An Assessment Of The Role Of Women In Peace Building Among Rural Dwellers (A Case Study Of Nkanu East Local Government Area Of Enugu State)
This study was carried out on an assessment of the role of women in peace building among rural dwellers in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The study was carried out to verify whether the women of Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria participate in the resolution of Conflict in the area, find out whether there are barriers that militates against women’s involvement in conflict resolution in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, identify the strategies the women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of conflict resolution in the area, identify whether women are fully integrated in the decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of women of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the strategies that women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of peace building includes: mediation, arbitration, good office conciliation,traditional methods (oath taking, marriage, covenant and ritual among others).Therefore,it is recommended that all the barriers that forbid women’s inclusion or membership of decision making institutions for peace in the area and beyond should be removed. women’s marginalization as well as lack of gender mainstreaming in the area should be addressed in the spirit of the United Nation Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Women’s role in peacebuilding, peacemaking, reconciliation, and conflict resolution and prevention cannot be over-estimated or overemphasized. This is because apart from performing their biological and social activities of caring, giving birth, and bringing up humans as mothers, women also have the potentials of partaking in activities that is geared towards peaceful resolution of conflict as well as well in peacebuilding. Equally women have been at the forefront of efforts to build peace across the world. According to (Lute 2002) women are often the stabilizing force in the societies in which they exist. This is certainly true in post conflict settings where women represents essentially, the backbone of reconstruction and rehabilitation as well as the re-integration of former combatants and the re-emergence of basic economic activities in a society which is a war torn society , once peace has been achieved.
Long before the recognition of the role of women in peacebuilding process, they had already been very much involved in such activity. As a social group, women have been suitably identified as being pro-peace. Women have been highly visible in the forefront of movements for non violence and peace worldwide. Women usually assume the roles of peacemakers in families, in communities and in society even though they have often been victims (Agbu, Anike-Nweze , Idachaba and Durojaye 2006).
Women have been at the forefront of efforts to buildpeace in countries all over the world. In many instances women have come to the peace negotiations united across party, class and ethnic differences. Their unity and determination to make peace may come from their everyday experiences and concerns: protecting their children; finding food, clean water or shelter, protecting themselves from the violence and particularly sexual and gender-based violence associated with conflict (Ilesanmi and Agbu 2014).
To show the importance of women in peace building The UN Security Council on 31st Oct. 2000 adopted The Resolution 1325, which deals with women, peace and security. This Resolution highlighted the importance of bringing gender perspectives to the center of the UN conflict prevention and resolution, peace building, peacekeeping, rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts. This Resolution was initiated after the UN Secretary General was invited to do a study on the impact of conflicts on women, girls, the role of women in peace building and the gender dimensions of peace processes and conflict resolution. In line with the above resolution of the United Nation, The African Heads of States in a solemn declaration on gender equality adopted by African Heads of State and Government on July 6, 2004, agreed to:
Ensure the full and effective participation and representation of women in peace process, including the prevention, resolution, management of conflicts and post conflict reconstruction in Africa as stipulated in UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) and to also appoint women as special envoys and special representatives of the African Union. ( Agbu, Bolarinwa Mbagwu, and Durojaye 2006).
Since the adoption of the United Nations Resolution 1325 (2000), some form of progress albeit minimal have been recorded in acknowledging the roles played by women in conflict resolution and post conflict peace building, as well as integrating women into decision making level of peace policies and processes ((Ilesanmi and Agbu 2014).
Before the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000, The Kigali Declaration of 1997 had reinforced positive and active roles of women in peacemaking and peacebuilding, and their peace-enduring attitudes as well as love. The Declaration recognize(s) women’s traditional peacemaking roles and their right to equal involvement in all peace initiatives,including early warning mechanisms and swift responses at national, regional and international levels (Kigali Declaration, 1997)
Conflict had been described by many scholars, as inevitable, among whom include Mitchel and Banks (1996) who posit that in the actual sense, conflict is an inevitable phenomenon that keeps occurring in all human relationships.
