An Assessment Of The Role Of Broadcast Media In Women Mobilization During The 2015 General Elections In Nigeria
The low rate of female participation in politics compared to that of their male counter-parts in Nigeria creates a need to examine the situation in this study, “The role of broadcast media in mobilizing women for political participation in Nigeria”. This study examines the problems, first, defining the importance of women to participate in politics. The survey research method was employed in this study and questionnaires were used for data collection, then the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical procedure to reach a definite conclusion. The results reflect that broadcast media have positive impact in mobilizing women to participate in politics. In summary, broadcast media is found wanting in fostering development for gender equality in politics. In recommendations, suggestion of ways to stimulate female participation was made by looking at practical examples of how this was done in the pre-colonial era. Finally, in conclusion, the study emphasizes that no sex or gender is more important than the other because in politics, intellectual ability counts more than physical energy.
1.1 Background to the Study
Women attempting to enter into politics in Nigeria face numerous obstacles. Those who have aspired to office must often deal with a lack of funds to run an effective campaign, a discriminative use of party zoning, low education and a slew of cultural and religious barriers. The marginalization of women in politics is certainly not new to Nigeria, having dated back to colonial times. In fact, women did not gain the right to vote until 1976. Though there was improvement in the mobilization of women in the 2007 general elections but in Nigerian politics, sexism has become a major predicament. Women have been politically considered as an endangered species, and their low participation in Nigerian government and politics is often associated with cultural, religious and economic constraints, and male chauvinism (Umechukwu, 2004). The mass media provides perspectives, shape images of candidates and parties help highlight issues around which a campaign would develop, and define the unique atmosphere and areas of sensitivity with any particular campaign (Lang and Lang 1999). This research therefore seeks to find out how well Nigerian newspaper covered women’s participation in 2007 general elections. Elections can be a key element either in both conflict resolution and conflict escalation. Therefore, free and fair elections are essential for democracy consolidation and conflict prevention. The professionalism of media is crucial during election periods. To promote fair, safe and professional media election coverage, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) supports advocacy to encourage full, fair and efficient disclosure of information to journalists covering the elections; training to enhance professional election reporting; training on the safety of journalists and their right to work without threat; and the production and distribution of election guidelines reflecting principles of professional reporting during elections, journalists’ rights, election processes and safety information, as well as briefing notes on international human rights law with emphasis on freedom of expression. It is a truism that the media play an indispensable role in the proper functioning of a democracy.
Discussion of the media’s functions usually focuses on their “watchdog” role: by unfettered scrutiny and discussion of the successes and failures of governments, the media can inform the public of how effectively its representatives have performed and help to hold them to account. However, Studies of media coverage of political campaigns have uncovered some disturbing trend; journalists function as a pack; there is seldom any really distinctive political reporting during elections. Further, journalists treat fore-runners differently than they do the remainder of the candidate pack. Fore-runners are the objects of closer scrutiny, but those examinations are seldom about issues, even-though it is issue oriented reporting that tends to provoke political interest and public participation. Instead electoral reporting focuses on personality, a key component of political leadership, but certainly not the only one. (Petterson& Wilkins 1994, p. 149) There is a bewildering variety of possible systems for regulating political advertising or free direct access coverage and reporting. This refers to that portion of election reporting that is under the editorial control of the parties or candidates themselves. There may be obligations on some sections of the newspapers to carry such material, and there will almost certainly be conditions that they must abide by if they do. The background of this study looks into the role played by the radio as a medium in the political mobilization of women in the 2015 general elections in Nigeria.
There are other communication channels like television, interpersonal (rituals and festivals, gongs, drums), newspapers and magazines; these are channels of information dissemination. But in view of how effective these channels could be used in performing the role of mobilizing women throughout the nation into mobilization in politics, its credibility is given to radio in getting political message to its target audience (women) informed.
Even though the newspaper and magazines for their non- transient features would have helped, it is found difficult these days to be affordable by average Nigerians and women in their own situation finds it more difficult to spend their income in buying newspapers or magazines in order to get information in this economic crunch situation in the country today.
