An Assessment Of The Role Of Entrepreneurial Education And Orientation On Small And Medium Enterprises Success In Bwari Area Council Of Abuja
This study was carried out to assess the role of entrepreneurial education and orientation on Small and medium enterprises success in bwari area council of Abuja, FCT. The study proceeded to use education and orientation as synonyms. The study had five specific objectives which aimed at determining: how book-keeping/accounting education influence the success of SMEs, the ways through which marketing education influence the success of SMEs, how office technology and management education influence the survival of SMEs, how leadership education influence the success of SMEs and the ways in which business management education influence the survival of SMEs. Five research questions were raised and answered. Five null hypotheses were also formulated and tested. The survey research design was adopted for the study and a self-designed four-point rating scale questionnaire was used to collect the data. The population of the study was 1,014 consisting of all the owners and employees of all the registered SMEs providing computer services in Bwari area council of Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. Six hundred and nine (609) respondents were randomly selected for the study. The data collected were analysed using Statistical tools. Percentages were used to analyse the demographic variables of the respondents, while research questions were answered using mean scores. Any item with mean score of 2.50 or above as well as a research question with a grand mean of 2.50 or above was accepted, otherwise rejected. Furthermore, all the five null hypotheses were tested using t-test, at alpha 0.05 level of significance. The major findings of the study revealed that effective use of book-keeping/accounting, marketing, office technology and management, leadership and business management education influenced the success and survival of SMEs. To ensure effective application of entrepreneurial education and orientationand orientation by SMEs operators and their employees, it was recommended that SMEs owner as well as their employees should strive toward the acquisition and effective application of entrepreneurial education and orientation, the government should, through the relevant ministries and agencies organise training/workshop for SMEs operators, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and development partners should also help in training the SMEs operators and their employees and the score card of the SMEs in terms of how they apply the entrepreneurial education and orientation should be a pre-requisite for their ability to secure financial assistance. It was concluded that for SMEs to get out of some of their problem and continue to be in operation and successful, they must be making use of entrepreneurial education and orientation.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education in whatever form, aims at equipping the recipient with knowledge, education and competencies for solving lifelong problems and challenges. It is also the greatest investment that should be made by a country in order to bring about quick and effective national development in the areas of economic, political and human resource. This implies that a sound and qualitative education would make a country to attain its heights in development. It is also expected that sustainable development would make the citizens of a country to live happily and comfortably. To make these possible, Nigeria formulated five national goals of education as contained in her National policy on Education (NPE) (2004).
These goals aim at building:
- A free and democratic society;
- A just and egalitarian society;
- A united, strong and self-reliant nation;
- A great and dynamic economy;
- A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.
To achieve these five national goals of education, Entrepreneurial education and orientation which is described as an education for and about Business could play a vital role. This is because in relation to the core Entrepreneurial education (accounting, management, marketing, purchasing and supply, banking and finance, office technology and management and entrepreneurship education), Entrepreneurial education orientation also gives the recipients general knowledge which would make them to become functional members of the society.
Small and Medium Enterprises(SMEs) now attract the attentions of governments all over the world. Different criteria are used in defining the SMEs. Based on this, Sanusi (2003) stated that for the purpose of Small and Medium Industries Equity Investment Scheme (SMIEIS), a small-and-medium-scale industry is any enterprise with a maximum asset base of ₦200 million, excluding land and working capital, as well as having a workforce of not less than ten and not exceeding three hundred workers. Similarly, Adeyeye (2008) explained that a small-scale enterprise is an enterprise which has an asset not exceeding ₦50 million and a workforce of not more than one hundred workers, while a mediumscale enterprise is an enterprise with a total asset and employees not more than ₦200 million and three hundred employees respectively. SMEs are recognized as engines of economic growth and drivers of economic development. This owes to the fact they contribute toward improving productivity, employment generation, poverty reduction and standard of living. SMEs are however faced with problems of management, marketing, record keeping and communication. It is based on these that Onugu (2005) reported that majority of the SMEs in Nigeria cease to exist within the first five years of their existence and only five to ten percent of the SMEs survive, grow and thrive to maturity.