It has been a fundamental question that is unanswered by the scholars of conflict resolution, because in principle conflict resolution connotes a sense of finality. There is no consensus among scholars on the definition of conflict as each defined it according to the writer’s perspective but what seems to be common in the scholarly definitions is that conflict occurs when there is a state of struggle, opposition, incompatibility, interference, divergence of interest, tension, interaction and interdependence among others (Adenyi 2014).
According to Boulding (1989), human beings as social animals have always been embroiled in temporary and continuous disputes and fracas collectively called conflicts since time immemorial. This come in the form of individuals against individuals, families against families, kingdoms against kingdoms, and more contemporary, countries against countries.
According to Rubin and Pruitt (2002) conflict can be defined as the perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that the party’s current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously from gradual interactions between the parties. Bercovitch (2002) added that they are ultimately a direct result of the given relationships and interactions between species, will in one way or another breed friction and discontent thereby, giving rise to perceived injustice and the attendant frictions and agitations Resolving conflict or otherwise conflict resolution is aimed at nipping such conflict in the bud by identifying the underlying and root causes of such conflict. Anyanwu (2013) posits that conflict resolution is generally conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful resolution or ending of conflict. Conflict resolution is an expected situation where the deep-rooted sources of conflict are addressed and resolved, and the behaviour is no longer violent, nor the attitudes hostile any longer and the structure of the conflict has been changed (Miall, Oliver and Tom, 1999). In the same manner, Mitchel and Banks (1996), sees conflict resolution as an outcome in which the issues in an existing conflict are satisfactorily dealt with, through a solution that is mutually acceptable to the parties, and self sustaining in the long run and productive of a new positive relationship between the parties that were previously hostile adversaries. It is also a process or procedure by which such an outcome is achieved.
The importance of women as agents of peace and their role as mothers made it possible that in war time, it is a taboo to kill a woman even if she is armed. This is because women were the mothers of the male combatants. Even when a woman is mistakenly killed during warfare, there must be appeasement of the land. The respect accorded to woman during warfare which takes its root from traditional African society and further extended to International arena which made provisions for the protection of women in both conventional and unconventional warfare.
Women play a unique role in the reconciliation process in several societies, their place in society puts them in a strong position to encourage dialogue between disputing parties. The activities of Umuada (women born in an Igbo community who have gone to marry in other areas) led to the resolution of the land dispute between Umunebo and Umuokuzu communities in Owerri Local government area of Imo state of Nigeria (Nwolise 2004). Similarly, it was the intervention of Umuada of both Aguleri and Umuleri communities in Anambra state of Nigeria that contributed towards the cessation of hostility between the two sister communities (Onwuzuruigbo 2009). The women of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria are not left out in playing the above roles. It is in the light of the above that this study is embarked upon to explore and appraise their role in peace building among rural dwellers in the Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Some communities in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State such as Owo, Amagunze, Amechi Idodo, Akpawfu, Ugbawka, Nara, Ihuokpara, Oruku and Umuode had at one time or the other had either intra-communal conflict or inter-communal conflict which led to loss of lives and properties. In the late 80s and early 90s two communities namely Amechi Idodo and Amagunze fought war over boundary matters.
In the case of Oruku and Umuode communities, their conflict had continued to exacerbate as they have engage themselves in communal war since 1987 and which is on- going and which apart from becoming intractable has led to loss of several lives and properties. Oruku and Umuode were one community under Oruku Town before the outbreak of the conflict. Umuode people are one of the three clans that made up Oruku Town before Umuodes were carved out as an autonomous community during the administration of Col Sule Ahman as the Military Administrator of Enugu State in 1998, the other clans are Umuchiani and Onuogowo (Obu-Ani 1999; Ukemenam and Okechukwu 2008; Adenyi 2014; and Agbaegbu 2000).Oruku Community is bordered in the North by Akpuoga Nke and Nchatancha; Akpugo and Akpawfu in the West; Ezza Akpuoga and Amechi Idodo in the East and Amagunze in the South. (www.googlemap.com; Adenyi 2014:3). Other communities in the local government has their own history as that of Oruku as stated above The Oruku/Umuode conflict mentioned above which had lasted for more than two decades now has made Nkanu East Local Government Area one of the flash points in the country and has been attributed to several factors by some writers and commentators among whom are:
1. Okenwa (1999), who attributed the Oruku/Umuode conflict to the caste system freeborn vs. ex slaves existing in the community.