Hence, the media is used as their resort for information acquisition. Also, the television due to its high cost is not easily affordable by every family, and for the traditional communication, since these targeted audience (women generally) some of which are from urban areas, it is found difficult or ineffective to disseminate information to them. This is because they have socially developed too. Hence they can tune to their various transistor radio sets for information. Obiakalusi Lynda et al (1991) in their research work stated that Nigerians political independence in 1960 had raised hopes of many that the nation was being set towards achieving a free and democratic society. In such a democratic society, it is expected that the press such as radio in particular should be the market place of political thought. The radio therefore, should exist mainly to serve the information need of the citizenry in politics. Akpan (1985) mass communication in Nigeria: book of reading (Nwuneli) say that the public is entitled to all facts in a political situation and that on the basis of these facts, it can make its decisions. However, these woman being to revert to political interest.
Again warren, Kendall (1985: 1990) position that the media for its social role as a mobilization channel made American listens to feel the brutal impact of Hitler’s demands against the background of hysterical orator and frenzied nazi crowd reaction. They (American) were graved when they heard morrow described war preparation in London, relieved when kilter born predicted that chamberlain and Hitler found a peace solution at Munich. However, it was radio that brought to them this scene of personal participation in what they realized was the world’s crisis not merely Europe’s.
The mass media generally performed broad social functions to the audience and these functions are entertainment, information and education. Therefore, the radio playing the same function, in terms of providing messages to its listeners while it is entertaining them thereby reminding its targeted audience (women).
Media as an information channel has continued to wax stronger as a medium of the people. Just like kristie person, executive director of the Cape Town, south Africa- based free play foundation posit that, broadcast media is the one tool that the greatest potential to reach the most people.
Again, as an information channel, it informs its audience about politics and enables them participate in political programs or transitions. Also, for its educational function, the F R C N in 1998 mapped out a program time spooned by Mrs. Florence ejoor (chairperson Abia state family support program) to educated the woman not to stay away from the ongoing terminated in that year (1998), but rather to came out enmasse to complete with their male counterparts towards making them achieve their objectives of the programs. Apparently, development should not be seized from being mentioned while discussing politics. According to Nwosu 1985, he says that development and politics are so intertwined that one cannot talk about or deal with one with the other, especially in a developing country like Nigeria. Hawing observed the above statement; it is rarely difficult to distinguish between politics and development especially as it relates to Nigeria politically.
The media could be seen as a more possible agent of social and political mobilizing in the country than television especially in mobilizing women towards participating in politics. For instance, Mrs. Evenly chukwu a barrister in an interview with the researcher discloses that she got motivated from the various political messages she hears from the radio and felt that with these messages she could challenge the male counterparts. She also said that the woman who came to vote for her during the main election got mobilized
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The role of women in Nigeria politics rightly points out the Aba women Riot of 1929 and the activities of few other women which contributed to the eventual handing over of power to the people, will always be remembered as some of the pioneer landmarks of the journey to political independence by this great nation. However, a lot of write-ups are prejudiced while others are geared towards educating the society especially, African society, where it is frequently alleged that women are relegated to the background of the needs integrate. Well in all facets of life to enhance their social, political and economic development. Obviously, it should be universally acknowledged that a woman is the most useful product of the creator’s skill. There is a “maxim” which says that, “behind every successful man there is a woman” for instance, there were some powerful woman who were the wheel on which their men rode to success, fame and acclaim. For example, the case of Lincoln and his wife who literally dragged him to the highest political seat, the United States presidency. Satellite (march 6, 1982) “own through the ages, there have been examples of powerful women. The biblical Esther was a powerful, beloved of her husband who was also to redeem her people Israelites from slavery and oppression. The queen of Sheba gave birth to many nations. Cleopatra was a queen who through her Armour and political inclination nearly brought down the entire Roman Nation. Cleopatra was a queen who through her Armour and political inclination nearly brought down the entire Roman Nation. Queen Elizabeth l of England was one of that nation, more capable and popular ruler. For instance, under the 1979 constitution, law prohibits indiscrimination of any kind women and very citizen male or female of eligible age can vote and be voted for. However, this is contrast to what the situation was in the past. In recent years in Nigeria, women also engage themselves in some development projects. An example is the “Better life for women” championed by Mrs. Maryam Babangida and “Family support programmer” by Mrs. Maryam Abacha (Nationally).
