An Assessment Of The Roles Of Traditional Rulers In Conflict Resolution: A Case Study Of Kaura Local Government Area Of Kaduna State

Project and Seminar Material Under Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

An Assessment Of The Roles Of Traditional Rulers In Conflict Resolution: A Case Study Of Kaura Local Government Area Of Kaduna State


Abstract


Conflict is an unavoidable part of human existence; humans will always disagree to agree. Against this background, this paper therefore examines the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution. a case study of Kaura local government area of Kaduna state, with a view to creating awareness on the importance of traditional rulers in conflict resolution. The primary and secondary method of data collection was used in collection of data for the study. Primary data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and interview while the secondary data were obtained through review of relevant literature. The population of the study comprises all the traditional title holders in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state, out of which a sample of hundred (100) respondents were used. The sample size was gotten using a simple random sampling technique. Simple percentage method was used in analyzing the data collected. In testing the hypotheses, chi – square was used. The study revealed that the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolutions include chair meetings of council of elders of the community on peaceful coexistence; give advice to local government officials on peace; make sure law and order prevail in the community; use traditional religious believes to punish bad behavior and encourage goodness and settle land and marriage disputes and award damages.

Also, that there is a positive effect of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state. With respect to the findings arrived at, recommendations were made including efforts should be made to enlighten the masses on the processes of conflict resolution.

Secondly, government at all levels should ensure that traditional rulers serve as an agent of conflict resolution in their various communities.

Finally, there should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to strengthen the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Conflict is viewed as the process of interaction which results in the incompatibility, disagreement or dissonance between social entities (Afzalur, 2010). It is also defined as those activity between individuals or groups which are mutually inconsistent regarding the quest for the fulfillment of their wants, needs or obligations. Michael Nicholson (1992). Conflict in groups is often caused by differences of opinion between members, or scarcity of resources which often leads to conflict escalation and then conflict resolution stage, after which the enhances group interaction again (Sophia Jowett, 2007). The application of traditional conflict management process have been proven to be effective over time as it improves social relationships creating harmony, resolving and managing conflict. It is deeply rooted in the customs and traditions of Africa. The exclusion of traditional rulers in conflict resolution processes has also contributed to the escalating rate of conflict in the nation. Conflict management is a healing process which requires the participation of all stakeholders to the healing process so as to rebuild the social harmony that was destroyed. In contemporary society the existence of Traditional conflict resolution mechanisms still at work at the grass root level where the communities exchange gifts and slaughter animals. A typical illustration is Karamoja in Uganda and other pastoralist societies in Kenya which uses their traditional elders to resolve conflicts within the local communities (Choudree R.B.G, 1999, Ndumbelll Kum’a, 2001). It is essential that African traditional leaders be involved in conflict management especially within their domain since the basic objective of the traditional elders is to maintain peace in their clans. The culture of African traditional community respect maintains and strengthens the traditional ruling institution as the external mediator will not have an in depth understanding of a conflict compared to the traditional leader who lives within the domain of the community (Birgit Brock-Utne, 2001). The study seeks to offer an assessment of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution. A case study of Kaura local government area of Kaduna state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The neglect of traditional institution and the Non participatory roles of traditional rulers in the present day administration as compared to their roles in managing and resolving conflict in pre-colonial Nigeria constitute one major reason for the increasing rate of social conflicts in many of our communities, towns and cities. This development renders traditional rulers and her institutions irrelevant and also constitute as threats to peace, security and stability in the nation. The government and other stakeholders in the course of strengthening international and regional organizations to deal with international conflict management have neglected internal solutions to conflict management. This has led to foreign interference especially in areas where there is heavy dependence on foreign aid, forgetting that as conflict is inherent in a society, so are the mechanisms in solving it. The neglect of the role of traditional authority in mediation has contributed to the development of protracted conflict in many communities, towns and cities. The problem confronting the study is to proffer an assessment of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution. A case study of Kaura local government area of Kaduna state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to proffer an assessment of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution. A case study of kaura local government area of Kaduna state;

The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine the nature and process of conflict resolution.
  2. To determine the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution.
  3. To determine the effects of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in kaura local government area of Kaduna state.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature and process of conflict resolution?
  2. What are the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution?
  3. What are the effects of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in kaura local government area of kaduna state?