2. Obu-Ani (1999), who traced Oruku/Umuode conflict to the acrimony between the Amadi -freeborn and the Ohu -ex-slaves in Nkanu land. (ibid:186-195) also linked this dichotomy to the manner in which the colonial masters liberated the ex- slaves and the brazen manner in which the ex-slaves accepted their freedom.
3. Enechukwu (2011), who attributed it to the controversy surrounding the creation of Umuode autonomous community and asserts that at present, all efforts to create Umuode communities out of Oruku Town have failed, because the war between Umuode and Oruku is bloody and catastrophic, so also other communities in Nkanu and Igbo land.
4. Mba (2014), who described Oruku/Umuode conflict as a sub-ethnic conflict that might not attract as much academic attention as macro-ethnic conflict but are capable of yielding theoretical insight into identity formation, ethnic transformation and question of citizenship in a dynamic setting such as Nigeria.
5. Adenyi (2014:69) who attributed the conflict to the following:
The refusal by Umuode then a clan in Oruku to respect the amended chieftaincy constitution of 1987which they signed and ratified with Umuchiani without reservation and later refused to accord recognition to the Traditional Ruler elected with the amended chieftaincy constitution, whom they participated in his election and presentation to government and that is the original and remote cause of Oruku/Umuode conflicts.
The intransigency of the parties, actors and leaders of both communities, and in addition, the influence of secondary/shadow and interested stakeholders and external factors influencing and escalating Oruku/Umuode conflict such as the Amadi/Awbia dichotomy in the length and breadth of Nkanuland.
The role and strategies of Enugu State Government and the Catholic Church in the management and resolution of the crisis.
The way and manner Sule Ahman Government granted Umuode an autonomous status in 1998 without identifying a portion of vacant land to settle the Umuodes as contained in the gazette as they and other Oruku people had lived interwoven and intertwined and scattered in all the villages in the community, with Oruku people constituting over 80% of their population and The refusal by the Umuodes to accept Abariland donated to them by Oruku people for their settlement and their insistence on ejecting the (majority in number) Oruku conmprising 449 home as against Umuode’s 111 homes from their ancestral home in Aguefiland for their (Umuodes) settlement which had been subject of controversy and contention and which Oruku had refused to accept as well.
Women as mothers are always in traumatic condition whenever there is war in which male adults are participating; this is because they are the ones who suffered the pains of carrying humans in their womb and giving birth to them. Echoing the above, Abdulkarim (2010) argued that women are always caught in a vicious paradox: while they are the main civilian victims of conflict, they are often powerless; prevented and excluded from the negotiations when it comes to their resolution and confined to a marginal role of post conflict reconstruction and reconciliation efforts, the general exclusion of women from decision making positions prior to and during violent conflicts reinforces their victimization.
The bitter experiences of women in times of war often make them strong adherents of peace building and constitution making for conflict resolution. However, women’s roles in and contributions to conflict resolution are underutilized or wholly ignored in mainstream peace building and constitution making processes. Nevertheless, women all over the world are devising creative and effective strategies to ending wars and building peace (Agbu, Nwogu, Ngozi-Eruwayo, Oyakhiromen and Durojaye Agbu 2006). In the same manner, Kasali, Olaniyi, Oyakhiromen, and Durojaye, (2006) posits that several humanitarian interventions and peace operations have actually undermined the importance of women in peace missions. The probability that most of the injustices of conflict and post conflict societies perpetuated against women will not be adequately reported and addressed will definitely be high if women are not adequately represented in peace operations. In many wars women have used their different roles to try to minimize the effect of violence if not actively to try to end wars themselves (Pankuurst 2000).
