An Assessment Of Risk Management And Credit Administration (A Case Study Of Union Bank Plc Kaduna State, Nigeria)
This study was carried out to assess risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study adopted mixed research methods, comprising, the ex-post facto and cross sectional designs. The population of this study comprised of all the staff of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria. The instrument for this study is a set of structured questionnaires. The major findings and result from the test of hypothesis are outlined thus: Credit risk management techniques have a significant effect on the bank (β = 0.108, p value = 0.05). The t-statistics and p-value of this coefficient is significant at p < 0.05; Credit risk environment has a significant effect on Nigerian commercial banks (β = 0.180, p-value = 0.000); Credit administration has a statistically significant effect on loan risk management of Nigerian commercial banks (β = 0.254, p < 0.05).In conclusion, Credit risk management techniques significantly affect Credit administration of Nigerian commercial banks in terms of loan portfolio quality. The result of this study revealed that credit risk management techniques significantly affect the loan portfolio quality of Nigerian commercial banks, either positively or negatively. The study recommended that lending institutions need to establish and maintain sound and competent credit risk management structures, processes, procedures, policies, frameworks and infrastructures that match best practice, global standard and regulatory requirements.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Risk Management Strategies
- 2.3 Credit Administration
- 2.4 Credit Risk Environment
- 2.5 Credit Analysis
- 2.6 Credit Control Process
- 2.7 Theoretical Review
- 2.7.1 Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection Theory
- 2.7.2 Stakeholder Theory
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Banks are very important to economic growth and development all over the world, in view of the financial services they render. They act as financial inter-mediators, mobilizing deposits from surplus units of the economy and channeling the funds to deficit units by way of loans to finance projects and transactions that drive economic growth. According to Kithinji (2010), the role of commercial banks is very critical to the success of every economy, commercial banks play an intermediation role between the surplus and deficit units of the economy. They constitute the foundation upon which the payment system is built. They also stimulate the financial system by engendering stability and effective delivery of financial transactions
Credit plays a prominent role in the financing of economic activities all over the world. Credits are granted to finance various production, investment and consumption activities, across various sectors of the economy. Credits therefore constitute critical tools for economic growth (Ugoani 2013). However, once credits are created, credit risk exposure has commenced and if not carefully handled, it could spiral into monumental global financial crisis, such as was witnessed in year 2006, arising from concentration of financial institutions’ loan portfolio on overvalued sub-prime mortgage-related assets which were built up over time. By mid-2007, most of the underlying assets in the sub-prime mortgage crisis had suffered default (CBN 2015). North America and Europe instantly felt the impact as it manifested in form of a drastic reduction in available credit and the consequential slump in aggregate demand. The crisis spread like wild fire, cutting across one economy after another, in both developed and developing nations. The Nigerian economy, being a mono-product economy in foreign exchange earnings, was touched through the oil slump, erosion of foreign direct investment, pressure on foreign reserves and a sharp decline in the performance of the stock market. The global economic melt-down affected the Nigerian banking industry, particularly, those that had large portfolio exposure to the oil and gas industry, the capital market and through paucity of off-shore credit lines
Beck, Dewatripont, Freixas, Seabright and Coyle (2010) asserted that the financial intermediation role of banks involves three basic functions and these include, making means of payment available to economic agents, this makes transfer of property rights more efficient and transactions become more cost effective. Casu, Girardone and Molyneux (2006); Pyle (1971) shared same opinion. Banks handle asset transformation to match short-term supply of funds in little volume (from their depositors) as well as the long-term demand in large amounts from their borrowers. Banks also handle screening of potential borrowers, monitoring of their activity and enforcement of repayments. Beck et al (2010) established the relationship between these three functions, arguing that efficient linkage of deposits to the payment system and careful lending of the funds collected through deposit, brings about economies of scale.
The history of banking is traceable to the Italian merchants. Adekanye (1986) traced the origin of the term “bank” to Italian language that simply means: ‘Bench or Benco’; the study argued that the process emanated from the ingenuity of the then blacksmith of Italy whose job specialization was building of boxes for safe keeping of ornaments and jewelries, the safe keeping of money and other valuables was later added to the process. Banking operation in Nigeria has come a long way. Somoye (2008) traced the commencement of banking operation in Nigeria to 1892 when it was under the control of the expatriates and banks owned by some Nigerians and Africans did not come on stream until the year 1945. In the opinion of Akinyooye (2008), the use of silver coins in Nigeria was introduced by the British and this came on the platform of African Banking Corporation in 1892, the company was founded by Elder Dempster Company and it was exclusively saddled with the responsibility to issue legal tender, which was the British silver coins, then, the only money in circulation. In 1893, the then newly established British Bank for West Africa took over its business operations and that culminated in the birth of present day First Bank of Nigeria Plc. The monopoly remained intact until the West African Currency Board was created in 1912, in order to stimulate the British-West African trade. It was saddled with the responsibility to issue and it did issue a West African currency convertible to British Pound Sterling.