1.5 Statement of the Hypotheses

The statement of the hypotheses for the study are stated in Null as follows:

  • Ho1: The level of conflict in Kaura local government area of Kaduna state is low.
  • Ho2: The effects of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in Kaura local government area of Kaduna state is not significant.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study shall attract the attention of government and relevant agencies to revive the role of traditional rulers in conflict resolutions especially in domains where they exist as leaders. It shall also provide the needed information for policy makers and relevant stakeholders.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Conflict Defined

Conflict is viewed as the process of interaction which results in the incompatibility, disagreement or dissonance between social entities. M. Afzalur Rahim (2010).It is also defined as that activity between individuals or groups which are mutually inconsistent regarding the quest for the fulfillment of their wants, needs or obligations. Michael Nicholson (1992). Conflict in groups is often caused by differences of opinion between members, or scarcity of resources which often leads to conflict escalation and then conflict resolution stage, after which it enhances group interaction again.

Conflict Resolution Defined

A conflict resolution is the realignment of clashed interest. Differences of opinion, disagreements, between people or entities.

Mediation Defined

Mediation involve the reconciliation of two opposing forces within a given society through the intervention of a third party who serve as a middle person to bring the opposing parties together as active participants in the dispute resolution process with objective of bring both parties to agreement under the terms and conditions agreed by all parties.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study focused on the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution, a case study of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The study was set to address three major research objectives. The objectives which include:

  1. To determine if there is a process of conflict resolution.
  2. To determine the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution.
  3. To determine the effect of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in Kaura local government area of Kaduna state.

Based on the above stated objectives and the study carried out, the following findings were made:

  1. That there is a formal process of conflict resolution.
  2. That the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolutions include chair meetings of council of elders of the community on peaceful coexistence; give advice to local government officials on peace; make sure law and order prevail in the community; use traditional religious believes to punish bad behavior and encourage goodness and settle land and marriage disputes and award damages.
  3. That there is a positive effects of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

5.2 Conclusion

The main purpose of this study is to assess the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution, a case study of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The study was set to address three research objectives. Three research questions guided the study.

In this study, a survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all traditional title holders in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Relevant literatures were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study. As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made:

  1. That there is a formal process of conflict resolution.
  2. That the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolutions include chair meetings of council of elders of the community on peaceful coexistence; give advice to local government officials on peace; make sure law and order prevail in the community; use traditional religious believes to punish bad behavior and encourage goodness and settle land and marriage disputes and award damages.
  3. That there is a positive effects of the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Efforts should be made to enlighten the masses on the processes of conflict resolution.
  2. Government at all levels should ensure that traditional rulers serve as an agent of conflict resolution in their various communities.
  3. There should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to strengthen the roles of traditional rulers in conflict resolution.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How to improve the traditional rulers’ involvement in land conflict resolution?

In order to expand the horizon of the traditional rulers’ involvement in land conflict resolution, their training in the area of survey and map is recommended at regular intervals so as to be effective in the discharge of such duties.

Should traditional rulers be recognized as stake holders in conflict management?

The Local, State and Federal governments should, through their legislatures, pass legislations that recognize the country’s traditional rulers as stake holders and instruments of conflict management and peace building.

What is the study of traditional rulers about?

The study will inform ongoing national discussions on the role of traditional rulers, and DFID and other development partner programmes dealing with conflict, livelihoods and governance. The study is also intended to feed directly into current policy debates about the nature of authority in Islam.

Are traditional rulers more effective in conflict resolution in Nigeria?

It has been observed that in parts of Nigeria, because traditional rulers’ long establishment and the respect in which they are held makes them more effective in conflict resolution than ‘official’ mechanisms. 

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