From the foregoing, it is obvious that Entrepreneurial education has the potentials of small and medium enterprises success. This is owing to the fact that the education which it equips its recipients with could lead to the development of entrepreneurial education. Similarly, it is expected that the Entrepreneurial education and orientation and orientation could lead to developments that would enhance better identification of customers’ needs and wants, development or provision of products to satisfy the customers, fixing appropriate and affordable prices, proper keeping of financial and other organizational records, good customer relations, leadership education for dealing with employees or subordinates and business management education. It is against this background that this study investigated the role of Entrepreneurial education and orientation in small and medium enterprises success in the Abuja.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Looking at the operations and activities of Small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the researcher observed that they are catalysts for economic growth and development of Nigeria. Unfortunately, based on experience and observations of the researcher as well as deductions from Njoku and Nwosu (2002), Onugu (2005) and Enoma, Ugbomhe and Dirisu (2010), it was discovered that SMEs are faced with a lot of challenges which centre on management, bookkeeping/accounting, record-keeping, leadership and marketing education. These challenges led to deficiencies such as poor management, poor initiatives, poor decision making, poor communication education, poor keeping and maintenance of financial records and inability to produce and maintain other organisational records. Other problems include low level of delegation, unwillingness to cooperate with employees, poor sales habit, poor customer relation and inability to properly scan through the environment to better assess the needs and wants of the people. The result of these is the premature winding up of many SMEs. This thus constituted the problem of this study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study was to assess the role of entrepreneurial education and orientation in small and medium enterprises successin Bwari Area Council of Abuja. Based on this, the specific objectives of the study were to assess:
- How book-keeping/accounting education influence the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja.
- The ways through which marketing education influence the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja.
- How office technology and management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja.
- How leadership education influences the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja.
- The ways in which business management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- How do book-keeping/accounting education influence the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja?
- In what ways do marketing education influence the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja?
- How do office technology and management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja?
- How does leadership education influence the success of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja?
- In what ways do business management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises in Bwari Area council of Abuja?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In line with the research questions, the following null hypotheses were raised for the study:
- H01: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of SMEs business owners and their employees on how book-keeping/accounting education influence the success of small and medium enterprises.
- H02: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of SMEs business owners and their employees on the ways through which marketing education influence the success of small and medium enterprises.
- H03: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of SMEs business owners and their employees on how office technology and management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises
- H04: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of SMEs business owners and their employees on how leadership education influence the success of small and medium enterprises.
- H05: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of SMEs business owners and their employees on the ways in which business management education influence the survival of small and medium enterprises
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to the government, educational policy makers, teachers, SMEs operators, management consultants and students. To the government at all levels, the findings will help them in identifying the basic education required for business success. Based on this, the government can use the findings as ingredients for enlightenment programmes on SMEs. To educational policy makers, the findings will help toward the formulation of sound educational policies that will equip the learners with education for business success. This is important especially as government is encouraging entrepreneurship in SMEs which has led to the introduction and encouragement of entrepreneurship education in Nigerian schools. As for the teachers, the findings will give them insights on the areas which need to be highly emphasized while teaching the students entrepreneurship.
SMEs operators will also benefit immensely from the findings of this study. This is owing to the fact that the findings will make available to them, information on the education necessary for their successes as entrepreneurs. In the same vein, the findings of the study will serve as points of reference to them when taking actions relating to their enterprises. Furthermore, the findings of the study will help management consultants get inputs for making proper recommendations and suggestions to their clients. Finally, students will find the findings of the study beneficial in that they will equip them with education for entrepreneurial success. This implies that when they eventually set themselves up in business, they would have been armed with education that will promote their businesses. They (the student) also stand the chance of giving useful advice to SMEs operators that did not receive formal education or study Entrepreneurial education.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Small and medium-scale enterprises cover a wide range of business activities. This study was however, limited to the registered small and medium enterprises providing computer services in the Abuja. This is because of the fact that the SMEs providing computer services now constitute important business outfits due to increase in the use and application of Information and Communication Technology. Furthermore, the study was also limited to the small and medium-scale business owners and their employees. The choice of these groups of respondents was based on the belief of the researcher that they will be able to provide the necessary information needed for this study due to their involvement in the operation of the businesses.
1.8 Definition of Terms
A collection of formalized teachings that informs, trains, and educates anyone interested in participating in socioeconomic development through a project to promote entrepreneurship awareness, business creation, or small business development.
Small and Medium Enterprises:
These are non-subsidiary, independent firms which employ fewer than a given number of employees. This number varies across countries. The most frequent upper limit designating an SME is 300 employees.
The activity or occupation of keeping records of the financial affairs of a business.
The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.
The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
The action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising.