In view of the experiences of women during conflict as discussed above and their potentials as mothers to participate fully in conflict resolution coupled with the fact that in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria, some communities such as Oruku/Umuode are currently engulfed in decades of communal war while others have at different periods before now tasted one form of conflict or another, this study seeks to appraise the role of women in the resolution of conflict in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria viz a viz conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacebuilding, and reconciliation, in the context of the following research questions.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study is embarked upon to appraise those roles that the women of Nkanu East local government area play in peace building in the area with the following objectives or purposes;
- To verify whether the women of Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria participate in the resolution of Conflict in the area.
- To find out whether there are barriers that militates against women’s involvement in conflict resolution in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.
- To identify the strategies the women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of conflict resolution in the area.
- To identify whether women are fully integrated in the decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000.
1.3 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- Do the women of Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria participate in peace building?
- What are the various associations through which women participate in peace building in Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State?
- What are the barriers militating against women’s involvement in peace building in Nkanu East Local Government Area?
- What are the strategies that women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of peace building?
- Are women fully integrated in the decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1: Women of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria do not participate in peace building.
Ho2: Cultural barriers do not militate against women’s involvement in peace building in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Ho3: The extent the women are integrated in decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area is not in line with the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study has theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study analyses conflict, its consequences, effects and resolutions as well as the role women of the study area play not only in resolving conflict but also in preventing and managing it. The study makes effort to fill the gap on the existing body of knowledge and literature on conflict and conflict resolution as well as women’s role in the resolution of conflicts, peacemaking, peacebuilding, and reconciliation. This study will make effort to inquire or appraise the role the women of the study area play in conflict resolution.
Practically, the study is targeted at provoking the full utilization of the women’s potentials as agents of peace in conflict resolution processes in Nkanu East Local government Area and Nigeria in general and in addition to contributing to the existing body of knowledge on the role of women in conflict resolution using the women of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state as a study, this study will also spur and assist researchers and students of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolutions in the area of further research and knowledge on the subject matter in other Local government Areas in the country .
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria with focus on the appraisal and review of conflict and the role women of the study area play in the resolution of conflict viz a viz conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacebuilding, reconciliation and post conflict reconstruction.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definitionof Terms
It is a state of struggle, opposition, incompatibility, and interference, divergence of interest, tension, interaction and interdependence among others. It also refers to a relation between two or more parties who believe they have incompatible goals. It is a situation where two or more people perceive themselves as being in a state of incompatibility with each side trying to outdo the other. It could be over resources, values, psychological needs or inadequate information.
Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposely made by one person or unit to block another or frustrates the attainment of another’s goals or the furthering of his interest (Rao and Narayana 1998).
It is any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviours lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties (Nelson and Quick, (1997).
Furthermore conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals (Hocker and Wilmot 1985).
The concept that all human beings are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by strict gender roles; that the different aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favoured equally (Holzner, Neuhold, and Weiss-Gänger, 2010). It means being equal, visibility, empowerment and participation. It is also a set of attitude, actions and assumption. It is also a range of physical, biological and behavioural (Igwe, 2014).
Actions, policies, procedures or institutions undertaken in particularly vulnerable places and times in order to avoid the threat or use of armed force and related forms of coercion by states or groups, as the way to settle the political disputes that can arise from the destabilizing effects of economic, social, political and international change. Conflict prevention can also include action taken after a violent conflict to avoid its recurrence. Conflict prevention can occur at two points in a typical conflict’s life history; when there has not been a violent conflict in recent years, and before significant signals of violence make possible the escalation to sustained violent conflict. Conflict prevention aims to keep a conflict from escalation; and where there has been a recent violent conflict but peace is being restored, conflict prevention aims to avoid a relapse or re-igniting of violence. (Lund, 1997).