Literatures revealed that before the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) was established in 1959, the banking system was relatively unorganized as the system rode through the rough tide of uncoordinated markets, paucity of financial instruments, manual processes and all attributes of an underdeveloped financial system. This view was corroborated by Somoye (2008), who asserted that the financial system was not well organized and it was bereft of sufficient financial instruments to trade or invest in, as a result, banks only focused on investing in real assets which were not liquid and could not be quickly converted to cash when needed, without a drop in value.
Promulgation of the Ordinance of 1958 which established the CBN was an outcome of the Loynes commission instituted by the Nigerian Federal Government in September 1958. This was followed by enactment of the Treasury Bill Ordinance in 1959, the first Treasury Bill was issued in April 1960, formal money and capital markets were established and the Companies Act was enacted in 1968. These marked the commencement of serious banking regulations in Nigeria. The financial system then began to witness series of reforms following the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of 1986. Iganiga (2010) posited that the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which kicked off in 1986 was an offshoot of the financial sector reforms. The components of the reforms included, fixing of the minimum paid up capital for banks at N400,000 (USD480,000). In January 2001, the banking sector came under full deregulation with the adoption of universal banking system in Nigeria which led to merger of merchant and commercial banking operations and prepared the grounds for the consolidation programme of 2004.
A good number of eminent scholars have examined the concept and theory of credit and risk management in banks in various jurisdictions. Mavhiki, Mapetere and Mhonde (2012) described credit risk as risk that emanates from uncertainty of a given counter party meeting his/her obligation. It can also be described as the risk of loss occasioned by a debtor defaulting on a loan obligation or credit line. Mavhiki et al (2012) dwelled further on the possibility of losses occurring from reduction in value of portfolio due to actual or perceived deterioration in quality of credit. Due to increasing spate of non-performing loans, the Basle II Capital Accord emphasized on the importance of entrenching sound credit risk management practices. This position was buttressed by Kolapo, Ayeni and Oke (2012), who also emphasized on the need for dynamic credit risk management structures, policies and procedures in the lending value chain. Kithinji (2010) reviewed the scope of credit risk management and asserted that it involves the processes of identification, monitoring, measurement, control and reporting of risk arising from possibility of default in loan repayment obligations. This study has reviewed a good number of definitions of credit risk management as provided in existing literatures. The study has chosen to take it a step further by describing credit risk as the risk of loss occasioned by a debtor or borrower defaulting on a loan obligation, either in part or whole, as at when due, resulting or capable of resulting in a reduction in the bank’s earnings, margins, capital, asset base and asset quality.
In the course of this study, a number of gaps were identified in the literatures reviewed which mostly pointed in the direction of a need for further research into various credit risk management techniques that have the ingredients and capacity to impact the loan portfolio quality of commercial banks, with focus on the Nigerian financial institutions sector and this constitutes the primary objective of this study. Further studies in the area of credit risk management, including that of Awojobi, Amel and Norouzi (2011) questioned and expressed doubt on the adequacy of Basel Accord principles for risk management, because of volatility of asset quality with business cycles. In view of this, there is need for further research in the area of effective and sufficient credit risk management principles that have capacity to address variations in asset quality with business cycles.
Commenting on the impact of the business and risk environment on credit risk management, Kolapo, Ayeni and Oke (2012) were of the opinion that a number of factors constitute triggers of credit risk and these include, limitation in the capacity of the institutions, irregularities in promulgation and implementation of credit policies, interest rate volatility weak management, weak legal system, weak capital base, weak liquidity base, insider lending, excessive licensing of banks, poor credit analysis, laxity in credit administration, poor lending culture, government interference and weakness of supervisory system. All these informed the call for further studies into; identification of sound credit risk framework and strategies, as measures for avoiding or minimizing the adverse impact of credit risk.