The action of leading a group of people or an organization.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The first chapter contains the study’s introductory section, which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study of the objective, and the scope of the study. The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives, as well as the study’s theoretical framework. The third chapter discusses the methods of data collection, sampling, and data analysis used in the study. The fourth chapter focuses on the research findings, including an examination of how they relate to previous findings. The fifth chapter contains a summary of the findings, a conclusion, and recommendations based on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The study examined the role of entrepreneurial education and orientation in promoting small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bwari area council of Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. Chapter one discussed the background to the study and statement of the problem. The study had five objectives, five research questions and five research hypotheses. The significance of the study, delimitation of the study and basic assumptions were also treated in the chapter. In chapter two, related literature to the study were reviewed. The theoretical framework adopted for the study was the management theory of entrepreneurship. The chapter discussed the concept of Entrepreneurial education, concept of SMEs, goals and objectives of Entrepreneurial education, overview of Entrepreneurial education programme in Nigeria, Entrepreneurial education and sustainable development in Nigeria, characteristics of SMEs, role of SMEs in economic development, problems confronting SMEs in Nigeria. The chapter also reviewed seven empirical studies.
Chapter three presented the methodology adopted in carrying out the study. It dwelt on research design used in carrying out the study. The population of the study was 1,014, a sample size of 6o% was adopted and 609 people were selected using random sampling technique. The chapter also described the instrument for data collection and also explained how it was validated. The pilot study, reliability of the instrument, procedure for data collection and procedure for data analysis were also highlighted in the chapter. The data collected were presented and analysed in chapter four.
The major findings of the study were:
- Effective use of book-keeping/accounting education influenced the success of SMEs.
- Marketing education influenced the success of SMEs.
- Office technology and management education influenced the survival of SMEs.
- Effective leadership education influenced the success of SMEs.
- Business management education influenced the survival of SMEs.
The study established that Entrepreneurial education and orientation promote SMEs. This is because it established that book keeping/accounting, marketing, office technology and management, effective leadership and business management education influenced and enhanced the success and survival of SMEs. The implications of these findings are that for SMEs to get rid of some of their problems; there is the need for the application of the aforementioned entrepreneurial education and orientation. In the same vein, continuous existence of SMEs also hinges on the extent to which these educations are made use of by the SMEs operators and their employees. Furthermore, the application of these entrepreneurial education and orientation can make SMEs to grow big and bigger. Finally, effective use of the education would make SMEs to continue to be the engine room for economic growth and development; otherwise they would be reduced to nonentity.
Based on the major findings and the conclusion drawn, the following recommendations are suggested as the way forward:
- The SMEs owners as well as their employees should strive toward the acquisition and effective application of book-keeping/accounting, office technology and management, marketing, leadership and business management education. This is because these educations are instrumental to organisational success. However, since it may not be possible for a single person to master all these education, SMEs operators should strive towards engaging specialists in the different areas, or at least seek for professional advice from specialists for the betterment of their businesses.
- The government at all levels (Federal, State and Local) through the relevant ministries such as the Federal Ministry of trade and commerce, States’ ministries of commerce and industry and agencies such as The National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), should organize training or workshops for the SMEs operators so as to equip them with the entrepreneurial education and orientation that would enhance the success and survival of their businesses.
- Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and development partners should also help in training the SMEs operators and their employees. This is because the training/workshops are expected to widen their horizon on the necessities of such education and as such lead to business success and survival.
- The score card of the SMEs in terms of how they apply the entrepreneurial education and orientation should be a pre-requisite for their ability to secure financial assistance from the government, NGOs, development partners and financial institutions.
Through this, the education would be effectively and efficiently used.
Suggestions for Further Study
The researcher suggests the following as areas for further study in relation to the study:
- Similar study should be carried out in the other geo-political zones of Nigeria.
- A study should be conducted to assess the practical applicability of the entrepreneurial education and orientation.
An Assessment Of The Role Of Entrepreneurial Education And Orientation On Small And Medium Enterprises Success In Bwari Area Council Of Abuja
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Frequently Asked Questions
How important is entrepreneurship education for smmes?
The findings of this research showed that entrepreneurship education is very important for the establishment and survival of SMMEs.
Does entrepreneurial learning increase students’ interest in entrepreneurship?
The results of research conducted (Solesvik, Westhead, & Matlay, 2014) say that entrepreneurial learning obtained by students can increase their interest in entrepreneurship.
What are the constructs of entrepreneurship education?
The lack of theory and paradigm in entrepreneurship education is addressed by presenting the constructs, entrepreneurial performance (E/P); motivation (M); entrepreneurial skills (E/S); and business skills (B/S) in a dynamic linear model E/P = a + bM (cE/S x dB/S).
Does school-level entrepreneurship education matter?
Evidence from elsewhere, in particular industrialised countries, indicates that entrepreneurship education and training at school level play important roles in the contribution to economic growth.