Women also partake in petty trading association some of them bind themselves together in socioeconomic bodies or trade groups like “women cooperatives” to carter for the need of their common occupations and objectives this, collectively make substantial contribution to the social development of their immediate areas of operation and influence. Another good example was the “National council of women society”, which was aimed at assisting women in towns and villages in their important role as nation builders. These organizations to mention but a few have strived to mobilize and sensitize women folk on the need of modern politics. Also, the 1995 Beijing conferences help by women of various categories from different countries, was also a forum to mobilize women towards their rights to compete with the male counterparts in politics participation. Apparently, the federal government has created ministry of women so that Nigeria women would be mobilized in participating in politics.
According to Agee Agult Emery (1998:45) the media with its peculiar characteristics is being present everywhere, the mail carrier walks a route with a transistor radio fastened to the mail bag, the crowd on the beach listens to good music through the media devices they carry alongside them on the beach, the carpenter on roof nails shingles in time to rock beat. Hence, these women at their various places be it market, the office or shops, tune on their transistor sets and pay particular attention to political messages. There are some who in one way or the other participated in the past national or star like AdetounOgunseye, Mrs. EbunOyegbola, Mrs. Janet Mokely, political advice to the Anambra state chief Executive (1982) chief Mrs. UcheOfiaNwuli, legal luminary, Dr. Helen Chukwumaetc
Having looked into records or listened to various national women who had participated in one time or the other in Nigeria politics and seeing how decreasingly the women post in the Nigeria political positions are being occupied by their male counterparts, the questions which could be drawn here are.
- Will women in the state after being exposed to the media political messages gear more interest towards participating in the national politics?
- Could their exposure to the media political massages activate them towards holding political post?
- Could their exposure to the media political message expose them to political hatred?
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
The objective of this study will focus on the credibility of the media in the dissemination of political news and socio-political tool for mobilizing women for the 2015 general election. Among other is a list of objectives that will be covered by the research work:
- To evaluate the effectiveness of the media in mobilizing women for election 2015.
- To assess the level of message from the broadcast media’s penetration to the audience in mobilizing them for the 2015 general election.
- To ascertain the extent to which women in the State are exposed to the broadcast media programme
- To examine whether their political knowledge has increased as a result of their exposure to the media programme?
- To assess the role played by the mobilized women in the 2015 general election.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions shall guide the study;
- Where you geared up for the 2015 general election as a result of the broadcast media?
- To what extent has the program raised the political interest of women to politics in the State?
- To what extent has women participation in political activities increased as a result of their exposure to the broadcast media program?
- Where you able to carry out your role as a woman in this 2015 general election?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study;
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between broadcast media to women mobilization for the 2015 general election
- Hi: There is no significant relationship between broadcast media to women mobilization for the 2015 general election
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will help the government in making policy or broadcast media use in a political situation among women.
Finally, the study will also contribute to our political and socio-cultural development through an empirical linkage of credibility and sycophancy in Nigerian’s environment. It6 will again enlighten our mind on the use of radio for socio-cultural integration of the women through fair political new management in the media.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study is focused on the mobilization of women for the general election of 2015 for political participation.
The study will focus on such aspect as the rate of usages of ride. This is because according to various researchers made by some researchers mass communication, it is observed that an averages of about 60 – 70 % of the women that listens to radio. Also, the study will associate some effective theories of the mass media.
Finally, the researcher presumes that the scientific nature of her samples and the standard of her measuring instrument (questionnaire) will help her to generalize the large population.
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
Is defined as the action of assessing someone or something.