In relation to credit risk management, existing literatures have also examined how banks are managing credit and by extension, risk in a hostile operating environment. Aremu, Suberu and Oke (2010) argued that credit risk may arise from various forms of risk events such as management risk, business risk, financial risk and industrial risk. The probable occurrence of partial or total default requires a thorough risk assessment prior to granting of loans. Further stressing the importance of a conducive environment for credit risk management to thrive, Waweru and Kalani (2009) asserted that, at present, banking crisis is being experienced by several developed countries including the USA. For example more than $39billion has been written off by the Citibank Group in losses. However, despite the myriad of problems confronting the global financial market, Canadian banks have been witnessing relative stability. Chimkono et al (2016) attributed the stability to a combination of key factors such as regulatory diligence and disciplined cultural mindset among Canadian banks.
In the Credit Risk Management value chain, the process of credit analysis takes the pride of place because, this is the process that leads to a final decision as to whether to lend or not. According to Awojobi et al (2011), the structure of a credit is akin to the structure of a building, the architect designs, the quantity surveyor quantifies how much it will cost to put the building in place in Naira terms and the civil engineer constructs. In all, there must be a meeting of minds among all the parties. The right materials, ingredients and workforce are found in what is popularly referred to as 7 Cs of credit namely; Capital, Capacity, Character, Collateral, Condition, Connection and Consideration. Olokoyo (2011) called for a high level of care and caution in bank lending decisions, as these generally involve a great deal of risk taking, a wrong lending decision may invariably portend a creation of bad asset, right from the beginning. Thus, for every lending activity to be a success, the process of credit analysis, presentation, structuring and reporting must be skillfully and diligently handled.
Credit Administration is another crucial function in the credit risk management process cycle. It has to do with establishment and implementation of infrastructures and resources for early detection of warning signals in the credit portfolio, through effective loan monitoring, review, management reporting, limit setting, portfolio administration and credit referencing system. kithinji (2010) went a step further by identifying weak credit administration as a major problem militating against the development of banks in Nigeria and resulting in abuse of the system by borrowers.. The concluded that an effective credit administration system can add value to the entire credit risk management process through adequacy in scope, content and capacity to detect and report early warning signals.
Credit control is another fundamental credit risk management technique that has a far reaching effect on loan portfolio quality of commercial banks all over the world. Credit Control entails entrenchment of checks and balances by way of policies and procedures to ensure prevention and early detection of fraud, error, unauthorized lending and other credit abuses or credit breaches. It involves having in place, control systems that are proactive enough to prevent or detect violations of credit policies, risk acceptance criteria, bank risk appetite, target market and regulatory measures. Kithinji (2010) observed that, financial institutions are being forced to rely on managerial competencies and other intra-organizational factors for survival and success rather than effective risk analysis and control techniques.
The impact of regulatory and supervisory intervention on loan portfolio quality of banks cannot be overemphasized. Lending credence to this assertion, Etale, Ayunku and Etale (2016) observed that the Nigerian banking regulators namely, the Central Bank of Nigeria and Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation must also begin to direct more resources in terms of human, material and technological resources, to ensure that banking supervision in the new dispensation, is more dynamic, more preventive in terms of proactivity and increased transparency. The foregoing analysis show that a remarkable body of research exists on various components of credit risk management processes and procedures in the banking industry. However, a good number of the studies have either focused on one or two credit risk management techniques or strategies. This study aims to assess risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON) was established on July 19 2010 to revive the financial system by efficiently resolving the non-performing loans of the banks in the Nigerian Economy. According to Onaolapo (2012), the managing director of AMCON, Chike-Obi submitted that the Corporation lost about N226Billion in three (3) nationalized banks between 2009 and 2011. These problems are, without doubt, substantially attributable to defective credit risk management techniques which adversely impact the loan portfolio quality of Nigerian banks. Onaolapo (2012) emphasized on the prominence of the issue of inadequate credit risk management technique in the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC)’s annual reports for year 2012, which reported that, total loans of the 20 Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria was N8.15Trillion out of which N286.09Billion was non-performing. This problem of huge non-performing loans (NPL) in Nigerian banking is attributable to defective credit risk management techniques.
Un-conducive internal and external environments constitute a huge challenge to credit risk management practices. Njanike (2009) asserted that, apart from ineffective credit risk systems of banks, there are many other factors that contributed to the collapse of banks, such as hostile macro-economic environments and weak risk management system. Fadare (2011) is also of the opinion that many other factors impede the viability of credit system in Nigeria and these include, dearth of adequate laws and legislations, weak asset recovery rate, poor ICT and support infrastructures such as power supply and lack of a standard national identification system. These views were supported by Honohan (2000). It has been firmly established that an unfriendly, un-conducive and difficult environment is a major cause of sub-quality lending process and poor loan portfolio quality in the Nigerian banking system.