A variety of approaches aimed at resolving conflicts through the constructive solving of problems distinct from the management or transformation of conflict. Conflict resolution is multifaceted in that it refers to a process, a result, and an identified field of academic study as well as an activity in which persons and communities engages every day without ever using the term. The antagonisms in question may involve interpersonal relationships, labour-management issues, business decisions, inter-group disputes, disagreements between nation-states, or international quarrels (Miller and King 2005).
Conflict resolution combines in a problem-solving process the values contained in other concepts: from human rights, a deep respect for human dignity and for the legitimacy and capacity of every person; from democracy, the values of participation and responsiveness within a changing world environment; and from peace, the value of acceptance of the other and satisfaction in non-violent interaction. Conflict resolution is a process of decision-making whose objectives are to handle, manage, settle or resolve conflict in ways which enhance the values of the other three concepts (Reardon et al, 1994)
Peacemaking is a diplomatic initiative aimed at bringing to an end any violent attitude that may be dominating the conflict relationship between parties (Kasali et al 2006).
It refers to actions which support political, economic, social and military measures and structures aiming to strengthen and solidify political settlement in order to redress the causes of conflict. These mechanisms to identify and support structures that tend to consolidate peace, advance a sense of confidence and well being and support economic reconstruction (British army 1997). It is also an ability of repairing relationships, institutions and social facilities and putting in place schemes that can help the disputing communities to be united once again (Albert 2001).
Peacebuilding involves building a network of opportunities in the transformation of conflict attitude between the parties through restoration of communication and genuine reconciliation. It promotes more friendly relationship among old combatants. It also creates institutions and socio-facilities aimed at assisting the former disputants to respect their mutualneeds and interests for peaceful society where meaningful development can take place (Kasali, Onyeonoru and Durojaye 2009).
A process that attempts to transform intense or lingering malevolence among parties previously engaged in a conflict or dispute into feelings of acceptance and even forgiveness of past animosities or detrimental acts. Reconciliation refers to a process through which a disputing party seeks to establish structures and procedures capable of facilitating an enduring peace and mutual understanding with her old enemy in post conflict environment (Kasali, Olaniyi, Oyakhiromen and Durojaye 2006).
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of the role of women in peace building among rural dwellers in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to assess the role of women in peace building among rural dwellers in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.The study specifically was aimed to verify whether the women of Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria participate in the resolution of Conflict in the area, find out whether there are barriers that militates against women’s involvement in conflict resolution in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, identify the strategies the women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of conflict resolution in the area, identify whether women are fully integrated in the decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents arewomen of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The women of Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria participate in peace building.
- The various associations through which women participate in peace building in Nkanu East local Government Area of Enugu State includes: Institutions of Umuada, Extended Family Wives Association, Christian Mothers Union, Community Women Association.
- The barriers militating against women’s involvement in peace building in Nkanu East Local Government Area includes: gender inequality, violence against women, devaluation of women as peace builders, patriarchal norms and attitudes, cultural practices.
- The strategies that women of Nkanu East Local Government Area adopt in the process of peace building includes: mediation, arbitration, good office conciliation, traditional methods (oath taking, marriage, covenant and ritual among others).
- Women are not fully integrated in the decision making process in Nkanu East Local Government Area in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of the year 2000.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- All the barriers that forbid women’s inclusion or membership of decision making institutions for peace in the area and beyond should be removed. women’s marginalization as well as lack of gender mainstreaming in the area should be addressed in the spirit of the United Nation Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000.
- There is need to support women’s equal representation in transitional justice processes at all levels: as designers, judges, commissioners, prosecutors, defense attorneys, investigators, witnesses, and observers.
- Women must participate in all aspects and all levels of the design, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the process of peace building and peace maintenance.
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