Is defined as the action of a country or its government preparing and organizing troops for active service.
Media is a plural of medium (usually used with a plural verb) the means of communication, asradio and television, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet, thatreach or influence people widely.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content or other messages to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at cross examining the role of media in mobilization of women in the 2015 election, thus the topic “an assessment of the role of broadcast media in mobilization of women during the 2015 general election in Nigeria”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with broadcast media in mobilization of women during the 2015 general election in Nigeria.
The study try to explain and describe as well analyze the way and maneuver in which the social media create awareness in mobilizing women during the 2015 Nigerian general election is the Facebook and twitter and to explain the extent to which the Facebook and twitter inform, educate, and enlighten people during the election period for the propose filing the knowledge gap to the researcher as well as exposes the result and findings to the body of knowledge and general public, The study review the related works done by scholars from 2011 general election to the2015 general election, also look to various angle of related topic across the globe from Barack Obama to the Middle East revolution Related theory were discuss that technological determinisms and user gratification theory was aim toward explain the study. Finally, the study finds out the role of social media in creating awareness during 2015Nigeria general elections positive and encouraging.
Facebook and Twitter serve as tool of engaging and interacting with the public, organizing and mobilizing women supporters, gathering voter, campaigns data, reaching the women vote, how to vote, the use of card readers and others electoral devices. While the use of new media in 2015 general elections clearly provides important advantages to candidates, citizens and the public sphere also benefit by having an easy method of acquiring diverse information on the election, a platform for organizing and gaining resources for meaningful participation in democracy, and a means to engage in public dialogue and interact with candidates. However, citizens should remain conscious of candidates ‘underlying motive for using Facebook and Twitter: to ultimately gain enough votes in order to win the presidential election. Facebook and Twitter have impacted on political communication and has provided a whole effective means for political mobilization. This study was conducted to assess the extent to which Facebook and Twitter fared as a tool of creating awareness among women in2015 General Election in Nigeria. The study was guided by five objectives. Findings showed that Facebook and twitter played a major role in mobilizing the support of the electorate. It was however found that mobilization by Facebook and Twitter was limited to the people who had internet access or smart phones with internet applications.
This study contends that the significant use of social media during the 2015 general elections in Nigeria was a result of three key factors, namely:
- The tendency of election stakeholders in Nigeria to follow the global trends in the use social media as a political communication tool.
- The tendency of Nigerian politicians and political parties to tap into the opportunities offered by social media to reach and engage their constituents and voters, and
- The tendency to use of social media tools to improve the efficiency of election observation.
udy argues that the four key stakeholders in the Nigerian electoral process (the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), politicians/political parties, the electorate, and Civil Society Organizations) made extensive use of social media during the 2015 elections. Each of these stakeholders used the social media to achieve a number of interrelated objectives. INEC used social media basically to broadcast messages on the elections and receive feedbacks from the public on their experience with the process. Politicians/political parties used the social media to reach out to the women voters and canvass for support. The electorates used social media to reporttheir experiences and receive election related information, while the CSOs used thesocial media to mobilize and educate the electorate as well as to cover and report theirobservation of the electoral process.
Based on the challenges and opportunities of the use of broadcast media particularly television and other social media in 2015 general elections, we recommend as follows:
- The benefits of the use of broadcast media outweigh its risks, as such the civil society should plan to use and equally encourage other election stakeholders to use broadcast media in the mobilization of women subsequent elections in Nigeria.
- INEC should establish guidelines for the use of broadcast media as a political communication tool in Nigeria. Modalities should be established to systematically verify information reported by citizen observers through the social media.
- INEC should establish a social media tracking center to monitor, collate, and interpret trends and reports during elections.
- Development partners should support domestic observer groups to utilize socialmedia as a means of improving election observation in Nigeria.
- Credibility of social media should be encouraged because presently, most political stories obtained on the web are mere gossips and rumors which most times are baseless. A little bit of caution should be exhibited by those who post comments onsocial media sites. This is because; some of these comments are derogatory andappalling.
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