Failure to install and operate an effective credit control system with capacity to drive pro-activeness in credit risk management is another problem confronting Nigerian commercial banks. Pro-activeness, according to Olokoyo (2011), refers to, acting in advance to deal with an expected difficulty or challenge. This is all about being anticipatory, putting measures in place to take care of both foreseen and unforeseen future challenges. Owojori et al, (2011) took the problem of credit control a step further by asserting that in the Nigerian banking sector, many loans are granted without collecting collateral and when collected, the collaterals are not adequate and when adequate they are not perfected. Owojori et al (2011) stressed further that, in many instances, loans are disbursed even before conditions precedent to drawdown are met, while some banks are reckless in disbursing facilities before formal loan applications and/or acceptance letters are received from intended borrowers. These are indications of weak credit control systems. The strength of the control mechanisms of some Nigerian commercial banks is questionable as a result of which, it is difficult for them to pro-actively identify credit related risk events inherent in their lending systems and deploy appropriate strategies to prevent or mitigate such risk events, thus creating room for loss-inducing vices such as fraud and unauthorized lending.
The role of supervisory and regulatory authorities in bank lending cannot be overemphasized. According to Iganiga (2010), there is a need to ensure that the strategies and processes adopted by our banking watch dogs are in tune with reality. The study stressed further that the regulatory authorities should adopt systems that match those of the financial institutions they are obliged to regulate, this will enable them carry out their functions of monitoring and supervising compliance with regulatory requirements effectively. Okonji and Okolie (2010) asserted that following the CBN examiners’ credit review exercise conducted in 2009, it was discovered among other loans that had gone bad and eroded the shareholders funds of the ailing banks, five of the banks had garnered margin loans loss of over N500Billion. The problems were attributed to laxity of control and supervisory responsibilities by the regulatory authorities, endemic corruptions, weak board and greed on the part of the executive management. Okonji et al (2010) further argued that, to say the least, the CBN has not lived up to its regulatory responsibilities and this may be due to inadequacy of qualified personnels, who are highly experienced in the art of bank examination and supervision. Okonji et al (2010) concluded that, alternatively, it is a possibility that the bank supervisors may have been compromised to issue clean bills of health for the bleeding banks over the years. Onaolapo (2012), and Saunders and Cornett (2003) observed that, all over the world, stakeholders in the financial systems of both developed and developing countries face the problems of failure of various regulatory frameworks designed by the supervisory authorities and inability of technological innovations to stem the rising toxic assets in many banks These identified weaknesses in supervisory and regulatory system lend credence to perceived compliance issues, regulatory skill gap, regulatory incompetence and ineptitude and the situation is worrisome as it seemingly contributes to incidence of low portfolio quality in the Nigerian banking sector. Therefore, this research sought to assess risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to assess risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;
- To examine the risk management techniques adopted in Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- To evaluate the effect of credit risk environment in Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- To determine the effect of risk management on credit administration quality of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria;
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:
- What are the risk management techniques adopted in Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- What is the effect of credit risk environment in Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- What is the effect of risk management on credit administration quality of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant influence of risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State
- HA1: There is a significant influence of risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State
1.6 Significance of the Study
Unfolding events in the Nigerian banking sector over the last two decades have shown that operators of the sector have a lot to do in the areas of entrenching and inculcating robust credit risk management culture in their credit process, in order to attain the desired goal of and credit risk management quality. The research work of Aremu, Suberu and Oke (2010) has shown that, an effective credit risk management system is the foundation upon which the super structure of sound banking and lending systems are built. This derives mainly from the significant impact of credit risk management system on loan portfolio of banks, which is the main focus of this study. The study would therefore aid credit risk managers, lenders, bank management and Board of Directors in setting up efficient credit risk management structures, policies, processes and procedures, with capacity to manage their credit risk exposures optimally and maintain a decent loan portfolio quality at all time.
The study also examined how an effective credit administration system could quickly throw up early warning signals, thus significantly nipping loan delinquency.in the bud, improving collections, minimizing growth of non-performing loans to the barest possible and improving loan portfolio quality. An effective credit control mechanism must have capacity to prevent unauthorized lending. As part of the components of this study, it shows various credit control measures that are capable of preventing unauthorized lending and impacting portfolio quality positively. The credit administration and control mechanisms discussed in this study would be of great significance to bank Chief Risk Officers, executive directors and shareholders, given the prospect of capacity to detect early warning signals, minimize unauthorized lending and positively impact loan portfolio quality.
