed the finding that corroborates that of Cabero (2011) who opined that the integration of ICT into teaching and learning processes contributes to increase the interaction and reception of information; giving way to new scenarios which favour both individual and collaborative learning irrespective of teachers’ experience on the usage of information and communication technology. Adomi and Kpangban (2010) described ICT as electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. Adeyemi (2010) described ICT as consisting of computer hardware, software, networks and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information.
Based on the result of the finding which was stemmed from the data collected and analyse, the following conclusions were drawn.
- Science teachers’ level of use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching science subjects was frequently used. The implication of this result is that teachers’ makes use of information and communication technologies in impacting knowledge to the science students so that effective learning can be impacted thereby reflecting on their academic performance. The importance of the level of use of ICT in promoting effective teaching of science subjects and the benefits of the level of use in the teaching of science subjects cannot be underrated. It has been revealed that its level of use by the science subject teachers will promote collaborative developmental efforts through information sharing process. The study has demonstrated that ICT can be used successfully to teach science subjects, that ICT contribute to student’s academic performance and that the use of ICT should be an integral part of the science teacher’s teaching plan. ICT on its own would not lead to successful learning, but with the teacher’s active involvement.
- Male and female teachers’ level of use of information and communications technology is the same in the teaching science subjects.
- The experience of teachers’ in the teaching of science subjects using information and communication technology cannot be overemphasized because the finding indicated that experience of teachers on the level of usage of information and communication technology plays a vital role toward enhancing effective teaching and learning.
From the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are made:
- ICT facilities should be utilized to the fullest for compilation of results of students as this will make students results to be properly stored and easily retrieved as at when needed;
- More ICT teachers be employed in secondary schools and trained in ICT skills to make them effectively deliver ICT based curriculum. It is crucial that Nigeria has well-trained teachers, able to implement ICT in schools in a mode that brings change from old to new pattern of learning which are much more student centered than before; and
- Government and other stakeholders should mobilize resources for equipping schools with ICT infrastructure. There should be recognition that considerable learning could take place while teaching and even by learning from students. Therefore, schools should acquire up to-date ICT infrastructure that science teachers and students could train and learn on. Science teachers could be encouraged to learn from ICT infrastructure if they have an access to them. This would create interest and therefore encourage its implementation in school.
Suggestions for Further Studies
Further studies could be carried out in the following areas:
- Challenges and Prospects of Information and Communication Technology Integration in the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry in Kwara State secondary schools.
- Information and Communication Technology Utilization and Administrative Effectiveness in Kwara State secondary schools.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the role of ICT in education?
Integration of Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) in education refers to the use of computer- based communication that incorporates into daily classroom instructional process. In conjunction with preparing students for the current digital era, teachers are seen as the key players in using ICT in their daily classrooms.
What is the role of teachers in assessments?
Teachers’ experiences with students make them indispensable participants in the design, development, and interpretation of assessments prepared beyond the classroom. Their involvement helps to ensure congruence of the classroom practice of science education and external assessment practices.
What are the science assessment standards?
The standards describe the quality of assessment practices used by teachers and state and federal agencies to measure student achievement and the opportunity provided students to learn science.
What is the role of a teacher in the scientific community?
In the work of classroom learning and investigation, teachers represent the standards of practice of the scientific community. When teachers treat students as serious learners and serve as coaches rather than judges, students come to understand and apply standards of good scientific practice.