The role of supervisory and regulatory authorities is very crucial in the credit risk value chain. This study deeply examined how well these roles are played as well as various regulatory measures that drive the process and their efficacy in charting the course of loan portfolio quality of Nigerian commercial banks. This study would trigger deployment of pro-active regulatory measures rather than reactive measures. This would boost loan portfolio quality of the banks and also improve bank liquidity and capacity to create more loans to help macro-economic growth.
1.7 Scope of Study
This study is focused on risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study will be conducted in Union Bank PLC Kaduna Stateto solicit the opinions of the bankers.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization’s capital and earnings. These risks stem from a variety of sources including financial uncertainties, legal liabilities, technology issues, strategic management errors, accidents and natural disasters.
Credit Risk Management:
Is the practice of mitigating losses by understanding the adequacy of a bank’s capital and loan loss reserves at any given time – a process that has long been a challenge for financial institutions.
Is the oversight of all activities related to a bank’s credit process ensuring the bank’s largest balance sheet asset – the loan portfolio – maintains its value. It comprises the entire credit process; policy/procedure, underwriting guidelines, application – underwriting-approval-documentation.
A bank is a financial institution licensed to receive deposits and make loans. Banks may also provide financial services such as wealth management, currency exchange, and safe deposit boxes. There are several different kinds of banks including retail banks, commercial or corporate banks, and investment banks.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was carried out to assess risk management and credit administration using a case study of Union Bank PLC Kaduna State, Nigeria. The major findings and result from the test of hypothesis are outlined thus:
Credit risk management techniques have a significant effect on the bank (β = 0.108, p value = 0.05). The t-statistics and p-value of this coefficient is significant at p < 0.05. The result reveals that a unit change in the credit risk management techniques will lead to a significant change in the Nigerian commercial banks.
Credit risk environment has a significant effect on Nigerian commercial banks (β = 0.180, p-value = 0.000). A change in the credit risk environment by one unit will result to a significant change in the loan portfolio quality of the banks by 0.180.
Credit administration has a statistically significant effect on loan risk management of Nigerian commercial banks (β = 0.254, p < 0.05). The result revealed that any unit change in credit administration system of the banks will lead to a corresponding change in the bank’s risk managementquality by 0.254.
Credit risk management techniques significantly affect Credit administration of Nigerian commercial banks in terms of loan portfolio quality. The result of this study revealed that credit risk management techniques significantly affect the loan portfolio quality of Nigerian commercial banks, either positively or negatively. It was observed that in the credit risk management value chain, all the parameters of credit risk management had a significant effect on loan portfolio quality both at the sub and aggregation levels. Specifically, credit risk environment significantly affected lending process and loan portfolio quality, credit analysis significantly influenced ultimate lending decisions and loan portfolio quality, credit administration system significantly affected early warning signals and loan portfolio quality, credit control process had a negative significant relationship with loan portfolio quality and supervisory and regulatory role has a significant effect on loan portfolio quality.
In all, the bank has established credit risk management, credit risk environment management, and credit administration structures, while the regulatory and supervisory systems are operating in accordance with national laws and the Base capital accord. These set ups significantly drive and affect the loan portfolio quality of the banks.
Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;
- Lending institutions need to establish and maintain sound and competent credit risk management structures, processes, procedures, policies, frameworks and infrastructures that match best practice, global standard and regulatory requirements.
- The work force in the credit risk management unit should be exposed to multi-functional trainings, both on and off the job, across the various components of credit risk management, enterprise risk management and even other technical areas of banking outside the enterprise risk management (ERM) space.
- The banks must endeavour to automate their data collection and credit risk measurement processes. Automation should be a part of the requirements by regulators to validate and enhance banks credit risk rating and risk measurement methodologies. This will significantly help in reducing manipulation of data as access to data will be on-line real time.
- The credit administration unit should ensure that all changes in loan policy are properly coordinated and submitted to the credit committee, management and board for approval. Loan documentation must be complete, adequate and accurate to ensure there are no loopholes for borrowers to exploit and indulge in loan default or breach of terms and conditions. Other credit administration functions such as credit check or referencing, loan disbursement, management reporting, board reporting, regulatory reporting, loan monitoring and review must be stepped up, this will help prompt detection of early warning signals and positively impact the loan portfolio quality.
- Lastly, all bank credit administrators need to be well versed in every aspect of the loan policy, procedures and credit administration workflow. This will enable easy networking with business development and relationship managers, it will also minimize controversies or lack of cooperation from business units regarding provision of documentations required to protect disbursed loans and the portfolio quality.
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